Routing Protocols in Infrastructure-Less Opportunistic Networks

  • Sanjay Kumar Dhurandher
  • Deepak Kumar Sharma
  • Isaac Woungang
  • Shruti Bhati


Opportunistic Networks (OppNets) remain one of the most researched extensions of Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANETs) in the present times. Although characterized by sparse connectivity and indefinite paths, OppNets are highly scalable and flexible. They are quite different from the traditional MANETs as there is never a fixed path between the source and the destination, while in MANETs first a path is established between the sender and the receiver and then the message transfer takes place. They are considered as the subclass of Delay Tolerant Networks (DTN) as they support various features of DTNs. The delivery of message is reliant on hop-to-hop distribution through the network. A varying number of routing schemes have been proposed in the literature that cater to the efficient delivery of messages for various scenarios, movement models, and infrastructure. In this chapter, we present the recent related work focusing on the already existing routing protocols of infrastructure-less OppNets for various scenarios along with their relative advantages and disadvantages.


Opportunistic networks Opportunistic routing Infrastructure-less protocols Delay tolerant networks Direct transmission First contact Epidemic routing Spray and wait Spray and focus Adaptive spray and wait  PRoPHET PRoPHET+ HiBOp Content encounter probability-based message forwarding (CEMPF) Robust proactive routing protocol Repository-based forwarding protocol MaxProp Context-aware routing (CAR) Meetings and visits (MV) Network coding 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sanjay Kumar Dhurandher
    • 1
  • Deepak Kumar Sharma
    • 2
  • Isaac Woungang
    • 3
  • Shruti Bhati
    • 1
  1. 1.CAITFS, Division of Information Technology, Netaji Subhas Institute of TechnologyUniversity of DelhiNew DelhiIndia
  2. 2.Division of Computer Engineering, Netaji Subhas Institute of TechnologyUniversity of DelhiNew DelhiIndia
  3. 3.Department of Computer ScienceRyerson UniversityTorontoCanada

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