Introduction: Policing by Religion

  • Farrukh B. Hakeem
  • M. R. Haberfeld
  • Arvind Verma


When the authors of this volume got together to conceptualize the themes of Policing Muslim Communities, the idea that the largest police force in the United States, the New York City Police department, the famous NYPD, will contemplate an operational concept referred to as Human Terrain Mapping, the “Muslim Initiative” or the “Moroccan Initiative,” seemed truly unthinkable if not reprehensive (Deepa 2012; Cincotta 2012; Leader 2012).


Police Force Arab World Muslim Community Western Democracy Muslim Society 
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  2. Associated Press. (2011). Highlights of AP’s probe into NYPD intelligence operations. Accessed 12 Feb 2011.
  3. Cincotta, T. (2012). Manufacturing the Muslim menace. Private firms, public servants, and the threat to rights and security. Somerville: Political Research Associates.Google Scholar
  4. Deepa, K. (2012). The NYPD: Islamophobia in blue. Accessed 6 Feb 2012.
  5. Haberfeld, M. R. (2002). Critical issues in police training. Upper Saddle River: Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
  6. Patel, F., & E. Goitein (2012). It’s time to police the NYPD. New York Times. Editorial dated 29 Jan 2012.Google Scholar
  7. PEW Research Center. (2012). The future of the global Muslim population. Accessed 5 Feb 2012.
  8. Religious Profiling: Documents show NYPD recommended increased surveillance of Shiite Muslims. Accessed 5 Feb 2012.

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Farrukh B. Hakeem
    • 1
  • M. R. Haberfeld
    • 2
  • Arvind Verma
    • 3
  1. 1.Social SciencesShaw UniversityRaleighUSA
  2. 2.John Jay College of Criminal JusticeCity University of New YorkNew YorkUSA
  3. 3.Department of Criminal JusticeIndiana UniversityBloomingtonUSA

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