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Supramolecular Organisation of the Mitochondrial Respiratory Chain: A New Challenge for the Mechanism and Control of Oxidative Phosphorylation

  • Giorgio Lenaz
  • Maria Luisa Genova
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (volume 748)

Abstract

Recent experimental evidence has replaced the random diffusion model of electron transfer with a model of supramolecular organisation based on specific interactions between individual respiratory complexes. These supercomplexes are detected by blue-native electrophoresis and are found to be functionally relevant by flux control analysis; moreover, they have been isolated and characterised by single-particle electron microscopy. The supramolecular association of individual complexes strongly depends on membrane lipid amount and composition and is affected by lipid peroxidation; it also seems to be modulated by membrane potential and protein phosphorylation. Supercomplex association confers several new properties with respect to the non-associated respiratory complexes to the respiratory chain: the most obvious is substrate channelling, specifically addressing Coenzyme Q and cytochrome c to interact directly with the partner enzymes without the need of a less efficient random diffusion step; in addition, supramolecular association may provide a further rate advantage by conferring long-range conformational changes to the individual complexes. Additional properties are stabilisation of Complex I, as evidenced by the destabilising effect on Complex I of mutations in either Complex III or Complex IV, and prevention of excessive generation of reactive oxygen species. On the basis of the properties described above, we hypothesise that an oxidative stress acts primarily by disassembling supercomplex associations thereby establishing a vicious circle of oxidative stress and energy failure, ultimately leading to cell damage and disease. We provide evidence that in physiological ageing and in some disease states, characterised by oxidative stress and mitochondrial damage, such as heart failure, neurodegenerative disorders and cancer, a loss of supercomplex association occurs, in line with our working hypothesis.

Keywords

Respiratory Chain Respiratory Chain Complex Respiratory Complex Supramolecular Organisation Enhance Reactive Oxygen Species Production 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Biochemistry “G. Moruzzi”University of BolognaBolognaItaly

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