Instructional Design Models

  • Andrew S. Gibbons
  • Elizabeth Boling
  • Kennon M. Smith


Design has become increasingly important in a number of technology-related fields. Even the business world is now seen as primarily a designed venue, where better design principles often equate to increased revenue (Baldwin and Clark, Design rules, Vol. 1: The power of modularity, Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, 2000; Clark et al., Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, 3:729–771, 1987; Martin, The design of business: Why design thinking is the next competitive advantage. Boston, MA: Harvard Business Press, 2009). Research on the design process has increased proportionally, and within the field of instructional design (ID) this research has tended to focus almost exclusively on the use of design models. This chapter examines the emergence of the standard design model in ID, its proliferation, its wide dissemination, and a narrowing of focus which has occurred over time. Parallel and divergent developments in design research outside the field are considered in terms of what might be learned from them. The recommendation is that instructional designers should seek more robust and searching descriptions of design with an eye to advancing how we think about it and therefore how we pursue design (Gibbons and Yanchar, Educ Technol 50(4):16–26, 2010).


Design Instruction Instructional design Instructional development Design model Instructional design model Instructional systems design ADDIE Systems approach 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Andrew S. Gibbons
    • 1
  • Elizabeth Boling
    • 2
  • Kennon M. Smith
    • 2
  1. 1.David O. McKay School of Education, Brigham Young UniversityProvoUSA
  2. 2.Indiana UniversityBloomingtonUSA

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