Pharmacotherapy of Addiction

  • Ahmed Elkashef
  • Ivan Montoya


Addiction is a very serious and very costly public health problem. FDA-approved medications are available for alcohol, nicotine, and opiate addiction but not for stimulants or cannabis addictions. The focus of this chapter is on the medications to treat illicit substances, mainly heroin, stimulants, and cannabis. Currently, psychotherapy is still the primary mode of treatment for stimulants and cannabis addiction; however, relapse rates remain high. The search for effective pharmacological treatments has yielded some positive signals in proof of concept trials. Medications that are being tested in confirmatory trials for stimulants addiction include bupropion, topiramate, modafinil, disulfiram, ondansetron, and methylphenidate. For cannabis addiction there have been proof of concept trials that have shown efficacy, such as buspirone, nefazadone, and marinol. Early preclinical and clinical data suggest that some new molecular entities would be promising for multiple addictions, e.g., CB1 antagonists, D3 partial agonists, and CRF antagonists.


Opioid Dependence Opioid Agonist Opioid Withdrawal Cocaine Addiction Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. 1.
    Oslin DW, Pettinati HM, Volpicelli JR, Wolf AL, Kampman KM, O’Brien CP. The effects of naltrexone on alcohol and cocaine use in dually addicted patients. J Subst Abuse Treat. 1999;16(2):163–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Jayaram-Lindstrom N, Hammarbert A, Beck O, Franck J. Naltrexone for the treatment of amphetamine dependence: a ­randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Am J Psychiatry. 2008;165(11):1442–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Johnson BA, Rosenthal N, Capece JA, Wiegand F, Mao L, Beyers K, et al. Topiramate for treating alcohol dependence: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2007;298(14):1641–51.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Yu E, Miotto K, Akerele E, Montgomery A, Elkashef A, Walsh R, Montoya I, et al. A phase 3 placebo-controlled, double-blind, multi-site trial of the alpha-s-adrenergic agonist, lofexidine, for opioid withdrawal. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2008;97(1–2):158–68.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Erb S, Hitchcott PK, Phil D, Heshmat R, Mueller D, Shaham Y, et al. Alpha-2 adrenergic receptor agonists block stress-induced reinstatement of cocaine seeking. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2000;23(2):138–50.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Haney M. The marijuana withdrawal syndrome: diagnosis and treatment. Curr Psychiatry Rep. 2005;7(5):360–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Koob GF. Stress, corticotrophin-releasing factor, and drug addiction. Ann NY Acad Sci. 1999;897:27–45.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Stewart J. Pathways to relapse: the neurobiology of drug- and stress-induced relapse to drug-taking. J Psychiatry Neurosci. 2000;25(2):125–36.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Sarnyai Z, Shaham Y, Heinrichs SC. The role of corticotropin-releasing factor in drug addiction. Phamacol Rev. 2001;53(2):209–43.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Erb S, Shaham Y, Stewart J. The role of corticotropin-releasing factor and corticosterone in stress- and cocaine-induced relapse to cocaine seeking in rats. J Neurosci. 1998;18(4):4429–5536.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Shaham Y, Erb S, Leung S, Buczek Y, Stewart J. CP-154-526, a selective, non-peptide antagonist of the corticotropin-releasing factor1 receptor attenuates stress-induced relapse to drug seeking cocaine- and heroin-trained rats. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1998;137(2):184–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Shaham Y, Funk D, Erb S, Brown TJ, Walker CD, Stewart J. Corticotropin-releasing factor, but not corticosterone, is involved in stress-induced relapse to heroin-seeking in rats. J Neurosci. 1997;17(7):2605–14.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Le AD, Harding S, Juzytsch W, et al. The role of corticotrophin-releasing factor in stress-induced relapse to alcohol-seeking behavior in rats. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2000;150(3):317–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Acri JB, Carter SR, Alling K, Geter-Douglass B, Dijkstra D, Wikstrom H, et al. Assessment of cocaine-like discriminative stimulus effects of dopamine D3 receptor ligands. Eur J Pharmacol. 1995;281(2):R7–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Spealcocainen RD. Dopamine D3 receptor agonists partially reproduce the discriminative stimulus effects of cocaine in squirrel monkeys. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1996;278(3):1128–37.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Pilla M, Perachon S, Sautel F, Garrido F, Mann A, Wermuth CG, et al. Selective inhibition of cocaine-seeking behaviour by a ­partial dopamine D3 receptor agonist. Nature. 1999;400(6742):371–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Di Ciano P, Underwood RJ, Hagan JJ, Everitt BJ. Attenuation of cue-controlled cocaine-seeking by a selective D3 dopamine receptor antagonist SB-277011-A. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2003;28(2):329–38.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Gilbert JG, Newman AH, Gardner EL, Ashby Jr CR, Heidreder CA, Pak AC, et al. Acute administration of SB-277011A, NGB 2904, or BP 897 inhibits cocaine cue-induced reinstatement of drug-seeking behavior in rats: role of dopamine D3 receptors. Synapse. 2005;57(1):17–28.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Xi ZX, Gilbert J, Campos AC, Kline N, Ashby Jr CR, Hagan JJ, et al. Blockade of mesolimbic dopamine D3 receptors inhibits stress-induced reinstatement of cocaine-seeking rats. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2004;176(1):57–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Le Foll B, Goldberg SR. Cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonists as promising new medications for drug dependence. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2005;312(3):875–83.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Beardsley PM, Thococaines BF. Current evidence supporting a role of cannabinoid CB1 receptor (CB1R) antagonists as potential pharcocainecotherapies for drug abuse disorders. Behav Pharmacol. 2005;16(5–6):275–96.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. Results from the 2007 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: National findings. 2008. Rockville, MD: Office of Applied Studies; NSDUH Series H-34, DHHS Publication No. SMA 08-4343.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Dole V, Nyswander M. A medical treatment for diacetylmorphine (heroin) addiction: A clinical trial with methadone hydrochloride. JAMA. 1965;193:646–50.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Gronbladh L, Gunne L. Methadone-assisted rehabilitation of Swedish heroin addicts. Drug Alcohol Depend. 1989;24(1):31–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Ball JC, Corty E, Petroski SP, Bond H, Tommasello A, Graff H. Treatment effectiveness: medical staff and services provided to 2,394 patients at methadone programs in three states. NIDA Res Monogr. 1987;76:175–81.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Ball JC, Lange WR, Myers CP, Friedman SR. Reducing the risk of AIDS through methadone maintenance treatment. J Health Soc Behav. 1988;29(3):214–26.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Kleber HD. Methadone maintenance 4 decades later: thousands of lives saved but still controversial. JAMA. 2008;300(19):2303–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Jones HE, Martin PR, Heil SH, Kaltenbach K, Selby P, Coyle MG, et al. Treatment of opioid-dependent pregnant women: clinical and research issues. J Subst Abuse Treat. 2008;35(3):245–59.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Finnegan LP. Treatment issues for opioid-dependent women ­during the perinatal period. J Psychoactive Drugs. 1991;23(2):191–201.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Bickel WK, Stitzer ML, Bigelow GE, Liebson IA, Jasinski DR, Johnson RE. Buprenorphine: dose-related blockade of opioid challenge effects in opioid dependent humans. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1988;247(1):47–53.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Jasinski DR, Fudala PJ, Johnson RE. Sublingual versus subcutaneous buprenorphine in opiate abusers. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1989;45(5):513–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Martin WR, Eades CG, Thompson JA, Huppler RE, Gilbert PE. The effects of morphine- and nalorphine-like drugs in the nondependent and morphine-dependent chronic spinal dog. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1976;197(3):517–32.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Johnson RE, Jaffe JH, Fudala PJ. A controlled trial of buprenorphine treatment for opioid dependence. JAMA. 1992;267(20):2750–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Ling W, Charuvastra C, Collins JF, Batki S, Brown Jr LS, Kintaudi P, et al. Buprenorphine maintenance treatment of opiate dependence: a multicenter, randomized clinical trial. Addiction. 1998;93(4):475–86.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    US Food and Drug Administration Center for Drug Evaluation and Research Drug Information. Subutex (buprenorphine ­hydrochloride) and Suboxone tablets (buprenorphine hydrochloride and naloxone hydrochloride). 2008.
  36. 36.
    Johnson RE, McCagh JC. Buprenorphine and naloxone for heroin dependence. Curr Psychiatry Rep. 2000;2(6):519–26.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Sigmon SC, Wong CJ, Chausmer AL, Liebson IA, Bigelow GE. Evaluation of an injection depot formulation of buprenorphine: placebo comparison. Addiction. 2004;99(11):1439–49.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Liu KS, Kao CH, Liu SY, Sung KC, Kuei CH, Wang JJ. Novel depots of buprenorphine have a long-acting effect for the management of physical dependence to morphine. J Pharm Pharmacol. 2006;58(3):337–44.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Clinical evaluation of naltrexone treatment of opiate-dependent individuals. Report of the National Research Council Committee on Clinical Evaluation of Narcotic Antagonists. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1978; 35(3):335–40.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Comer SD, Sullivan MA, Hulse GK. Sustained-release naltrexone: novel treatment for opioid dependence. Expert Opin Investig Drugs. 2007;16(8):1285–94.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Ngo HT, Tait RJ, Hulse GK. Comparing drug-related hospital morbidity following heroin dependence treatment with methadone maintenance or naltrexone implantation. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2008;65(4):457–65.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Kruptisky EM, Burakov AM, Tsoy MV, Egorova VY, Slavina TY, Grinenko AY, et al. Overcoming opioid blockade from depot naltrexone (Prodetoxon). Addiction. 2007;102(7):1164–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Hulse GK, Tait RJ, Comer SD, Sullivan MA, Jacobs IG, Arnold-Reed D. Reducing hospital presentations for opioid overdose in patients treated with sustained release naltrexone implants. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2005;79(3):351–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Ling W, Charuvastra C, Kaim SC, Klett CJ. Methadyl acetate and methadone as maintenance treatments for heroin addicts. A veterans administration cooperative study. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1976;33(6):709–20.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Eissenberg T, Bigelow GE, Strain EC, Walsh SL, Brooner RK, Stitzer ML, et al. Dose-related efficacy of levomethadyl acetate for treatment of opioid dependence. A randomized clinical trial. JAMA. 1997;277(24):1945–51.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Jones HE, Strain EC, Bigelow GE, Walsh SL, Stitzer ML, Eissenberg T, et al. Induction with levomethadyl acetate: safety and efficacy. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1998;55(8):729–36.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Lofwall MR, Walsh SL, Bigelow GE, Strain EC. Modest opioid withdrawal suppression efficacy of oral tramadol in humans. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2007;194(3):381–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Yu E, Miotto K, Akerele E, Montgomery A, Elkashef A, Walsh R, et al. A Phase 3 placebo-controlled, double-blind, multi-site trial of the alpha-2-adrenergic agonist, lofexidine, for opioid withdrawal. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2008;97(1–2):158–68.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Walsh SL, Strain EC, Bigelow GE. Evaluation of the effects of lofexidine and clonidine on naloxone-precipitated withdrawal in opioid-dependent humans. Addiction. 2003;98(4):427–39.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Akerele E, Bisaga A, Sullivan MA, Garawi F, Comer SD, Thomas AA, et al. Dextromethorphan and quinidine combination for heroin detoxification. Am J Addict. 2008;17(3):176–80.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Comer SD, Sullivan MA. Memantine produces modest reductions in heroin-induced subjective responses in human research volunteers. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2007;193(2):235–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    McCance-Katz EF, Kosten TR, Jatlow P. Disulfiram effects on acute cocaine administration. Drug Alcohol Depend. 1998;52(1):27–39.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Turner DC, Clark L, Dowson J, Robbins TW, Sahakian BJ. Modafinil improves cognition and response inhibition in adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Biol Psychiatry. 2004;55(10):1031–40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Turner DC, Robbins TW, Clark L, Aron AR, Dowson J, Sahakian BJ. Cognitive enhancing effects of modafinil in healthy volunteers. Psychopharm (Berl). 2003;165(3):260–9.Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Dackis CA, Kampman KM, Lynch KG, Pettinati HM, O’Brien CP. A double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of modafinil for cocaine dependence. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2005;30(1):205–11.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Anderson AL, Reid MS, Li SH, Holmes T, Shemanski L, Slee A, Smith EV, Kahn R, Chiang N, Vocci F, Ciraulo D, Dackis C, Roache JD, Salloum IM, Somoza E, Urschel HC 3rd, Elkashef AM. Modafinil for the treatment of cocaine dependence. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2009 Jun 25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Johnson BA, Campling GM, Griffiths P, Cowen PJ. Attenuation of some alcohol-induced mood changes and the desire to crink by 5-HT3 receptor blockade: a preliminary study in healthy male volunteers. Psychopharm (Berl). 1993;112(1):142–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Johnson BA, Roache JD, Ait-Daoud N, Javors MA, Harrison JM, Elkashef A, Mojsiak J, et al. A preliminary randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of the safety and efficacy of ondansetron in the treatment of cocaine dependence. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2006;84:256–63.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Volkow ND, Wang GJ, Telang F, Fowler JS, Logan J, Childress AR, et al. Cocaine cues and dopamine in dorsal striatum: mechanism of craving in cocaine addiction. J Neurosci. 2006;26(24):6583–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Kampman KM, Pettinati H, Lynch KG, Dackis C, Sparkman T, Weigley C, et al. A pilot trial of topiramate for the treatment of cocaine dependence. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2004;75(3):233–40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Kampman KM, Volpicelli JR, Mulvaney F, Alterman AI, Cornish J, Gariti P, et al. Effectiveness of propranolol for cocaine dependence treatment may depend on cocaine withdrawal symptom severity. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2001;63(1):69–78.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Kampman KM, Dackis C, Lynch KG, Pettinati H, Tirado C, Gariti P, et al. A double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of amantadine, propranolol, and their combination for the treatment of cocaine dependence in patients with severe cocaine withdrawal symptoms. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2006;85(2):129–37.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Gonzalez G, Sevarion K, Sofuoglu M, Poling J, Oliveto A, Gonsai K, et al. Tiagabine increases cocaine-free urines in cocaine-dependent methadone-treated patients: results of a randomized pilot study. Addiction. 2003;98(11):1625–32.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Carroll KM, Nich C, Ball SA, McCance E, Rounsaville BJ. Treatment of cocaine and alcohol dependence with psychotherapy disulfiram. Addiction. 1998;93(5):713–27.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    George TP, Chawarski MC, Pakes J, Carroll KM, Kosten TR, Schottenfeld RS. Disulfiram versus placebo for cocaine dependence in buprenorphine-maintained subjects: a preliminary trial. Biol Psychiatry. 2000;47(12):1080–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Petrakis IL, Carroll KM, Nich C, Gordon LT, McCance-Katz EF, Frankforter T, et al. Disulfiram treatment for cocaine dependence in methadone-maintained opioid addicts. Addiction. 2000;95(2):219–28.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Carroll KM, Fenton LR, Ball SA, Nich C, Frankforter TL, Shi J, et al. Efficacy of disulfiram and cognitive behavior therapy in cocaine-dependent outpatients: a randomized placebo-controlled trial. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2004;61(3):264–72.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Kosten T, Oliveto A, Feingold A, Poling J, Sevarino K, McCance-Katz E, et al. Desipramine and contingency management for cocaine and opiate dependence in buprenorphine-maintained patients. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2003;70(3):P315–325.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Poling J, Oliveto A, Petry N, Sofuoglu M, Gonsai K, Gonzalez G, et al. Six-month trial of bupropion with contingency management for cocaine dependence in a methadone-maintained population. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2006;63(2):219–28.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Ciraulo DA, Knapp C, Rotrosen J, Sarid-Segal O, Ciraulo A, LoCastro J, et al. Nefazodone treatment of cocaine dependence with comorbid depressive symptoms. Addiction. 2005;100 Suppl 1:23–31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Winhusen T, Somoza E, Sarid-Segal O, Goldsmith RJ, Harrer JM, Coleman FS, et al. A double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of reserpine for the treatment of cocaine dependence. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2007;91:205–12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Winhusen T, Somoza E, Ciraulo D, Harrer JM, Goldsmith RJ, Grabowski J, Coleman FS, et al. A double-blind, placebo-­controlled trial of tiagabine for the treatment of cocaine ­dependence. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2007;91:141–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Kahn R, Biswas K, Childress A, Shoptaw S, Fudala PJ, Gorgon L, Montoya I, et al. Multi-center trial of baclofen for abstinence initiation for severe cocaine dependence. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2009;103(1–2):59–64.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Elkashef A, Fudala PJ, Gorgon L, Li SH, Kahn R, Chiang N, et al. Double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of selegiline transdermal system (STS) for the treatment of cocaine dependence. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2006;85(3):191–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Moeller FG, Schmitz JM, Steinbert JL, Green CM, Reist C, Lai LY, et al. Citalopram combined with behavioral treatment reduces cocaine use: a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse. 2007;33(3):367–78.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Newton TF, Roache JD, De La Garza 2nd R, Fong T, Wallace CL, Li SH, et al. Bupropion reduces methamphetamine-induced subjective effects and cue-induced craving. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2006;31(7):1537–44.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Galloway G, Newmeyer J, Knapp T, Stalcup SA, Smith D. A ­controlled trial of imipramine for the treatment of methamphetamine dependence. J Subst Abuse. 1996;13(6):493–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Heinzerling KG, Shoptaw S, Peck JA, Yang X, Liu J, Roll J, et al. Randomized, placebo-controlled trial of baclofen and gabapentin for the treatment of methamphetamine dependence. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2006;85(3):177–84.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Shoptaw S, Hubert A, Peck J, Yang X, Liu J, Dang J, et al. Randomized, placebo-controlled trial of sertraline and contingency management for the treatment of methamphetamine dependence. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2006;85(1):12–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Johnson BA, Ait-Daoud N, Elkashef AM, Smith EV, Kahn R, Vocci F, et al. A preliminary randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of the safety and efficacy of ondansetron in the treatment of methamphetamine dependence. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol. 2008;11:1–14.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Johnson BA, Roache JD, Ait-Daoud N, Wells LT, Wallace CL, Dawes MA, et al. Effects of acute topiramate dosing on methamphetamine-induced subjective mood. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol. 2007;10(1):85–98.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Tiihonen J, Kuoppasalmi K, Fohr J, Tuomola P, Kuikanmaki O, Vorma H, et al. A comparison of aripiprazole, methylphenidate, and placebo for amphetamine dependence. Am J Psychiatry. 2007;164(1):160–2.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Batki SL, Bui L, Mendelson J, Benowitz N, Bradley JM, Jones RT, et al. Methamphetamine-amlodipine interactions: preliminary analysis. Poster Session 2002 College on Problems of Drug Dependency (CPDD), 2002.Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Batki SL, Moon J, Delucchi K, Bradley M, Hersh D, Smolar S, Mengis M, Lefkowitz E, Sexe D, Morello L, Evenhart T, Jones RT, Jacob 3rd P. Methamphetamine quantitative urine concentrations during a controlled trial of fluoxetine treatment: preliminary analysis. Ann NY Acad Sci. 2000;909:260–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Jayaram-Lindstrom N, Wennberg P, Hurd YL, Franck J. Effects of naltrexone on the subjective response to amphetamine in healthy volunteers. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2004;24(6):655–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Elkashef AM, Rawson RA, Anderson AL, Li SH, Holmes T, Smith EV, et al. Bupropion for the treatment of methamphetamine dependence. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2008;33(5):162–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Shearer J, Darke S, Rodgers C, Slade T, van Beek I, Lewis J, Brady D, McKetin R, Mattick RP, Wodak A. A double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of modafinil (200 mg/day) for methamphetamine dependence. Addiction. 2009;104(2):224–33Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Anderson AL, Li SH, Biswas K, McSherry F, Holmes T, Iturriaga E, et al. Modafinil for the treatment of methamphetamine dependence. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2012;120(1–3):135–41. Epub 2011 Aug 12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Tiihonen J, Kuoppasalmi K, Fohr J, Kuikanmaki O, Vorma H, et al. A comparison of aripiprazole, methylphenidate, and placebo for amphetamine dependence. Am J Psychiatry. 2007;164:160–2.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Harrod SB, Dwoskin LP, Crooks PA, Klebaur JE, Bardo MT. Lobeline attenuates d-methamphetamine self-administration in rats. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2001;298(1):172–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Matsuda LA, Lolait SJ, Brownstein MJ, Young AC, Bonner TI. Structure of a cannabinoid receptor and functional expression of the cloned DNA. Nature. 1990;346(6284):561–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Huestis MA, Gorelick DA, Heishman SJ, Preston KL, Nelson RA, Moolchan ET, Frank RA. Blockade of effects of smoked marijuana by the CB1-selective cannabinoid receptor antagonist SR141716. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2001;58:322–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Tanda G, Munzar P, Goldberg SR. Self-administration behavior is maintained by the psychoactive ingredient of marijuana in squirrel monkeys. Nat Neurosci. 2000;3(11):1073–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Dishion T, Kavanagh K. Intervening in adolescent problem behavior: a family-centered approach. New York, NY: Guilford; 2003.Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    Stanger C, Budney AJ, Kamon J. Abstinence-based vouchers and parent-directed contingency management enhance outcomes for adolescent marijuana abuse. Abstract at International Society for Addiction Medicine, Annual Meeting, Oporto, Portugal; 2006.Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    Moore BA, Budney AJ. Relapse in outpatient treatment for marijuana dependence. J Subst Abuse Treat. 2003;25:85–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Haney M, Ward AS, Comer SD, et al. Bupropion SR worsens mood during marijuana withdrawal in humans. Psychopharmacology. 2001;155:171–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Haney M, Hart CL, Vosburg SK, Nasser J, Bennett A, Zubaran C, et al. Marijuana withdrawal in humans: effects of oral THC and divalproex. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2004;29:158–70.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Levin F, McDowell D, Evans S, Nunes E, Akerele E, Donovan S, Vosburg SK. Pharmacotherapy for marijuana dependence: a double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot trial of divalproex sodium. Am J Addict. 2004;13(1):21–32.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Haney M, Hart CL, Ward AS, et al. Nefazodone decreases anxiety during marijuana withdrawal in humans. Psychopharmacology. 2003;165:157–65.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Gorelick DA, Heishman SJ, Preston KL, Nelson RA, Moolchan ET, Huestis MA. The cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonist rimonabant attenuates the hypotensive effect of smoked marijuana in male smokers. Am Heart J. 2006;151(3):754.e1–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    McRae AL, Brady KT, Carter RE. Buspirone for treatment of ­marijuana dependence: a pilot study. Am J Addict. 2006;15:404.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Winstock A, Lea T, Copeland J. Cannabis withdrawal treatment options, including results from an in-patient trial of lithium. Presented at the Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and Other Drugs meeting in Cairns, Australia, November 2006.Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    Cui SS, Bowen RC, Gu GB, Hannesson DK, Yu PH, Zhang X. Prevention of cannabinoid withdrawal syndrome by lithium: involvement of oxytocinergic neuronal activation. J Neurosci. 2001;21:9867–76.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Cornelius JR, Salloum IM, Haskett RF, Ehler JG, Jarrett PJ, Thase ME, Perel JM. Fluoxetine versus placebo for the marijuana use of depressed alcoholics. Addict Behav. 1999;24(1):111–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    David SP, Munafo MR, Murphy MFG, Proctor M, Walton RT, Johnstone EC. Genetic variation in the dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4) gene and smoking cessation: follow-up of a randomized clinical trial of transdermal nicotine patch. Pharmacogenomics J. 2008;8:122–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Rutter JL. Symbiotic relationship of pharmacogenetics and drugs of abuse. AAPS J. 2006;8(1):174–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of Pharmacotherapies and Medical Consequences of Drug Abuse, Department of Health and Human ServicesNational Institute on Drug Abuse (Retired), National Institutes of HealthBethesdaUSA

Personalised recommendations