Modeling of Intermittent Connectivity in Opportunistic Networks: The Case of Vehicular Ad hoc Networks

  • Anna Maria Vegni
  • Claudia Campolo
  • Antonella Molinaro
  • Thomas D. C. Little
Chapter

Abstract

This chapter analyses connectivity issues in a particular type of opportunistic networks: Vehicular Ad hoc NETworks (VANETs). The features of opportunistic networks well-fit VANETs, characterized by connectivity disruptions occurring due to quick network topology changes, high vehicle speed and variable vehicle densities. VANETs provide both intervehicle and vehicle-to-network-infrastructure communications. Vehicle-to-vehicle communications may not be the most appropriate interconnection scheme for data delivery in sparse or totally disconnected scenarios. Vehicle-to-infrastructure communications represent a viable solution to bridge the inherent network fragmentation that may exist in multi-hop networks formed over moving vehicles, but a ubiquitous roadside infrastructure can incur prohibitive deployment and maintenance costs. In this chapter, we present recent related work focusing on vehicular connectivity models and review hybrid and opportunistic vehicular communication paradigms designed to improve connectivity.

Keywords

Opportunistic networking Intermittent connectivity VANETs 

References

  1. 1.
    Pelusi L, Passerella A, Conti A (2006) Opportunistic networking: data forwarding in disconnected mobile ad Hoc networks IEEE Commun Mag 44(11):134–141Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Perkins CE, Belding-Royer EM, Das S (2003) Ad hoc on demand distance vector (AODV) routing, IETF, RFC 3561Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Fall K (2003) A delay-tolerant network architecture for challenged internets. In: Proceedings of special interest group on data communications, Karlsruhe, Germany, pp 27–34, Aug 2003Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Song L, Kotz DF (2007) Evaluating opportunistic routing protocols with large realistic contact traces, In: Proceedings of CHANTS ’07, Montréal, Québec, Canada, Sept 2007Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Eisenman SB, Lane ND, Campbell AT (2008) Techniques for improving opportunistic sensor networking performance. In: Proceedings of the 4th IEEE international conference on distributed computing in sensor systems, pp 157–175Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Hui P et al (2005) Pocket switched networks and human mobility in conference environments. In: Proceedings of ACM SIGCOMM workshop on delay tolerant networking, pp 244–251, Aug 2005Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Leontiadis I, Mascolo C (2007) Opportunistic spatio-temporal dissemination system for vehicular networks. In: Proceedings of MobiOpp 2007Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Harteinstein H, Labertaux KP (eds) (2010) VANET vehicular applications and inter-networking technologies. Wiley, ChichesterGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Papadimitratos P et al (Nov. 2009) Vehicular communication systems: enabling technologies, applications and future outlook on intelligent transportation. IEEE Commun Mag 47(11):84–95CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Fiore M, Harri J (2008) The networking shape of vehicular mobility. In: Proceedings of ACM international symposium on mobile ad hoc networking and computing, pp 261–272Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Boban M, Misek G, Tonguz OK (2008) What is the best achievable QoS for unicast routing in VANETs. In: Proceedings of IEEE global communications conference, pp 1–10Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Conceicao H, Ferreira M, Barros J (2009) A cautionary view of mobility and connectivity modeling in vehicular ad-hoc networks. In: Proceedings of IEEE vehicular technology conference, pp 1–5Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Wu H et al (2005) Simulated vehicle-to-vehicle message propagation efficiency on Atlanta’s I75 corridor. In: Proceedings of transportation research board conference, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Kafsi M et al (2008) VANET connectivity analysis. In: Proceedings of IEEE workshop on automotive networking and applicationsGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Agarwal A, Little TDC (2010) Opportunistic networking in delay tolerant vehicular ad hoc networks. In: Watfa M (ed) Advances in vehicular ad-hoc networks: developments and challenges, pp 282–300. IGI Global, HersheyGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Vegni AM, Stramacci A, Natalizio E (2012) SRB: a selective reliable broadcast protocol for safety applications in VANET. In: Proceedings of international conference on selected topics in mobile & wireless networking (iCOST, 2012), Avignon, France, July 2–4Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    El-Atty SMA, Stamatiou GK (2010) Performance analysis of Multihop Connectivity in VANET. In: Proceedings of 7th international symposium on wireless communication systems, pp 335–339, Sept 2010Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Jin WL, Recker WR (Jan. 2010) An analytical model of multihop connectivity of inter-vehicle communication systems. IEEE Trans Veh Technol 9(1):106–112Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Jin X, Su W, Wei Y (2011) Quantitative analysis of the VANET connectivity: theory and application. In: IEEE 73rd vehicular technology conference (VTC Spring), pp 1–5, May 2011Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Mylonas Y, Pitsillides A, Lestas M (2008) Speed adaptive probabilistic flooding in VANETs. In: Proceedings of international trade and freight transportation conference, pp 66–73Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Ho IWH, Leung KK, Polak JW (Feb. 2011) Stochastic model and connectivity dynamics for VANETs in signalized road systems. IEEE/ACM Trans Networking 19(1):195–208CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Yousefi S, Altman E, El-Azouzi R, Fathy M (2008) Analytical model for connectivity in vehicular ad hoc networks. IEEE Trans Veh Technol 57(6):3341–3356CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Viriyasitavat W, Bai F, Tonguz OK (Jan. 2011) Dynamics of network connectivity in urban vehicular networks. IEEE J Sel Areas Commun 29(1):515–533CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Hasan SF, Ding X, Siddique NH, Chakraborty S (Jan. 2011) Measuring disruption in vehicular communications. IEEE Trans Veh Technol 60(1):148–159CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Zheng Z, Sinha P, Kumar S (2012) Sparse Wi-Fi deployment for vehicular internet access with bounded interconnection gap. IEEE/ACM Trans Networking 20:956–969Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Ng SC et al (Jan. 2011) Analysis of access and connectivity probabilities in vehicular relay networks. IEEE J Sel Areas Commun 29(1):140–150CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Abdrabou A, Zhuang W (Jan. 2011) Probabilistic delay control and road side unit placement for vehicular ad hoc networks with disrupted connectivity. IEEE J Sel Areas Commun 29(1):129–139CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Agarwal A, Little TDC (2008) Access point placement in vehicular networking. In: Proceedings of 1st international conference on wireless access in vehicular environments, Troy, MI, Dec 2008Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Jin W-L, Wang H-J (2008) Modeling connectivity of inter-vehicle communication systems with road-side stations. Open Transp J 2:1–6MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    IEEE Std. 802.11p (2010) Wireless access in vehicular environments, July 2010Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Uzcategui R, Acosta-Marum G (2009) WAVE: a tutorial. IEEE Commun Mag 47(5):126–133CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Ott J, Kutscher D (2004) Drive-thru internet: IEEE 802.11b for automobile users. In: Proceedings of annual joint conference of the IEEE computer and communications societies, INFOCOM, Hong Kong, Mar 2004Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Dong X et al (2006) Expediting vehicle infrastructure integration (EVII). Technical report, California PATH Research ReportGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Broch J et al (1998) A performance comparison of multi-hop wireless ad hoc network routing protocols. In: Proceedings of ACM MobiCom, pp 85–97Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Roess RP, Prassas ES, McShane WR (2004) Traffic engineering, 3rd edn. Prentice Hall, Englewood CliffsGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Fricker JD, Whitford RK (2004) Fundamentals of transportation engineering: a multimodal systems approach. Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle RiverGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Tonguz O et al (2007) Broadcasting in VANET. In: Proceedings of mobile networking for vehicular environments, pp 7–12, Anchorage, AKGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Artimy M, Robertson W, Phillips W (2004) Assignment of dynamic transmission range based on estimation of vehicle density. In: Proceedings of the 1st ACM international workshop on vehicular ad hoc networks, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, Oct 2004Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Rappaport TS (2001) Wireless communications: principles and practice, 2nd Edn. Prentice Hall, Englewood CliffsGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Zang Y et al (2005) An error model for inter-vehicle communications in highway scenarios at 5.9 GHz. In: Proceedings of ACM PE-WASUN, MontrealGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Taliwal V et al (2004) Empirical determination of channel characteristics for DSRC vehicle-to-vehicle communication. In: Proceedings of ACM VANETGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Giordano E, Frank R, Pau G, Gerla M (2010) CORNER: a realistic urban propagation model for VANET. In: Proceedings of WONSGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Campolo C et al (2011) Vehicular connectivity in urban scenarios: effectiveness and potential of roadside, moving WAVE providers and hybrid solutions. EURASIP J Wirel Commun Networking 146. doi: 10.1186/1687-1499-2011-146, Published October 28
  44. 44.
    Boban M et al (2011) Impact of vehicles as obstacles in vehicular ad hoc networks. IEEE J Sel Areas Commun 29(1):15–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Chiara BD, Deflorio F, Diwan S (2009) Assessing the effects of inter-vehicle communication systems on road safety. IET Intell Transp Syst 3(2):225–235CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Moustafa H, Zhang Y (eds) (2009) Vehicular networks: techniques. Standards and applications. Auerbach publishers, Taylor and Francis Group, USAGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Wisitpongphan N et al (2007) Broadcast storm mitigation techniques in vehicular ad hoc wireless networks. IEEE Wirel Commun Mag 14:84–94Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Wisitpongphan N, Bai F, Mudalige P, Tonguz OK (2007) On the routing problem in disconnected vehicular ad-hoc networks. In: Proceedings of IEEE international conference on computer communications (INFOCOM ’07), pp 2291–2295, May 2007Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Ross SM (2004) Introduction to probability models. Academic Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Grimmett G (1989) Percolation, 1 edn. Springer-Verlag, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Miorandi D, Altman E (2006) Connectivity in one-dimensional ad hoc networks: a queuing theoretical approach. Wirel Netw 12(6):573–587CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Tonguz OK, Viriyasitavat W, Bai F (2009) Modeling urban traffic: a cellular automata approach. IEEE Commun Mag 47(5):142–150CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Bychkovsky V et al (2006) A measurement study of vehicular internet access using in situ Wi-Fi networks. In: Proceedings of ACM annual international conference on mobile computing and networking, Los Angeles, CA, USA, Sept 2006Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Esposito F, Vegni AM, Matta I, Neri A (2010) On modeling speed-based vertical handovers in vehicular networks—dad, slow down, I am watching the movie—. In: Proceedings of IEEE Globecom workshop on seamless wireless mobility, Miami, FL, USAGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Spyropoulos T, Psounis K, Raghavendra C (2005) Spray and wait: an efficient routing scheme for intermittently connected mobile networks. In: Proceedings of ACM SIGCOMM workshop on delay-tolerant networking, PA, USAGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Resta G, Santi P, Simon J (2007) Analysis of multi-hop emergency message propagation in vehicular ad hoc networks. In: Proceedings of the 8th ACM international symposium on mobile ad hoc networking and computing, Montreal, Canada, pp 140–149Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Briesemeister L, Schafers L, Hommel G (2000) Disseminating messages among highly mobile hosts based on inter-vehicle communication. In: Proceedings of IEEE intelligent vehicles symposium, pp 522–27, Oct 2000Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Jin W-L, Recker WW (Mar. 2006) Instantaneous information propagation in a traffic stream through inter-vehicle communication. Transp Res Part B Methodol 40(3):230–250CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Vegni AM, Little TDC (2011) Hybrid vehicular communications based on V2V–V2I protocol switching. IJVICS 2(3/4):213–231Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Gerla M et al (2006) Vehicular grid communications: the role of the internet infrastructure. In: Proceedings of wireless internet conference, BostonGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Marfia G et al (2007) Evaluating vehicle network strategies for downtown Portland: opportunistic infrastructure and importance of realistic mobility models. In: Proceediings of MobiOpp 2007, Porto RicoGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Mejri N, Kamounh N, Filali F (2010) Cooperative infrastructure discovery through V2X communication. In: Proceedings of 9th IFIP annual mediterranean ad hoc networking workshop, pp 1–8, June 2010Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Wedel JW, Schunemann B, Radusch I (2009) V2X-based traffic congestion recognition and avoidance. In: Proceedings of 10th international symposium on pervasive systems, Algorithms and networks, pp 637–641, Dec 2009Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Jeongwook S, Kyungwon P, Wongi J, Dong KK (2009) Performance evaluation of V2X communications in practical small-scale fading models. In: Proceedings of IEEE 20th international symposium on personal, indoor and mobile radio communications, pp 2434–2438, Sept 2009Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Mostafa A et al (2011) A V2X-based approach for reduction of delay propagation in vehicular ad-hoc networks. In: Proceedings of international workshop on seamless connectivity in vehicular networks, Saint-Petersburg, Russia, Aug 2011Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Mostafa A, Vegni AM, Oliveira T, Little TDC, Agrawal DP (2012) QoSHVCP: hybrid vehicular communications protocol with QoS priorization for safety applications. ISRN Commun Networking 2012:14Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Mershad K, Artail H, Gerla M (May 2012) ROAMER: roadside units as message routes in VANETs. Ad Hoc Netw 10(3):479–496CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Zhao J, Arnold T, Zhang Y, Cao G (2008) Extending drive-thru data access by vehicle-to-vehicle relay. In: Proceedings of ACM international workshop on vehicular inter-NETworking, VANET, San Francisco, CA, USA, Sept 2008Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Yoo J, Choi SC, Gerla M (2010) An opportunistic relay protocol for vehicular road-side access with fading channels. In: Proceedings of IEEE international conference on network protocols, ICNP, Kyoto, Japan, Oct 2010Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Campolo C, Molinaro A (2011) Improving V2R connectivity to provide ITS applications in IEEE 802.11p/WAVE VANETs. In: Proceedings of ICT 2011, Ayia Napa, CyprusGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Vegni AM, Vegni C, Little TDC (2010) Opportunistic vehicular networks by satellite links for safety applications. In: Proceedings of the fully networked car workshop. Geneva International Motor Show, Geneva, Switzerland, Mar 2010Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Murthy ASN, Mohle HR (2000) Transportation engineering basics. American Society of Civil Engineers, New YorkGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Anna Maria Vegni
    • 1
  • Claudia Campolo
    • 2
  • Antonella Molinaro
    • 2
  • Thomas D. C. Little
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of EngineeringUniversity of Roma TreRomeItaly
  2. 2.Department DIMETUniversity Mediterranea of Reggio CalabriaReggio CalabriaItaly
  3. 3.Department of Electrical and Computer EngineeringBoston UniversityBostonUSA

Personalised recommendations