Advertisement

Sub- and Supercritical Water Technology for Biofuels

Chapter

Abstract

One of the major challenges in utilization of biomass is its high moisture content and variable composition. The conventional thermochemical conversion processes such as pyrolysis and gasification require dry biomass for production of biofuels. Sub- and supercritical water (critical point: 374°C, 22.1°MPa) technology, which can utilize wet biomass, capitalizes on the extraordinary solvent properties of water at elevated temperature for converting biomass to high energy density fuels and functional carbonaceous materials. Here, water acts as reactant as well as reaction medium in performing hydrolysis, depolymerization, dehydration, decarboxylation, and many other chemical reactions. One of the advantages is that the large parasitic energy losses that can consume much of the energy content of the biomass for moisture removal are avoided. In sub- and supercritical water-based processes, water is kept in liquid or supercritical phase by applying pressure greater than the vapor pressure of water. Thus, latent heat required for phase change of water from liquid to vapor phase (2.26 MJ/kg of water) is not needed. For a typical 250°C subcritical water process, the energy requirement to heat water from ambient condition to the reaction temperature is about 1 MJ/kg, equivalent to 6–8% of energy content of dry biomass.

Keywords

Rice Husk Lignocellulosic Biomass Supercritical Water Subcritical Water High Heating Value 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. 1.
    Allen SG, Kam LC et al (1996) Fractionation of sugar cane with hot, compressed, liquid water. Ind Eng Chem Res 35(8):2709–2715Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Atalla RH, Vanderhart DL (1984) Native cellulose: a composite of two distinct crystalline forms. Science 223(4633):283–285Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Baeza J, Freer J (2001) Chemical characterization of wood and its components. In: Hon DNS, Shiraishi N (eds) Wood and cellulosic chemistry. Marcel Dekker, Inc, New York, pp 275–384Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Balat M (2008) Mechanisms of thermochemical biomass conversion processes, part 1: reactions of pyrolysis. Energ Sourc, Part A 30:620–635Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Becker EW (2007) Micro-algae as a source of protein. Biotechnol Adv 25:207–210Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Behrendt F, Neubauer Y et al (2008) Direct liquefaction of biomass. Chem Eng Technol 31(5):667–677Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Bergius F, Specht H (1913) Die Anwendung hoher Drucke bei chemischen Vorgängen und eine Nachbildung des Entstehungsprozesses der Steinkohle. Verlag Wilhelm Knapp, Halle an der Saale, p 58Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Biermann CJ (1996) Handbook of pulping and paper making. Academic, San DiegoGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Bobleter O (1994) Hydrothermal degradation of polymers derived from plants. Prog Polym Sci 19:797–841Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Bruun S, Luxhoi J (2008) Is biochar production really carbon-negative? Environ Sci Technol 42(5):1388Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Byrd AJ, Pant KK et al (2007) Hydrogen production from Glucose using Ru/Al2O3 catalyst in supercritical water. Ind Eng Chem Res 46(11):3574–3579Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Calzavara Y, Joussot-Dubien C et al (2005) Evaluation of biomass gasification in supercritical water process for hydrogen production. Energ Convers Manage 46:615–631Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Chakinala AG, Brilman DWF et al (2010) Catalytic and non-catalytic supercritical water gasification of microalgae and glycerol. Ind Eng Chem Res 49(3):1113–1122Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Chen P, Min M et al (2009) Review of the biological and engineering aspects of algae to fuels approach. Int J Agric Biol Eng 2(4):1–29Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Chisti Y (2007) Biodiesel from microalgae. Biotechnol Adv 25(3):294–306Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Chornet E, Overend RP (1985) Biomass liquefaction: an overview. In: Overend RP, Milne TA, Mudge LK (eds) Fundamentals of thermochemical biomass conversion. Elsevier Applied Science, New York, pp 967–1002Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Chronakis IS (2000) Biosolar proteins from aquatic algae. In: Doxastakis G, Kiosseoglou V (eds) Developments in food science, vol 41. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 39–75Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Deguchi S, Tsujii K et al (2008) Crystalline-to-amorphous transformation of cellulose in hot and compressed water and its implications for hydrothermal conversion. Green Chem 10:191–196Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Demirbas A (2000) Mechanisms of liquefaction and pyrolysis reactions of biomass. Energ Convers Manage 41:633–646Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Demirbaş A (2006) Oily products from mosses and algae via pyrolysis. Energ Sourc 28:933–940Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Diaz MJ, Cara C et al (2010) Hydrothermal pre-treatment of rapeseed straw. Bioresour Technol 101(2010):2428–2435Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Dinjus E, Kruse A (2004) Hot compressed water-a suitable and sustainable solvent and reaction medium? J Phys Condens Matter 16:S1161–S1169Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    DOE US (2010) National Algal Biofuels Technology Roadmap, U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Biomass Program. MarylandGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Dumitriu S (2004) Preparation and properties of cellulose bicomponent fibers. CRC Press, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Eckert CA, Knutson BL et al (1996) Supercritical fluids as solvents for chemical and materials processing. Nature 383(6598):313–318Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Elliott DC (2008) Catalytic hydrothemal gasification of biomass. Biofuels Bioprod Bioref 2:254–265Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Elliott DC, Sealock LJ et al (1993) Chemical processing in high-pressure aqueous environments. 2. Development of catalysts for gasification. Ind Eng Chem Res 32(8):1542–1548Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Falkehag SI (1975) Synthesis of phenolic polymer. Appl Polym Symp 28:247–257Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Fang Z, Sato T et al (2008) Reaction chemistry and phase behaviour of lignin in high-temperature and super critical water. Bioresour Technol 99:3424–3430Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Farrell AE, Plevin RJ et al (2006) Ethanol can contribute to energy and environmental goals. Science 311:506–508Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Franck EU (1987) Fluids at high pressures and temperatures. Pure Appl Chem 59(1):25–34Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Garrote G, Dominguez H et al (1999) Hydrothermal processing of lignocellulosic materials. Holz als Roh- und Werkstoff 57(1999):191–202Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Ghose TK, Roychoudhury PK, Ghosh P (1984) Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of lignocellulosics to ethanol under vacuum cycling and step feeding. Biotechnol Bioeng 26:377–381Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Golueke CG, Oswald WJ et al (1957) Anaerobic digestion of algae. Appl Microbiol 5(1):47–55Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Gourdiaan F, Peferoen D (1990) Liquid fuels from biomass via a hydrothermal process. Chem Eng Sci 45:2729–2734Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Gouveia L, Oliveira AC (2009) Microalgae as a raw material for biofuels production. J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol 36:269–274Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Greenwell HC, Laurens LML et al (2010) Placing microalgae on the biofuels priority list: a review of the technological challenges. J R Soc Interface 7(46):703–26Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Gupta R, Lee YY (2008) Mechanism of cellulase reaction on pure cellulosic substrates. Biotechnol Bioeng 102(6):1570–1581Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Gupta RB, Demirbas A (2010) Introduction. Gasoline, Diesel and Ethanol Biofuels from Grasses and Plants. Cambridge University Press, London, pp 1–24Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Hao XH, Guo LJ et al (2003) Hydrogen production from glucose used as a model compound of biomass gasified in supercritical water. J Hydrogen Energy 28:55–64Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Heitz M, Carrasco F et al (1986) Generalized correlations for aqueous liquefaction of lignocellulosics. Can J Chem Eng 64:647–650Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Hendriks ATWM, Zeeman G (2009) Pretreatments to enhance the digestibility of lignocellulosic biomass. Bioresour Technol 100(1):10–18Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Hsu T-A (1996) Pretreatment of biomass. In: Wyman CE (ed) Handbook on bioethanol: production and utilization. Taylor and Francis, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Hu B, Yu S-H et al (2008) Functional carboneceous materials from hydrothermal carbonization of biomass: an effective chemical process. Dalton Trans 40:5414–5423Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Huber GW, Cheda JN et al (2005) Production of liquid alkanes by aqueous processing of biomass derived carbohydrates. Science 308:1446–1450Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Huber GW, Iborra S et al (2006) Synthesis of transportation fuels from biomass: chemistry, catalysts, and engineering. Chem Rev 106:4044Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Huesemann MH, Benemann JR (2009) Biofuels from microalgae: review of products, processes and potential, with special focus on Dunaliella sp. In: Ben-Amotz JEWPA, Subba Rao DV (eds) The Alga Dunaliella: biodiversity, Physiology, Genomics, and Biotechnology, vol 14. Science Publishers, New Hampshire, pp 445–474Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Hui J, Youjun L et al (2010) Hydrogen production by coal gasification in supercritical water with a fluidised bed reactor. Int J Hydrogen Energy 35:7151–7160Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Jong WD (2009) Sustainable hydrogen production by thermochemical biomass processing. In: Gupta RB (ed) Hydrogen fuel: production, transport and storage. CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp 185–225Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Kabyemela BM, Adschiri R et al (1997) Rapid and selctive conversion of glucose to erythrose in supercritical water. Ind Eng Chem Res 36:5063–5067Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Kadam KL, Chin CY et al (2009) Continuous biomass fractionation process for producing ethanol and low-molecular-weight lignin. Environ Prog Sustain Energy 28(1):89–99Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Kalinichev AG, Churakov SV (1999) Size and topology of molecular clusters in supercritical water: a molecular dynamics simulation. Chem Phys Letters 302:411–417Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Karagoez S, Bhaskar T et al (2005) Comparative studies of oil compositions produced from sawdust, rice husk, lignin and cellulose by hydrothermal treatment. Fuel 84(7–8):875–884Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Karagoz S, Bhaskar T et al (2006) Hydrothermal upgrading of biomass: effect of K2CO3 concentration and biomass/water ratio on product distrubution. Bioresour Technol 97:90–98Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Kneževic´ D, Swaai WPMV et al (2009) Hydrothermal conversion of biomass: I, glucose conversion in hot compressed water. Ind Eng Chem Res 48:4731–4743Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Knill CJ, Kennedy JF (2005) Cellulosic biomass-derived products. In: Dumitriu S (ed) Polysaccharides: structural diversity and functional versatility. Marcel and Dekker, New York, pp 937–956Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Kobayashi N, Okada N et al (2009) Characteristics of solid residues obtained from hot-compressed-water treatment of woody biomass. Ind Eng Chem Res 48:373–379Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Kohlmann KL, Westgate PJ et al (1995) Enhanced enzyme activities on hydrated lignocellulosic substrates. In: Penner M, Saddler J (eds) American Chemical Society national meeting, vol 207, ACS symposium series No. 618. American Chemical Society, Washington, DC, pp 237–255Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Kritzer P, Dinjus E (2001) An assessment of supercritical water oxidation (SCWO): existing problems, possible solutions and new reactor concepts. Chem Eng J 83:207–214Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Kruse A (2009) Hydrothermal biomass gasification. J Supercrit Fluids 47(3):391–399Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Kruse A, Gawlik A (2003) Biomass conversion in water at 330-410 C and 30-50 MPa: identification of key compounds for indicating different chemical reaction pathways. Ind Eng Chem Res 42:267–269Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Kumar S (2010) Hydrothermal treatment for biofuels: lignocellulosic biomass to bioethanol, biocrude, and biochar. Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Chemical Engineering. Auburn University, Auburn, p 258Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Kumar S, Gupta R et al (2009) Cellulose pretreatment in subcritical water: effect of temperature on molecular structure and enzymatic reactivity. Bioresour Technol 101(2010):1337–1347Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Kumar S, Gupta RB (2008) Hydrolysis of microcrystalline cellulose in subcritical and supercritical water in a continuous flow reactor. Ind Eng Chem Res 47(23):9321–9329Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Kumar S, Gupta RB (2009) Biocrude production from switchgrass using subcritical water. Energy Fuel 23(10):5151–5159Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Kumar S, Kothari U et al (2011) Hydrothermal pretreatment of switchgrass and corn stover for production of ethanol and carbon microspheres. Biomass Bioenergy 35(2):956–968Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Laxman RS, Lachke AH (2008) Bioethanol from lignocellulosic biomass, part 1: pretreatment of the substrates. In: Pandey A (ed) Handbook of plant-based biofuels. CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp 121–139Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Liu C, Wyman CE (2003) The effect of flow rate of compressed hot water on xylan, lignin and total mass removal from corn stover. Ind Eng Chem Res 42:5409–5416Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Lynd LR (1996) Overview and evaluation of fuel ethanol from cellulosic biomass: technology, economics, the environment, and policy. Ann Rev Energy Environ 21:403–465Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Marchessault RH, Sarko A (1967) X-ray structure of polysaccharides. Adv Carbohydr Chem 22:421–482Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Marcus Y (1999) On transport properties of hot liquid and supercritical water and their relationship to the hydrogen bonding. Fluid Phase Equilib 164:131–142Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Marta S, Antonio BF (2009) The production of carbon materials by hydrothermal carbonization of cellulose. Carbon 47:2281–2289Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Masaru W, Takafumi S et al (2004) Chemical reactions of C1 compounds in near-critical and supercritical water. Chem Rev 104:5803–5821Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Matsumara Y, Minowa T et al (2005) Review—biomass gasification in near- and super-critical water: status and prospects. Biomass Bioenergy 29:269–2925Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Matsumura Y, Minowa T et al (2005) Biomass gasification in near- and super-critical water: status and prospects. Biomass Bioenergy 29(4):269–292Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Matsumura Y, Sasaki M et al (2006) Supercritical water treatment of biomass for energy and material recovery. Combust Sci Tech 178:509–536Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Meister JJ (1996) Chemical modification of lignin. In: Hon DN-S (ed) Chemical modification of lignocellulosic materials. Marcel Dekker Inc., New York, pp 129–157Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Mendes RL (2007) Supercritical Fluid Extraction of Active Compounds from Algae. In: Martinez JL (ed) Supercritical fluid extraction of nutraceuticals and bioactive compounds. CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp 189–213Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Miyoshia H, Chena D et al (2004) A novel process utilizing subcritical water to recycle soda–lime–silicate glass. J Non-Cryst Solids 337(3):280–282Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Mok WS, Antal MJ (1992) Uncatalyzed solvolysis of whole biomass hemicellulose by hot compressed liquid water. Ind Eng Chem Res 31:1157–1161Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Mok WSL, Antal MJ, Varhegyi G (1992) Productive and parasitic pathways in dilute-acid-catalyzed hydrolysis of cellulose. Ind Eng Chem Res 31:94–100Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Mosier N, Hendrickson R et al (2005) Optimization of pH controlled liquid hot water pretreatment of corn stover. Bioresour Technol 96:1986–1993Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Mosier N, Wyman C et al (2005) Features of promising technologies for pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass. Bioresour Technol 96(6):673–686Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Muthukumaraa P, Gupta RB (2000) Sodium-carbonate assisted supercritical water oxidation of chlorinated waste. Ind Eng Chem Res 39:4555–4563Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Ni M, Leung DYC et al (2006) An overview of hydrogen production from biomass. Fuel Process Tech 87:461–472Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    O’Sullivan AC (1997) Cellulose: the structure slowly unravels. Cellulose 4(3):173–207Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Olsson L, Jorgensen H et al (2005) Bioethanol production from lignocellulosic material. In: Dumitriu S (ed) Polysachharides: structural diversity and functional versatility. Marcel Dekker, New York, pp 957–993Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Overend RP, Chornet E (1987) Fractionation of lignocellulosics by steam-aqueous pretreatments. Philos Trans R Soc London A321:523–536Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    Pastircakova K (2004) Determination of trace metal concentrations in ashes from various biomass materials. Energy Educ Sci Technol 13:97–104Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    Pérez J, Muñoz-Dorado J et al (2002) Biodegradation and biological treatments of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin: an overview. Int Microbiol 5:53–63Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    Pérez JA, Ballesteros I et al (2008) Optimizing Liquid Hot Water pretreatment conditions to enhance sugar recovery from wheat straw for fuel-ethanol production. Fuel 87:3640–3647Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Perlack RD, Wright LL et al (2005) Biomass as a feedstock for a bioenergy and bioproducts industry:the technical feasibility of a billion-ton annual supply. A joint report sponsored by US Department of Energy and US Department of Agriculture, p 78Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    Petchpradab P, Yoshida T et al (2009) Hydrothermal pretreatment of rubber wood for the saccharification process. Ind Eng Chem Res 48(9):4587–4591Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    Peterson AA, Vogel F et al (2008) Thermochemical biofuel production in hydrothermal media:a review of sub- and supercritical water technologies. Energy Environ Sci 1:32–65Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    Phillip E (1999) Organic chemical reactions in supercritical water. Chem Rev 99:603–621Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    Rogalinski T, Ingram T et al (2008) Hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass in water under elevated temperatures and pressures. J Supercrit Fluids 47(1):54–63Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    Saha BC (2003) Hemicellulose bioconversion. J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol 30:279–291Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    Sarko A (1978) What is the crystalline structure of cellulose ? Tappi 61:59–61Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    Sarko A (1987) Cellulose—how much do we know about its structure? In: Kennedy JF (ed) Wood and cellulosics: industrial utilization, biotechnology, structure and properties. Ellis Horwood, Chichester, pp 55–70Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    Sasaki M, Fang Z et al (2000) Dissolution and hydrolysis of cellulose in subcritical and supercritical water. Ind Eng Chem Res 39:2883–2890Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    Sasaki M, Goto K et al (2002) Rapid and selective retro-aldol condensation of glucose to glycolaldehyde in supercritical water. Green Chem 4:285–287Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    Sasaki M, Kabyemela B et al (1998) Cellulose hydrolysis in subcritical and supercritical water. J Supercrit Fluids 1998(13):261–268Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    Savage PE (1999) Organic chemical reactions in supercritical water. Chem Rev 99:603–621Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    Savage PE, Gopalan S et al (1995) Reactions at supercritical conditions—applications and fundamentals. AIChE J 41(7):1723–1778Google Scholar
  105. 105.
    Savovaa D, Apakb E et al (2001) Biomass conversion to carbon adsorbents and gas. Biomass Bioenergy 21(2):133–142Google Scholar
  106. 106.
    Schenk PM, Thomas-Hall SR et al (2008) Second generation biofuels: high-efficiency microalgae for biodiesel production. Bioenergy Res 1:20–43Google Scholar
  107. 107.
    Schwald W, Bobleter O (1989) Hydrothermolysis of cellulose under static and dynamic conditions at high temperatures. J Carbohydr Chem 8(4):565–578Google Scholar
  108. 108.
    Sheehan J, Dunahay T, Benemann J, Roessler P (1998) A look back at the U.S. Department of Energy’s Aquatic Species Program-Biodiesel from algae. U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of Fuels DevelopmentGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Sierra R, Smith A et al (2008) Producing fuels and chemicals from lignocellulosic biomass, vol 104, Chemical engineering progress. AIChE Publication, New York, pp S10–S18Google Scholar
  110. 110.
    Sinag A, Kruse A et al (2003) Key compounds of the hydropyrolysis of glucose in supercritical water in the presence of K2CO3. Ind Eng Chem Res 42:3516–3521Google Scholar
  111. 111.
    Sinnott ML (2007) Chapter 4: primary structure and conformation of oligosaccharides and polysaccharides. RSC publishing, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Sjostrom E (1981) Wood chemistry: fundamentals and applications. Academic, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Spath PL, Dayton DC (2003) Preliminary screening-technical and economic assessment of synthesis gas to fuels and chemicals with emphasis on the potential for biomass-derived syngas. Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, pp 90–107Google Scholar
  114. 114.
    Sukumaran RK (2009) Bioethanol from lignocellulosic biomass: part II production of cellulases and hemicellulases. In: Pandey A (ed) Hand book of plant based biofuels. CRC Press, BocaRaton, pp 141–157Google Scholar
  115. 115.
    Sun Y, Cheng JJ (2002) Hydrolysis of lignocellulosic material for ethanol production: a review. Bioresour Technol 83:1–11Google Scholar
  116. 116.
    Suryawati L, Wilkins MR et al (2008) Simultaneous sacchrification and fermentation of Kanlow switchgrass pretreated by hydrothermolysis using Kluyveromyces marxianus IMB4. Biotechnol Bioeng 101(5):894–902Google Scholar
  117. 117.
    Taherzadeh MJ, Karimi K (2007) Enzyme based hydrolysis processes for ethanol from lignocellulosic materials: a review. BioResources 2(4):707–738Google Scholar
  118. 118.
    Tester JW, Holgate HR et al (1993) Supercritical water oxidation technology—process development and fundamental research. In: Tedder DW, Pohland FG (eds) Emerging technologies in hazardous waste management III. American Chemical Society, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Titirici M-M, Antonietti M et al (2008) Hydrothermal carbon from biomass: a comparision of the local structure from poly- to monosaccharides and pentoses/hexoses. Green Chem 10:1204–1212Google Scholar
  120. 120.
    Titirici M-M, Thomas A et al (2007) Back in the black: hydrothermal carbonization of plant material as an efficient chemical process to treat the CO2 problem. New J Chem 31:787–789Google Scholar
  121. 121.
    Valenzuela MB, Jones CW et al (2006) Batch aqueous reforming of woody biomass. Energy Fuel 20:1744–1752Google Scholar
  122. 122.
    Varhegyi G, Szabo P et al (1998) TG, TG-MS, and FTIR characterization of high-yield biomass charcoals. Energy Fuel 12:969–974Google Scholar
  123. 123.
    Venderbosch R, Ardiyanti A et al (2010) Stabilization of biomass-derived pyrolysis oils. J Chem Technol Biotechnol 85(5):674–686Google Scholar
  124. 124.
    Vergara-Fernandez A, Vargas G et al (2008) Evaluation of marine algae as a source of biogas in a two-stage anaerobic reactor system. Biomass Bioenergy 32(4):338–344Google Scholar
  125. 125.
    Watanabe M, Aizawa Y et al (2005) Glucose reactions within the heating period and the effect of heating rate on the reactions in hot compressed water. Carbohydr Res 340:1931–1939Google Scholar
  126. 126.
    Watanabe M, Inomata H et al (2002) Catalytic hydrogen generation from biomass (glucose and cellulose) with ZrO2 in supercritical water. Biomass Bioenergy 22:405–410Google Scholar
  127. 127.
    Weil JR, Brewer M et al (1997) Continuous pH monitoring during pretreatment of yellow poplar wood sawdust by pressure cooking in water. Appl Biochem Biotechnol 68:21–40Google Scholar
  128. 128.
    Wellig B (2003) Transpiring wall reactor for supercritical water oxidation. Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zurich, Doctor of Technical Sciences, p 291Google Scholar
  129. 129.
    Wijffels RH, Barbosa J (2010) An outlook on microalgal biofuels. Science 329:796–799Google Scholar
  130. 130.
    Wyman CE, Dale BE et al (2005) Coordinated development of leading biomass pretreatment technologies. Bioresour Technol 96:1959–1966Google Scholar
  131. 131.
    Xu L, Brilman DWF et al (2011) Assessment of a dry and a wet route for the production of biofuels from microalgae: energy balance analysis. Bioresour Technol 102(8):5113–5122Google Scholar
  132. 132.
    Yang B, Wyman CE (2004) Effect of xylan and lignin removal by batch and flow through pretreatment on the enzymatic digestibility of corn stiver cellulose. Biotechnol Bioeng 86(1):88–95Google Scholar
  133. 133.
    Yanqun Li MH, Nan Wu, Lan CQ, Dubois-Calero N (2008) Biofuels from microalgae. Biotechnol Prog 24(4):815–820Google Scholar
  134. 134.
    Zhang B, Huang H-J et al (2008) Reaction kinetics of the hydrothermal treatment of lignin. Appl Biochem Biotechnol 147:119–131Google Scholar
  135. 135.
    Zhang Y-HP, Berson E et al (2009) Sessions 3 and 8: pretreatment and biomass recalcitrance: fundamentals and progress. Appl Biochem Biotechnol 153:80–83Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Civil and Environmental EngineeringOld Dominion UniversityNorfolkUSA

Personalised recommendations