Laboratory Evaluation for Male Infertility
The diagnosis and treatment options for male infertility have recently undergone a sea of change as advancements in technology and understanding in the fields of molecular biology, genetics, and laboratory medicine have grown. Further, advancements in assisted reproductive technologies (ART) have rendered previously subfertile and infertile couples with various options for pregnancy. Such changes in the understanding and treatment of fertility and infertility have necessitated a much more detailed assessment of the couple presenting with infertility. At the basis of this assessment is a sophisticated and methodological evaluation of male factor infertility including laboratory assessment of urine, serum, and semen, as well as radiological and genetic studies.
KeywordsMale infertility evaluation Assisted reproductive technologies Laboratory evaluation Semen analysis Cryptorchidism Varicocele Macroscopic assessment Computer-assisted semen analysis
The authors would like to thank Eric Klein, MD, Chairman, Glickman Urological and Kidney Institute, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, for his support.
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