Context-Based Routing Protocols for OppNets



Opportunistic network does not rely on any pre-existing infrastructure and no assumption is made on the existence of a complete path between source and destination. The development of efficient routing protocols for opportunistic networks is generally a difficult task due to the absence of knowledge about the network topology. Therefore, routing is one of the most persuasive challenges of opportunistic networks. In this chapter, we give the general definition of context information and emphasize the role of context information to take forwarding decisions in opportunistic networks. We classify the main routing protocols proposed in the literature on the basis of context information of users they exploit. Specifically, we classify two main classes of routing protocols, corresponding to context-oblivious and context-aware protocols. Then, we further classify context-aware routing protocols into two subclasses, i.e., partially context-aware and fully context-aware protocols, based on the amount of context information they use for routing. We emphasize and describe only routing protocols of context-aware category and the detailed discussion about context-oblivious routing protocols is out of the scope of this chapter.


Opportunistic network Routing protocol Context information Context aware routing 


  1. 1.
    Borgia E, Conti M, Delmastro F, Pelusi L (2005) Lessons from an Ad-Hoc network test-bed: middleware and routing issues. Ad Hoc Sens Wirel Netw 1:7Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Pelusi L, Passarella A, Conti M (2006) Opportunistic networking: data forwarding in disconnected mobile ad hoc networks. IEEE Commun Mag 44:134–141CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Conti M, Kumar M (2010) Opportunities in opportunistic computing. J Comput 43(1):42–50Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Fall K (2003) A delay-tolerant network architecture for challenged internets. Paper presented in the proceedings of the 2003 ACM conference on applications, technologies, architectures, and protocols for computer communications (SIGCOMM), pp 27–34Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Jain S, Fall K, Patra R (2004) Routing in a delay tolerant network. Paper presented in the proceedings of the 2004 ACM conference on applications, technologies, architectures, and protocols for computer communications (SIGCOMM), ACM, New York, pp 145–158Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Boldrini Chiara, Conti Marco, Passarella Andrea (2008) Autonomic behaviour of opportunistic network routing. Int J Auton Adapt Commun Syst 1(1):122–147CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Conti M, Giordano S (2007) Multihop Ad Hoc networking: the reality. IEEE Commun Mag 45:88–95CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Conti M, Giordano S (2007) Multihop Ad Hoc networking: the theory. IEEE Commun Mag 45:78–86CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Brown P, Bovey J, Chen X (1997) Context-aware applications: from the laboratory to the marketplace. IEEE Pers Commun 4(5):58–64CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Ryan N, Pascoe J, Morse D (1997) Enhanced reality fieldwork: the context-aware archaeological assistant, In: Gaffney V et al. (eds) Computer applications in archaeologyGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Schmidt A, Aidoo K, Takaluoma A, Tuomela U, Van Laerhoven K, Van de Velde W (1999) Advanced interaction in context, 1th international symposium on handheld and ubiquitous computing (HUC99), Lecture notes in computer science, vol 1707. Springer, pp 89–101Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Dey A, Abowd G (2000) Towards a better understanding of context and context-awareness. Proceedings of the workshop on the what, who, where, when and how of context-awareness, affiliated with the CHI 2000 conference on human factors in computer systems, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Dey A, Salber D, Abowd G (2001) A conceptual framework and a toolkit for supporting the rapid prototyping of context-aware applications. Hum Comput Interact (HCI) J (special issue on context-aware computing) 16(2–4):97–166Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Conti M, Crowcroft J, Giordano S, Hui P, Nguyen HA, Passarella A (2008) Minema. Miranda H, Rodrigues L, Garbinato B (eds) Routing issues in opportunistic networks. Springer, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Jindal A, Psounis K (2007) Contention-aware analysis of routing schemes for mobile opportunistic networks. Paper presented in the proceedings of the 1st international ACM MobiSys workshop on mobile opportunistic networking (MobiOpp 2007), pp 1–8Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Vahdat A, Becker D (2000) Epidemic routing for partially connected Ad Hoc networks. Technical report CS-2000-06, Duke University, Computer Science DepartmentGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Widmer J, Le Boudec J (2005) Network coding for efficient communication in extreme networks. Paper presented in the proceedings of the ACM SIGCOMM 2005 workshop on delay tolerant networking (WDTN 2005), pp 284–291Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Chen L-J, Yu C-H, Sun T (2006) A hybrid routing approach for opportunistic networks, SIGCOMM’06 workshops. Pisa, Italy, pp 213–220Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Spyropoulos T, Psounis K, Raghavendra CS (2005) Spray and wait: efficient routing in intermittently connected mobile networks. In proceedings of ACMSIGCOMM workshop on delay tolerant networking (WDTN)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Lindgren A, Doria A, Schelen O (2003) Probabilistic routing in intermittently connected networks. ACM Mob Comput Commun Rev 7:19–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Burns B, Brock O, Levine B (2005) MV routing and capacity building in disruption tolerant networks. Paper presented in the proceedings of the 24th IEEE annual joint conference of the IEEE computer and communications societies (INFOCOM 2005)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Davis J, Fags A, Levine B (2001) Wearable computers and packet transport mechanism in highly partitioned ad hoc networks. In Proceedings of Inti. Synylusirrni on Wrcrrabk CnnrpvtersGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Burgess J, Gallagher B, Jensen D, Levine B (2006) MaxProp: routing for vehicle-based disruption-tolerant networks. Paper presented in the proceedings of the 25th IEEE annual joint conference of the IEEE computer and communications societies (INFOCOM 2006)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Jain S, Fall K, Patra R (2004) Routing in a delay tolerant network. In Proc. ACM SIGCOMM, pp 145–158Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Hui P, Chaintreau A, Scott J, Gass R, Crowcroft J, Diot C (2005) Pocket switched networks and human mobility in conference environments, in Proc. WDTN, 2005Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Leguay J, Friedman T, Conan V (2005) DTN routing in a mobility pattern space, in Proc. WDTNGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Spyropoulos T, Psounis K, Ragavendra C (2007) Efficient routing in intermittently connected mobile networks: the multiple-copy case. ACM/IEEE Trans Netw 16:77–90CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    T. Small and Z. Haas, Resource and performance tradeoffs in delay-tolerant wireless networks, In Proceedings of ACM SIGCOMM workshop on Delay Tolerant Networking (WDTN), 2005Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Hui P, Crowcroft J (2007) Bubble rap: forwarding in small world dtns in every decreasing circles. Technical report, Technical report UCAM-CL-TR684. University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UKGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Verma Anshul (2011) Dr. Anurag Srivastava, Integrated routing protocol for opportunistic networks, (IJACSA). Int J Adv Comput Sci Appl 2(3):85–92Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Musolesi M, Hailes S, Mascolo C (2005) Adaptive routing for intermittently connected mobile ad hoc networks. Paper presented in the proceedings of the IEEE international symposium on a world of wireless, mobile and multimedia networks (WoWMoM 2005), pp 183–189Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Boldrini C, Conti M, Passarella A (2007) Impact of social mobility on routing protocols for opportunistic networks. Paper presented in the proceedings of the first IEEE WoWMoM workshop on Autonomic and Oppoortunistic Networking (AOC 2007)Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Kalman RE (1960) A new approach to linear filtering and prediction problems. Transactions of the ASME J Basic Eng 82:34–45Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Anshul Verma
    • 1
  • K. K. Pattanaik
    • 1
  • Aniket Ingavale
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Computer ScienceABV-Indian Institute of Information Technology and ManagementGwaliorIndia

Personalised recommendations