Advertisement

Historical Perspective of African-Based Research on HIV-1 Transmission Through Breastfeeding: The Malawi Experience

  • Taha E. Taha
Chapter
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 743)

Abstract

Transmission of HIV-1 from the mother to the infant postnatally through breastfeeding remains an important concern in sub-Saharan Africa where breastfeeding is widely practiced. African women continue to breastfeed despite the risk of transmitting HIV to their infants for several reasons [1]: (a) breastfeeding is encouraged by family members and has been culturally adopted by generations of postpartum women; (b) not breastfeeding raises suspicion in the community about the HIV status of the woman and could potentially lead to discrimination; (c) breastfeeding is the most important nutritional source for the growing child; (d) breastfeeding is readily available and convenient for the mother to provide the infant whenever needed; and (e) in several African settings, substitutes of breast milk are either expensive or not safe to use due to lack of safe water to prepare these substitutes and vehicles for feeding the infant can easily become contaminated. Additionally, strong global evidence exists showing that breastfeeding protects against diarrheal and upper respiratory diseases of the infant [2–4]. Biologically, breast milk is known to contain several well-documented protective factors [5–7]. In a pooled analysis of data from multiple countries, the protective effects of breastfeeding were greatest during early infancy and declined with increasing age: the risk of death associated with infectious diseases among infants not breastfed compared to breastfed was 5.8 times higher during the first month, 4.1 times higher during 2–3 months, 2.6 times higher during 4–5 months, 1.8 times higher during 6–8 months, and 1.4 times higher during 9–11 months of age [8].

Keywords

Bacterial Vaginosis Subclinical Mastitis Perinatal Transmission Birth Canal Postexposure Prophylaxis 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. 1.
    Bulterys M, Fowler MG, Van Rompay KK, Kourtis AP (2004) Prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1 through breast-feeding: past, present, and future. J Infect Dis 189(12):2149–2153PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Habicht JP, DaVanzo J, Butz WP (1986) Does breastfeeding really save lives, or are apparent benefits due to biases? Am J Epidemiol 123(2):279–290PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Arifeen S, Black RE, Antelman G, Baqui A, Caulfield L, Becker S (2001) Exclusive breastfeeding reduces acute respiratory infection and diarrhea deaths among infants in Dhaka slums. Pediatrics 108(4):E67PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Wright AL, Bauer M, Naylor A, Sutcliffe E, Clark L (1998) Increasing breastfeeding rates to reduce infant illness at the community level. Pediatrics 101(5):837–844PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Pelto GH, Zhang Y, Habicht JP (2010) Premastication: the second arm of infant and young child feeding for health and survival? Matern Child Nutr 6(1):4–18PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Goldman AS (1993) The immune system of human milk: antimicrobial, antiinflammatory and immunomodulating properties. Pediatr Infect Dis J 12(8):664–671PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Goldman AS, Garza C, Nichols BL, Goldblum RM (1982) Immunologic factors in human milk during the first year of lactation. J Pediatr 100(4):563–567PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    (2000) Effect of breastfeeding on infant and child mortality due to infectious diseases in less developed countries: a pooled analysis. WHO collaborative study team on the role of breastfeeding on the prevention of infant mortality. Lancet 355(9202):451–455Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    UNAIDS (2010) AIDS epidemic update 2010. [Link to PDF]: UNAIDS World Health Organization. http://www.unaids.org/globalreport/Global_report.htm. Accessed 16 Dec 2010
  10. 10.
    Abdool Karim Q, Abdool Karim SS, Frohlich JA, Grobler AC, Baxter C, Mansoor LE et al (2010) Effectiveness and safety of tenofovir gel, an antiretroviral microbicide, for the prevention of HIV infection in women. Science 329(5996):1168–1174PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Abdool Karim SS, Richardson BA, Ramjee G, Hoffman IF, Chirenje ZM, Taha T et al (2011) Safety and effectiveness of BufferGel and 0.5% PRO2000 gel for the prevention of HIV infection in women. AIDS 25(7):957–966PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Malawi Demographic and Health Survey 2010, Preliminary Report. Zomba, Malawi: Demography and Social Statistics Division (DDS). National Statistical Office, Chimbiya Road. P.O. Box 333, Zomba, Malawi 2010 February 2011Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Malawi HIV and AIDS monitoring and evaluation report. 2008. http://data.unaids.org/pub/Report/2008/malawi_2008_country_progress_report_en.pdf. Accessed 2 May 2011
  14. 14.
    Taha TE, Li Q, Hoover DR, Mipando L, Nkanaunena K, Thigpen MC et al (2011) Post-exposure prophylaxis of breastfeeding HIV-exposed Infants with antiretroviral drugs to age 14 weeks: updated efficacy results of the PEPI-Malawi trial. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 57(4):319–325Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Taha TE, Dallabetta GA, Canner JK, Chiphangwi JD, Liomba G, Hoover DR et al (1995) The effect of human immunodeficiency virus infection on birthweight, and infant and child mortality in urban Malawi. Int J Epidemiol 24(5):1022–1029PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Taha TE, Dallabetta GA, Hoover DR, Chiphangwi JD, Mtimavalye LA, Liomba GN et al (1998) Trends of HIV-1 and sexually transmitted diseases among pregnant and postpartum women in urban Malawi. AIDS 12(2):197–203PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Miotti PG, Dallabetta GA, Chiphangwi JD, Liomba G, Saah AJ (1992) A retrospective study of childhood mortality and spontaneous abortion in HIV-1 infected women in urban Malawi. Int J Epidemiol 21(4):792–799 [Research Support, U.S. Gov’t, P.H.S.]PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Taha TE, Canner JK, Chiphangwi JD, Dallabetta GA, Yang LP, Mtimavalye LA et al (1996) Reported condom use is not associated with incidence of sexually transmitted diseases in Malawi. AIDS 10(2):207–212PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Dabis F, Msellati P, Dunn D, Lepage P, Newell ML, Peckham C et al (1993) Estimating the rate of mother-to-child transmission of HIV. Report of a workshop on methodological issues Ghent (Belgium), 17–20 Feb 1992. The Working Group on Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV. AIDS 7(8):1139–1148PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    De Cock KM, Fowler MG, Mercier E, de Vincenzi I, Saba J, Hoff E et al (2000) Prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission in resource-poor countries: translating research into policy and practice. JAMA 283(9):1175–1182PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Nduati R, John G, Mbori-Ngacha D, Richardson B, Overbaugh J, Mwatha A et al (2000) Effect of breastfeeding and formula feeding on transmission of HIV-1: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA 283(9):1167–1174PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Connor EM, Sperling RS, Gelber R, Kiselev P, Scott G, O’Sullivan MJ et al (1994) Reduction of maternal-infant transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 with zidovudine treatment. Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group Protocol 076 Study Group. N Engl J Med 331(18):1173–1180PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Semba RD, Miotti PG, Chiphangwi JD, Saah AJ, Canner JK, Dallabetta GA et al (1994) Maternal vitamin A deficiency and mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1. Lancet 343(8913):1593–1597PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Taha TE, Hoover DR, Dallabetta GA, Kumwenda NI, Mtimavalye LA, Yang LP et al (1998) Bacterial vaginosis and disturbances of vaginal flora: association with increased acquisition of HIV. AIDS 12(13):1699–1706PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Taha TE, Gray RH, Kumwenda NI, Hoover DR, Mtimavalye LA, Liomba GN et al (1999) HIV infection and disturbances of vaginal flora during pregnancy. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr Hum Retrovirol 20(1):52–59PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Taha TE, Gray RH (2000) Genital tract infections and perinatal transmission of HIV. Ann N Y Acad Sci 918:84–98PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Grosskurth H, Mosha F, Todd J, Mwijarubi E, Klokke A, Senkoro K et al (1995) Impact of improved treatment of sexually transmitted diseases on HIV infection in rural Tanzania: randomised controlled trial. Lancet 346(8974):530–536PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    WHO (2001) New data on the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV and their policy implications: conclusions and recommendations: WHO Technical consultation on behalf of the UNFPA/UNICEF/WHO/UNAIDS Inter-Agency Task Team on Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV, Geneva, 11–13 Oct 2000: Geneva: World Health Organization, 2001. http://whqlibdoc.who.int/hq/2001/WHO_RHR_01.28.pdf
  29. 29.
    Goedert JJ, Duliege AM, Amos CI, Felton S, Biggar RJ (1991) High risk of HIV-1 infection for first-born twins. The International Registry of HIV-Exposed Twins. Lancet 338(8781):1471–1475PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Duliege AM, Amos CI, Felton S, Biggar RJ, Goedert JJ (1995) Birth order, delivery route, and concordance in the transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 from mothers to twins. International Registry of HIV-Exposed Twins. J Pediatr 126(4):625–632PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Biggar RJ, Miotti PG, Taha TE, Mtimavalye L, Broadhead R, Justesen A et al (1996) Perinatal intervention trial in Africa: effect of a birth canal cleansing intervention to prevent HIV transmission. Lancet 347(9016):1647–1650PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Taha TE, Biggar RJ, Broadhead RL, Mtimavalye LA, Justesen AB, Liomba GN et al (1997) Effect of cleansing the birth canal with antiseptic solution on maternal and newborn morbidity and mortality in Malawi: clinical trial. BMJ 315(7102):216–219PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Kumwenda N, Miotti PG, Taha TE, Broadhead R, Biggar RJ, Jackson JB et al (2002) Antenatal vitamin A supplementation increases birth weight and decreases anemia among infants born to human immunodeficiency virus-infected women in Malawi. Clin Infect Dis 35(5):618–624PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Gray GE, Urban M, Chersich MF, Bolton C, van Niekerk R, Violari A et al (2005) A randomized trial of two postexposure prophylaxis regimens to reduce mother-to-child HIV-1 transmission in infants of untreated mothers. AIDS 19(12):1289–1297PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Miotti PG, Taha TE, Kumwenda NI, Broadhead R, Mtimavalye LA, Van der Hoeven L et al (1999) HIV transmission through breastfeeding: a study in Malawi. JAMA 282(8):744–749 [Research Support, U.S. Gov’t, P.H.S.]PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Semba RD, Kumwenda N, Hoover DR, Taha TE, Quinn TC, Mtimavalye L et al (1999) Human immunodeficiency virus load in breast milk, mastitis, and mother-to-child transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1. J Infect Dis 180(1):93–98 [Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov’t Research Support, U.S. Gov’t, P.H.S.]PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Nussenblatt V, Kumwenda N, Lema V, Quinn T, Neville MC, Broadhead R et al (2006) Effect of antibiotic treatment of subclinical mastitis on human immunodeficiency virus type 1 RNA in human milk. J Trop Pediatr 52(5):311–315PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Nussenblatt V, Lema V, Kumwenda N, Broadhead R, Neville MC, Taha TE et al (2005) Epidemiology and microbiology of subclinical mastitis among HIV-infected women in Malawi. Int J STD AIDS 16(3):227–232PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Guay LA, Musoke P, Fleming T, Bagenda D, Allen M, Nakabiito C et al (1999) Intrapartum and neonatal single-dose nevirapine compared with zidovudine for prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1 in Kampala, Uganda: HIVNET 012 randomised trial. Lancet 354(9181):795–802PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Taha TE, Brown ER, Hoffman IF, Fawzi W, Read JS, Sinkala M et al (2006) A phase III clinical trial of antibiotics to reduce chorioamnionitis-related perinatal HIV-1 transmission. AIDS 20(9):1313–1321PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Taha TE, Kumwenda NI, Gibbons A, Broadhead RL, Fiscus S, Lema V et al (2003) Short postexposure prophylaxis in newborn babies to reduce mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1: NVAZ randomised clinical trial. Lancet 362(9391):1171–1177PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Taha TE, Kumwenda NI, Hoover DR, Fiscus SA, Kafulafula G, Nkhoma C et al (2004) Nevirapine and zidovudine at birth to reduce perinatal transmission of HIV in an African setting: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 292(2):202–209PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    WHO (2009) HIV and infant feeding revised principles and recommendations. Rapid advice. World Health Organization. http://www.searo.who.int/linkfiles/HIV-AIDS_rapid_advice_infant_feeding(web).pdf. Accessed 21 Dec 2010
  44. 44.
    Kafulafula G, Hoover DR, Taha TE, Thigpen M, Li Q, Fowler MG et al (2010) Frequency of gastroenteritis and gastroenteritis-associated mortality with early weaning in HIV-1-uninfected children born to HIV-infected women in Malawi. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 53(1):6–13PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Onyango-Makumbi C, Bagenda D, Mwatha A, Omer SB, Musoke P, Mmiro F et al (2010) Early weaning of HIV-exposed uninfected infants and risk of serious gastroenteritis: findings from two perinatal HIV prevention trials in Kampala, Uganda. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 53(1):20–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Homsy J, Moore D, Barasa A, Were W, Likicho C, Waiswa B et al (2010) Breastfeeding, mother-to-child HIV transmission, and mortality among infants born to HIV-Infected women on highly active antiretroviral therapy in rural Uganda. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 53(1):28–35PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Creek TL, Kim A, Lu L, Bowen A, Masunge J, Arvelo W et al (2010) Hospitalization and mortality among primarily nonbreastfed children during a large outbreak of diarrhea and malnutrition in Botswana, 2006. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 53(1):14–19PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Kumwenda NI, Hoover DR, Mofenson LM, Thigpen MC, Kafulafula G, Li Q et al (2008) Extended antiretroviral prophylaxis to reduce breast-milk HIV-1 transmission. N Engl J Med 359(2):119–129PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Taha TE, Kumwenda J, Cole SR, Hoover DR, Kafulafula G, Fowler MG et al (2009) Postnatal HIV-1 transmission after cessation of infant extended antiretroviral prophylaxis and effect of maternal highly active antiretroviral therapy. J Infect Dis 200(10):1490–1497PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Eshleman SH, Hoover DR, Chen S, Hudelson SE, Guay LA, Mwatha A et al (2005) Resistance after single-dose nevirapine prophylaxis emerges in a high proportion of Malawian newborns. AIDS 19(18):2167–2169PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Eshleman SH, Hoover DR, Chen S, Hudelson SE, Guay LA, Mwatha A et al (2005) Nevirapine (NVP) resistance in women with HIV-1 subtype C, compared with subtypes A and D, after the administration of single-dose NVP. J Infect Dis 192(1):30–36PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Eshleman SH, Hoover DR, Hudelson SE, Chen S, Fiscus SA, Piwowar-Manning E et al (2006) Development of nevirapine resistance in infants is reduced by use of infant-only single-dose nevirapine plus zidovudine postexposure prophylaxis for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1. J Infect Dis 193(4):479–481PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Lidstrom J, Li Q, Hoover DR, Kafulafula G, Mofenson LM, Fowler MG et al (2010) Addition of extended zidovudine to extended nevirapine prophylaxis reduces nevirapine resistance in infants who were HIV-infected in utero. AIDS 24(3):381–386PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Fogel J, Li Q, Taha TE, Hoover DR, Kumwenda NI, Mofenson LM et al (2011) Initiation of antiretroviral treatment in women after delivery can induce multiclass drug resistance in breastfeeding HIV-infected infants. Clin Infect Dis 52(8):1069–1076PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Stringer EM, Ekouevi DK, Coetzee D, Tih PM, Creek TL, Stinson K et al (2010) Coverage of nevirapine-based services to prevent mother-to-child HIV transmission in 4 African countries. JAMA 304(3):293–302 [Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov’t Research Support, U.S. Gov’t, P.H.S.]PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Palumbo P, Lindsey JC, Hughes MD, Cotton MF, Bobat R, Meyers T et al (2010) Antiretroviral treatment for children with peripartum nevirapine exposure. N Engl J Med 363(16):1510–1520 [Multicenter Study Randomized Controlled Trial Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural]PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Chasela CS, Hudgens MG, Jamieson DJ, Kayira D, Hosseinipour MC, Kourtis AP et al (2010) Maternal or infant antiretroviral drugs to reduce HIV-1 transmission. N Engl J Med 362(24):2271–2281PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Shapiro RL, Hughes MD, Ogwu A, Kitch D, Lockman S, Moffat C et al (2010) Antiretroviral regimens in pregnancy and breast-feeding in Botswana. N Engl J Med 362(24):2282–2294PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    WHO (2009) World Health Organization, New recommendations: preventing mother-to-child transmission. World Health Organization. http://www.who.int/hiv/pub/mtct/mtct_key_mess.pdf
  60. 60.
    Mtimavalye L, Biggar RJ, Taha TE, Chiphangwi J (1995) Maternal-infant transmission of HIV-1. N Engl J Med 332(13):890–891 [Comment Letter]PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Biggar RJ, Mtimavalye L, Justesen A, Broadhead R, Miley W, Waters D et al (1997) Does umbilical cord blood polymerase chain reaction positivity indicate in utero (pre-labor) HIV infection? AIDS 11(11):1375–1382 [Research Support, U.S. Gov’t, P.H.S.]PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Biggar RJ, Miley W, Miotti P, Taha TE, Butcher A, Spadoro J et al (1997) Blood collection on filter paper: a practical approach to sample collection for studies of perinatal HIV transmission. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 14(4):368–373 [Clinical Trial]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Ioannidis JP, Taha TE, Kumwenda N, Broadhead R, Mtimavalye L, Miotti P et al (1999) Predictors and impact of losses to follow-up in an HIV-1 perinatal transmission cohort in Malawi. Int J Epidemiol 28(4):769–775 [Clinical Trial]PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Semba RD, Kumwenda N, Taha TE, Hoover DR, Quinn TC, Lan Y et al (1999) Mastitis and immunological factors in breast milk of human immunodeficiency virus-infected women. J Hum Lact 15(4):301–306 [Research Support, U.S. Gov’t, Non-P.H.S. Research Support, U.S. Gov’t, P.H.S.]PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Semba RD, Kumwenda N, Taha TE, Hoover DR, Lan Y, Eisinger W et al (1999) Mastitis and immunological factors in breast milk of lactating women in Malawi. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 6(5):671–674 [Research Support, U.S. Gov’t, Non-P.H.S. Research Support, U.S. Gov’t, P.H.S.]PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Lan Y, Kumwenda N, Taha TE, Chiphangwi JD, Miotti PG, Mtimavalye L et al (1999) Carotenoid status of pregnant women with and without HIV infection in Malawi. East Afr Med J 76(3):133–137 [Comparative Study Research Support, U.S. Gov’t, Non-P.H.S. Research Support, U.S. Gov’t, P.H.S.]PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Semba RD, Kumwenda N, Taha TE, Mtimavalye L, Broadhead R, Miotti PG et al (2000) Plasma and breast milk vitamin A as indicators of vitamin A status in pregnant women. Int J Vitam Nutr Res 70(6):271–277 [Clinical Trial Controlled Clinical Trial Research Support, U.S. Gov’t, Non-P.H.S. Research Support, U.S. Gov’t, P.H.S.]PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Semba RD, Kumwenda N, Hoover DR, Taha TE, Mtimavalye L, Broadhead R et al (2000) Assessment of iron status using plasma transferrin receptor in pregnant women with and without human immunodeficiency virus infection in Malawi. Eur J Clin Nutr 54(12):872–877 [Comparative Study Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov’t Research Support, U.S. Gov’t, P.H.S.]PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Semba RD, Taha TE, Kumwenda N, Mtimavalye L, Broadhead R, Miotti PG et al (2001) Iron status and indicators of human immunodeficiency virus disease severity among pregnant women in Malawi. Clin Infect Dis 32(10):1496–1499 [Research Support, U.S. Gov’t, Non-P.H.S. Research Support, U.S. Gov’t, P.H.S.]PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Semba RD, Kumwenda N, Taha TE, Mtimavalye L, Broadhead R, Garrett E et al (2001) Impact of vitamin A supplementation on anaemia and plasma erythropoietin concentrations in pregnant women: a controlled clinical trial. Eur J Haematol 66(6):389–395 [Clinical Trial Randomized Controlled Trial Research Support, U.S. Gov’t, Non-P.H.S. Research Support, U.S. Gov’t, P.H.S.]PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Taha TE, Graham SM, Kumwenda NI, Broadhead RL, Hoover DR, Markakis D et al (2000) Morbidity among human immunodeficiency virus-1-infected and -uninfected African children. Pediatrics 106(6):E77PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Miotti PG, Taha TET, Kumwenda NI, Van der Hoeven L, Broadhead R, Mtimavalye LAR et al (2000) Risk of HIV transmission through breastfeeding – reply. JAMA 283(8):999–1000CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Dancheck B, Nussenblatt V, Ricks MO, Kumwenda N, Neville MC, Moncrief DT et al (2005) Breast milk retinol concentrations are not associated with systemic inflammation among breast-feeding women in Malawi. J Nutr 135(2):223–226PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Dancheck B, Nussenblatt V, Kumwenda N, Lema V, Neville MC, Broadhead R et al (2005) Status of carotenoids, vitamin A, and vitamin E in the mother-infant dyad and anthropometric status of infants in Malawi. J Health Popul Nutr 23(4):343–350 [Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural]PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Aboud S, Msamanga G, Read JS, Mwatha A, Chen YQ, Potter D et al (2008) Genital tract infections among HIV-infected pregnant women in Malawi, Tanzania and Zambia. Int J STD AIDS 19(12):824–832 [Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov’t]PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Aboud S, Msamanga G, Read JS, Wang L, Mfalila C, Sharma U et al (2009) Effect of prenatal and perinatal antibiotics on maternal health in Malawi, Tanzania, and Zambia. Int J Gynaecol Obstet 107(3):202–207 [Clinical Trial, Phase III Multicenter Study Randomized Controlled Trial Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural]PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Brown E, Chi BH, Read JS, Taha TE, Sharma U, Hoffman IF et al (2008) Determining an optimal testing strategy for infants at risk for mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1 during the late postnatal period. AIDS 22(17):2341–2346 [Multicenter Study Randomized Controlled Trial Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov’t]PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Chasela C, Chen YQ, Fiscus S, Hoffman I, Young A, Valentine M et al (2008) Risk factors for late postnatal transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in sub-Saharan Africa. Pediatr Infect Dis J 27(3):251–256 [Clinical Trial, Phase III Randomized Controlled Trial Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov’t]PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Chi BH, Wang L, Read JS, Sheriff M, Fiscus S, Brown ER et al (2005) Timing of maternal and neonatal dosing of nevirapine and the risk of mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1: HIVNET 024. AIDS 19(16):1857–1864 [Comparative Study Multicenter Study Randomized Controlled Trial Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov’t]PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Chi BH, Wang L, Read JS, Taha TE, Sinkala M, Brown ER et al (2007) Predictors of stillbirth in sub-saharan Africa. Obstet Gynecol 110(5):989–997 [Comment Randomized Controlled Trial Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov’t]PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Chilongozi D, Wang L, Brown L, Taha T, Valentine M, Emel L et al (2008) Morbidity and mortality among a cohort of human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected and uninfected pregnant women and their infants from Malawi, Zambia, and Tanzania. Pediatr Infect Dis J 27(9):808–814 [Randomized Controlled Trial Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov’t]PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Goldenberg RL, Andrews WW, Hoffman I, Fawzi W, Valentine M, Young A et al (2007) Fetal fibronectin and adverse infant outcomes in a predominantly human immunodeficiency virus-infected African population: a randomized controlled trial. Obstet Gynecol 109(2 Pt 1):392–401 [Clinical Trial, Phase III Multicenter Study Randomized Controlled Trial Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov’t]PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Goldenberg RL, Mudenda V, Read JS, Brown ER, Sinkala M, Kamiza S et al (2006) HPTN 024 study: histologic chorioamnionitis, antibiotics and adverse infant outcomes in a predominantly HIV-1-infected African population. Am J Obstet Gynecol 195(4):1065–1074 [Randomized Controlled Trial Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov’t]PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Goldenberg RL, Mwatha A, Read JS, Adeniyi-Jones S, Sinkala M, Msmanga G et al (2006) The HPTN 024 study: the efficacy of antibiotics to prevent chorioamnionitis and preterm birth. Am J Obstet Gynecol 194(3):650–661 [Clinical Trial, Phase III Randomized Controlled Trial Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov’t]PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Kafulafula G, Mwatha A, Chen YQ, Aboud S, Martinson F, Hoffman I et al (2009) Intrapartum antibiotic exposure and early neonatal, morbidity, and mortality in Africa. Pediatrics 124(1):e137–e144 [Randomized Controlled Trial Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov’t]PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Mehta S, Manji KP, Young AM, Brown ER, Chasela C, Taha TE et al (2008) Nutritional indicators of adverse pregnancy outcomes and mother-to-child transmission of HIV among HIV-infected women. Am J Clin Nutr 87(6):1639–1649 [Multicenter Study Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov’t]PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Msamanga GI, Taha TE, Young AM, Brown ER, Hoffman IF, Read JS et al (2009) Placental malaria and mother-to-child transmission of human immunodeficiency virus-1. Am J Trop Med Hyg 80(4):508–515 [Clinical Trial, Phase III Randomized Controlled Trial Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov’t]PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Nelson JA, Loftis AM, Kamwendo D, Fawzi WW, Taha TE, Goldenberg RL et al (2009) Nevirapine resistance in human immunodeficiency virus type 1-positive infants determined using dried blood spots stored for up to six years at room temperature. J Clin Microbiol 47(4):1209–1211 [Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov’t]PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Read JS, Mwatha A, Richardson B, Valentine M, Emel L, Manji K et al (2009) Primary HIV-1 infection among infants in sub-Saharan Africa: HPTN 024. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 51(3):317–322 [Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural]PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Taha TE, Kumwenda N, Gibbons A, Hoover D, Lema V, Fiscus S et al (2002) Effect of HIV-1 antiretroviral prophylaxis on hepatic and hematological parameters of African infants. AIDS 16(6):851–858 [Clinical Trial Randomized Controlled Trial Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov’t Research Support, U.S. Gov’t, P.H.S.]PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Taha TE, Kumwenda N, Kafulafula G, Kumwenda J, Chitale R, Nkhoma C et al (2004) Haematological changes in African children who received short-term prophylaxis with nevirapine and zidovudine at birth. Ann Trop Paediatr 24(4):301–309 [Clinical Trial Multicenter Study Randomized Controlled Trial Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov’t Research Support, U.S. Gov’t, P.H.S.]PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Taha TE, Nour S, Kumwenda NI, Broadhead RL, Fiscus SA, Kafulafula G et al (2005) Gender differences in perinatal HIV acquisition among African infants. Pediatrics 115(2):e167–e172 [Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov’t Research Support, U.S. Gov’t, P.H.S.]PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Fiscus SA, Chen S, Hoover D, Kerkau MG, Alabanza P, Siharath S et al (2005) Affordable, abbreviated roche monitor assay for quantification of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 RNA in plasma. J Clin Microbiol 43(8):4200–4202 [Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov’t Research Support, U.S. Gov’t, Non-P.H.S. Research Support, U.S. Gov’t, P.H.S.]PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Taha TE, Kumwenda NI, Hoover DR, Kafulafula G, Fiscus SA, Nkhoma C et al (2006) The impact of breastfeeding on the health of HIV-positive mothers and their children in sub-Saharan Africa. Bull World Health Organ 84(7):546–554 [Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov’t]PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Eshleman SH, Lie Y, Hoover DR, Chen S, Hudelson SE, Fiscus SA et al (2006) Association between the replication capacity and mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1, in antiretroviral drug-naive Malawian women. J Infect Dis 193(11):1512–1515PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Church JD, Jones D, Flys T, Hoover D, Marlowe N, Chen S et al (2006) Sensitivity of the ViroSeq HIV-1 genotyping system for detection of the K103N resistance mutation in HIV-1 subtypes A, C, and D. JMD [Comparative Study Evaluation Studies Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov’t Research Support, U.S. Gov’t, Non-P.H.S.] 8(4):430–432, quiz 527Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    Flys TS, Chen S, Jones DC, Hoover DR, Church JD, Fiscus SA et al (2006) Quantitative analysis of HIV-1 variants with the K103N resistance mutation after single-dose nevirapine in women with HIV-1 subtypes A, C, and D. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 42(5):610–613 [Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov’t Research Support, U.S. Gov’t, Non-P.H.S.]PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Taha TE, Hoover DR, Kumwenda NI, Fiscus SA, Kafulafula G, Nkhoma C et al (2007) Late postnatal transmission of HIV-1 and associated factors. J Infect Dis 196(1):10–14 [Randomized Controlled Trial Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov’t]PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Church JD, Hudelson SE, Guay LA, Chen S, Hoover DR, Parkin N et al (2007) HIV type 1 variants with nevirapine resistance mutations are rarely detected in antiretroviral drug-naive African women with subtypes A, C, and D. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 23(6):764–768 [Clinical Trial Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov’t Research Support, U.S. Gov’t, Non-P.H.S.]PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Church JD, Towler WI, Hoover DR, Hudelson SE, Kumwenda N, Taha TE et al (2008) Comparison of LigAmp and an ASPCR assay for detection and quantification of K103N-containing HIV variants. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 24(4):595–605 [Comparative Study Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov’t]PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Taha TE, Kumwenda N, Kafulafula G (2008) Antiretroviral prophylaxis to reduce breast-milk HIV-1 transmission – reply. N Engl J Med 359(17):1846–1847Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Epidemiology, Bloomberg School of Public HealthJohns Hopkins UniversityBaltimoreUSA

Personalised recommendations