Skip to main content

Learning Ability Development in Flexible Learning Environments

Abstract

Education has come to recognise the importance of the development of learning ability, that is, the acquisition of self-directed learning (SDL) skills and self-regulated learning (SRL) skills, because these skills equip students for functioning in our constantly changing society as life long learners. To give students the opportunity to develop these skills a flexible learning environment is needed. Such an environment enables learners to determine more or less personalised learning trajectories for themselves. Moreover, a flexible learning environment should be designed in such a way that the acquisition of SRL and SDL skills is supported. In this chapter after addressing the concept of learning ability or more specifically the concepts of SRL and SDL and the way the two are intertwined, the basic elements needed in the design of a flexible learning environment are discussed. The need for well-structured learning materials, assessment criteria, portfolios, advisory models and instructional support for acquiring SRL and SDL skills is discussed.

Keywords

  • Learning ability
  • Self-direct learning
  • Self-regulated learning
  • Flexible learning environments

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Buying options

Chapter
USD   29.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • DOI: 10.1007/978-1-4614-3185-5_29
  • Chapter length: 10 pages
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
eBook
USD   269.00
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • ISBN: 978-1-4614-3185-5
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
Fig. 29.1
Fig. 29.2
Fig. 29.3

References

  • Bannert, M. (2003). Effekte metakognitiver Lernhilfen auf den Wissenserwerb in vernetzten Lernumgebungen [Effects of metacognitive learning aids in networked learning environments]. Zeitschrift für Pädagogische Psychologie, 17, 13–25.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Bannert, M. (2004). Designing metacognitive support for hypermedia learning. In H. Niegemann, D. Leutner, & R. Brünken (Eds.), Instructional design for multimedia-learning (pp. 19–30). Münster: Waxmann.

    Google Scholar 

  • Bell, B. S., & Kozlowski, S. W. J. (2002). Adaptive guidance: Enhancing self-regulation, knowledge, and performance in technology-based training. Personnel Psychology, 55, 267–306.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Birenbaum, M., & Dochy, F. (Eds.). (1996). Alternatives in assessment of achievement, learning processes and prior knowledge. Boston, MA: Kluwer.

    Google Scholar 

  • Boekaerts, M. (1997). Self-regulated learning: A new concept embraced by researchers, policy makers, educators, teachers, and students. Learning and Instruction, 2(2), 161–186.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Boekaerts, M., & Corno, L. (2005). Self-regulation in the classroom: A perspective on assessment and intervention. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 5(2), 199–231.

    Google Scholar 

  • Bolhuis, S. (2003). Towards process-oriented teaching for self-directed lifelong learning: A multidimensional perspective. Learning and Instruction, 13, 327–347.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Bolhuis, S., & Voeten, M. J. M. (2001). Toward self-directed learning in secondary schools: What do teachers do? Teaching and Teacher Education, 17, 837–855.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Brand-Gruwel, S., Aarnoutse, C. A. J., & van den Bos, K. P. (1998). Improving text comprehension strategies in reading and listening settings. Learning and Instruction, 8, 63–81.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Brockett, R. G. (2006). Self-directed learning and the paradox of choice. International Journal of Self-directed Learning, 3(2), 27–33.

    Google Scholar 

  • Brockett, R. G., & Hiemstra, R. (1991). Self-direction in adult learning: Perspectives on theory, research, and practice. London: Routledge.

    Google Scholar 

  • Brown, A. (1997). Transforming schools into communities of thinking and learning about serious matters. American Psychologist, 52, 399–413.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Butler, D. L., & Winne, P. H. (1995). Feedback and self-regulated learning: A theoretical synthesis. Review of Educational Research, 65, 245–281.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Candy, P. C. (1991). Self-direction for lifelong learning. A comprehensive guide to theory and practice. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

    Google Scholar 

  • Chen, G., Liu, C., Ou, K., & Lin, M. (2000). Web learning portfolios: A tool for supporting performance awareness. Innovations in Education and Teaching International, 38, 19–30.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Collins, A., Brown, J. S. & Holum, A. (1991). Cognitive apprenticeship: Making thinking visible. American Educator, 15, pp. 6–11, 38–46.

    Google Scholar 

  • Dinsmore, D. L., Alexander, P. A., & Loughlin, S. M. (2008). Focusing the conceptual lens on metacognition, self-regulation, and self-regulated learning. Educational Psychology Review, 20(4), 391–409.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Driessen, E. W., van Tartwijk, J., Overeem, K., Vermunt, J. D., & van der Vleuten, C. P. M. (2005). Conditions for successful reflective use of portfolios in undergraduate medical education. Medical Education, 39, 1230–1235.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Ertmer, P. A., & Newby, T. J. (1996). The expert learner: Strategic, self-regulated, and reflective. Instructional Science, 24, 1–24.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Falchikov, N., & Boud, D. (1989). Student self-assessment in higher education: A meta-analysis. Review of Educational Research, 59(4), 395–430.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Fowler, J. (2008). Experiential learning and its facilitation. Nurse Education Today, 28, 427–433.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Garrison, D. R. (1997). Self-directed learning: Towards a comprehensive model. Adult Education Quarterly, 48(1), 18–33.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Gerjets, P., Scheiter, S., & Schuh, J. (2005). Instruktionale Unterstützung beim Fertigkeitserwerb aus Beispielen in hypertextbasierten Lernumgebungen [Instructional Support for Skill Acquisition from Examples in Hypermedia-Based Learning Environments]. Zeitschrift für Pädagogische Psychologie, 19, 23–38.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Hattie, J. A., & Timperley, H. (2007). The power of feedback. Review of Educational Research, 77(1), 81–112.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • *Hill, J. R. (2006). Flexible learning environments: Leveraging the affordances of flexible delivery and flexible learning. Innovative Higher Education, 31, 187–197.

    Google Scholar 

  • Holme, R., & Chalauisaeng, B. (2006). The learner as needs analyst: The use of participatory appraisal in the EAP reading classroom. English for Specific Purposes, 25, 403–419.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Jossberger, H., Brand-Gruwel, S., Van de Wiel, M., & Boshuizen, H. P. A. (2010). The challenge of self-directed and self-regulated learning in vocational education: A theoretical analysis and synthesis of requirements. Journal of Vocational Education and Training, 62, 415–440.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Katz, I., & Assor, A. (2007). When choice motivates and when it does not. Educational Psychological Review, 19(4), 429–442.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Kaufman, A. S., & Lichtenberger, E. (2006). Assessing Adolescent and Adult Intelligence (3rd ed.). Hoboken (NJ): Wiley.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Kicken, W., Brand-Gruwel, S., & Van Merriënboer, J. J. G. (2008). Scaffolding advice on task selection: A safe path toward self-directed learning in on-demand education. Journal of Vocational Education and Training, 60, 223–239.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • *Kicken, W., Brand-Gruwel, S., Van Merriënboer, J. J. G., & Slot, W. (2009). The effects of portfolio-based advice on the development of self-directed learning skills in secondary vocational education. Educational, Technology, Research & Development, 57, 439–460.

    Google Scholar 

  • Knowles, M. S. (1975). Self-directed learning. Chicago, IL: Follett Publishing Company.

    Google Scholar 

  • Kramarski, B., & Gutman, M. (2006). How can self-regulated learning be supported in mathematical E-learning environments? Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 22, 24–33.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Land, S. M., & Greene, B. A. (2000). Project-based learning with the World Wide Web: A qualitative study of resource integration. Educational Technology Research and Development, 48(1), 45–68.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Levett-Jones, T. L. (2005). Self-directed learning: Implications and limitations for undergraduate nursing education. Nurse Education Today, 25, 363–368.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Lin, X., & Lehman, J. D. (1999). Supporting learning of variable control in a computer-based biology environment: Effects of prompting college students to reflect on their own thinking. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 36, 837–858.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • *Loyens, S. M. M., Magda, J., & Rikers, M. J. P. (2008). Self-directed learning in problem-based learning and its relationships with self-regulated learning. Educational Psychology Review, 20(4), 411–427.

    Google Scholar 

  • Mansvelder-Longayroux, D., Beijaard, D., & Verloop, N. (2007). The portfolio as a tool for stimulating reflection by student teachers. Teaching and Teacher Education, 23, 47–62.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Nadolski, R. J., Kirschner, P. A., & Van Merriënboer, J. J. G. (2006). Process support in learning tasks for acquiring complex cognitive skills in the domain of law. Learning and Instruction, 16, 266–278.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Perkins, D., & Salomon, G. (1987). Transfer and teaching thinking. In D. N. Perkins, J. Lochhead, & J. Bishop (Eds.), Thinking: The second international conference (pp. 285–303). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Pintrich, P. R. (2003). A motivational science perspective on the role of student motivation in learning and teaching contexts. Journal of Educational Psychology, 95(4), 667–686.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Schmidt, A. M., & Ford, J. K. (2003). Learning within a learner control training environment: The interactive effects of goal orientation and metacognitive instruction on learning outcomes. Personnel Psychology, 56, 405–429.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Stadtler, M., & Bromme, R. (2008). Effects of the metacognitive tool met.a.ware on the web search of laypersons. Computers in Human Behavior, 24, 716–737.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Taminiau, E. M. C., Kester, L., Corbalan, G., Van Merriënboer, J. J. G., & Kirschner, P. A. (2010, July). Procedural advice on self-assessment and task selection in learner-controlled education. Paper presented at the Junior Researchers of EARLI Conference 2010, Frankfurt, Germany.

    Google Scholar 

  • *Tennyson, R. D. (1980). Instructional control strategies and content structures as design variables in concept acquisition using computer-based instruction. Journal of Educational Psychology, 72(4), 525–532.

    Google Scholar 

  • Tennyson, R. D., & Buttery, T. (1980). Advisement and management strategies as design variables in computer-assisted instruction. Educational Communication and Technology Journal, 28(3), 169–176.

    Google Scholar 

  • Tough, A. (1979). The adult’s learning projects (2nd Ed.) Austin, TX: Learning Concepts.

    Google Scholar 

  • Van Hout-Wolters, B. H. A. M., Simons, P. R. J., & Volet, S. E. (2000). Active learning: Self-directed learning and independent work. In P. R. J. Simons, J. van der Linden, & T. Duffy (Eds.), New learning (pp. 21–36). Dordrecht: Kluwer.

    Google Scholar 

  • Van Meeuwen, L., Brand-Gruwel, S., Kirschner, P., de Bock, J., & van Merriënboer, J. J. G. (2010, September). Self-directed learning skills in air-traffic control training: An eye-tracking approach. Paper presented at the 29th European Association for Aviation Psychology (EAAP). Budapest, Hungary.

    Google Scholar 

  • *Van Merriënboer, J. J. G. (1997). Training complex cognitive skills: A four-component instructional design model for technical training. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Educational Technology Publications.

    Google Scholar 

  • Veenman, M. V., Elshout, J. J., & Busato, V. V. (1994). Metacognitive mediation in learning with computer-based simulations. Computers in Human Behavior, 10, 93–106.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Veenman, M. V. J., Van Hout-Wolter, B. H. A. M., & Afflerbach, P. (2006). Metacognition and learning: Conceptual and methodological considerations. Metacognition and Learning, 1, 3–14.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Vandewaetere, M., Desmet, P., & Clarebout, G. (2011). The contribution of learner characteristics in the development of computer-based adaptive learning environments. Computers in Human Behavior, 27, 118–130.

    Google Scholar 

  • Williams, M. D. (1996). Learner-control and instructional technologies. In D. H. Jonassen (Ed.), Handbook of research for educational communications and technology (pp. 957–982). New York, NY: Simon & Schuster Macmillan.

    Google Scholar 

  • Winne, P. H., & Butler, D. L. (1994). Student cognitive processing and learning. In T. Husen & T. N. Postelthwaite (Eds.), The international encyclopedia of education (2nd ed., pp. 5739–5745). Oxford: Pergamon.

    Google Scholar 

  • Wopereis, I., Brand-Gruwel, S., & Vermetten, Y. (2008). The effect of embedded instruction on solving information problems. Computers in Human Behavior, 24, 738–752.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Zeichner, K., & Wray, S. (2001). The teaching portfolio in U.S. teacher education programs: What we know and what we need to know. Teaching and Teacher Education, 17, 613–621.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Zimmerman, B. J. (1989). A social cognitive view of self-regulated academic learning. Journal of Educational Psychology, 81, 329–339.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Zimmerman, B. J. (2000). Attaining self-regulation. A social cognitive perspective. In M. Boekaerts, P. R. Pintrich, & M. Zeidner (Eds.), Handbook of self-regulation (pp. 13–39). San Diego, CA: Academic.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Zimmerman, B. J. (2002). Becoming a self-regulated learner: An overview. Theory into Practice, 41(2), 64–70.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • *Zimmerman, B. J. (2006). Development and adaptation of expertise: The role of self-regulatory processes and beliefs. In K. A. Ericsson, N. Charness, P. J. Feltovich, & R. R. Hoffman (Eds.), The Cambridge handbook of expertise and expert performance (pp. 683–703). New York: Cambridge University Press.

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Saskia Brand-Gruwel Ph.D. .

Editor information

Editors and Affiliations

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

Copyright information

© 2014 Springer Science+Business Media New York

About this chapter

Cite this chapter

Brand-Gruwel, S., Kester, L., Kicken, W., Kirschner, P.A. (2014). Learning Ability Development in Flexible Learning Environments. In: Spector, J., Merrill, M., Elen, J., Bishop, M. (eds) Handbook of Research on Educational Communications and Technology. Springer, New York, NY. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-3185-5_29

Download citation