Source Remediation Challenges

  • L. M. Abriola
  • J. A. Christ
  • K. D. Pennell
  • C. A. Ramsburg
Part of the SERDP ESTCP Environmental Remediation Technology book series (SERDP/ESTCP, volume 4)


This chapter provides an overview of the challenges that impede successful remediation of chlorinated solvent source zones and recent advances in our ability to meet these challenges. The distribution (architecture) of DNAPL mass in these zones tends to be highly irregular, divided between ganglia and pools. Section 2 describes source zone architecture parameters or ‘metrics’ that may be used to describe DNAPL mass distribution characteristics that are associated with downgradient plume response, as well as efforts designed to predict and characterize DNAPL mass distribution. It is now generally understood that local groundwater concentrations can vary dramatically within a source zone region. Thus, increased attention is being focused on the quantification of mass flux as an alternative remedial endpoint. Section 3 presents an overview of recent research directed towards quantifying the relationship between DNAPL architecture and mass flux and developing tools for mass flux quantification and uncertainty analysis. To effectively design and implement in situ remediation technologies, it is essential that the overall extent, accessibility, composition, and spatial distribution of the DNAPL source zone is known. Detailed source zone characterization and real time monitoring can provide necessary data for targeted delivery of remedial agents, thereby minimizing costs and improving mass recovery. Section 4 explores the possible benefits of partial mass removal and the potential for using combined remedies to more effectively address DNAPL source zone management.


Mass Flux Source Zone Mass Discharge Capture Zone Mass Removal 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



This review was sponsored by the Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP) under contracts ER-1293 and ER-1612. The content of this publication has not been subject to agency review and does not necessarily represent the views of the agency sponsor.


  1. Abriola LM, Drummond CD, Hahn EJ, Hayes KF, Kibbey TCG, Lemke LD, Pennell KD, Petrovskis EA, Ramsburg CA, Rathfelder KM. 2005. A pilot-scale demonstration of surfactant-enhanced PCE solubilization at the Bachman Road site: (1) Site characterization and test design. Environ Sci Technol 39:1778–1790.Google Scholar
  2. Ajo-Franklin JB, Geller JT, Harris JM. 2006. A survey of the geophysical properties of chlorinated DNAPLs. J Appl Geophys 59:177–189.Google Scholar
  3. Ajo-Franklin JB, Geller JT, Harris JM. 2007. Ultrasonic properties of granular media saturated with DNAPL/water mixtures. Geophys Res Lett 34:L07404.Google Scholar
  4. Amos BK, Daprato RC, Hughes JB, Pennell KD, Löffler FE. 2007. Effect of the nonionic surfactant Tween 80 on microbial reductive dechlorination of chloroethenes. Environ Sci Technol 41:1710–1716.Google Scholar
  5. Annable MD, Rao PSC, Hatfield K, Graham W D, Enfield GC. 1998a. Partitioning tracers for measuring residual NAPL: Field-scale test results. J Environ Eng 124:498–503.Google Scholar
  6. Annable MD, Jawitz JW, Rao PSC, Dai DP, Kim H, Wood AL. 1998b. Field evaluation of interfacial and partitioning tracers for characterization of effective NAPL-water contact areas. Ground Water 36:495–502.Google Scholar
  7. Annable MD, Hatfield K, Cho J, Klammler H, Parker B, Cherry JA, Rao PSC. 2005. Field-scale evaluation of the passive flux meter for simultaneous measurement of groundwater and contaminant fluxes. Environ Sci Technol 39:7194–7201.Google Scholar
  8. Atmadja J, Bagtzoglou AC. 2001. State of the art report on mathematical models for groundwater pollution source identification. Environ Forensics 2:205–214.Google Scholar
  9. Basu NB, Rao PSC, Poyer IC, Annable MD, Hatfield K. 2006. Flux-based assessment at a manufacturing site contaminated with trichloroethene. J Contam Hydrol 86:105–127.Google Scholar
  10. Basu NB, Fure AD, Jawitz JW. 2008. Predicting dense nonaqueous phase liquid dissolution using a simplified source depletion model parameterized with partitioning tracers. Water Resour Res 44:W07414, doi: 10.1029/2007WR006008.Google Scholar
  11. Basu NB, Rao PSC, Poyer IC, Nandy S, Mallavarapu M, Naidu R, Davis GB, Patterson BM, Annable MD, Hatfield K. 2009. Integration of traditional and innovative characterization techniques for flux-based assessment of dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) sites. J Contam Hydrol 105:161–172.Google Scholar
  12. Bauer S, Bayer-Raich M, Holder T, Kolesar C, Müller D, Ptak T. 2004. Quantification of groundwater contamination in an urban area using integral pumping tests. J Contam Hydrol 75:183–213.Google Scholar
  13. Bayer-Raich M, Baumann R, Ptak T. 2003a. Application of pumping tests to estimate contaminant mass fluxes in a multi-layered aquifer: A numerically simulated field-scale experiment at the SAFIRA-Bitterfeld site. In Thornton SF, Oswald SE, eds, Groundwater Quality: Natural and Enhanced Restoration of Groundwater Pollution. IAHS Publication 275, IAHS Press, Wallingford, Oxfordshire, UK, pp 257–263.Google Scholar
  14. Bayer-Raich M, Jarsjö J, Holder T, Prak T. 2003b. Numerical estimations of contaminant mass flow based upon concentration measurements in pumping wells. ModelCare 2002: A Few Steps Closer to Reality, IAHS Publication 277, IAHS Press, Wallingford, Oxfordshire, UK, pp 10–16.Google Scholar
  15. Bayer-Raich M, Jarsjö J, Liedl R, Prak T, Teutsch G. 2004. Average contaminant concentration and mass flow in aquifers from time-dependent pumping well data: Analytical framework. Water Resour Res 40:W08303.Google Scholar
  16. Benson RC. 2006. Remote sensing and geophysical methods for evaluation of subsurface conditions. In Nielsen DL, ed, Practical Handbook of Environmental Site Characterization and Ground-Water Monitoring, 2nd ed. CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group, Boca Raton, FL, USA, Chapter 4.Google Scholar
  17. Bockelmann A, Ptak T, Teutsch G. 2001. An analytical quantification of mass fluxes and natural attenuation rate constants at a former gasworks site: Natural attenuation of organic pollutants in groundwater. J Contam Hydrol 53:429–453.Google Scholar
  18. Bockelmann A, Zamfirescu D, Ptak T, Grathwohl P, Teutsch G. 2003. Quantification of mass fluxes and natural attenuation rates at an industrial site with a limited monitoring network: A case study. J Contam Hydrol 60:97–121.Google Scholar
  19. Borden RC, Daniel RA, LeBrun LE, Davis CW. 1997. Intrinsic biodegradation of MTBE and BTEX in a gasoline-contaminated aquifer. Water Resour Res 33:1105–1115.Google Scholar
  20. Bradford SA, Abriola LM, Rathfelder KM. 1998. Flow and entrapment of dense nonaqueous phase liquids in physically and chemically heterogeneous aquifer formations. Adv Water Resour 22:117–132.Google Scholar
  21. Broholm K, Feenstra S, Cherry JA. 1999. Solvent release into a sandy aquifer. 1. Overview of source distribution and dissolution behavior. Environ Sci Technol 33:681–690.Google Scholar
  22. Broholm K, Feenstra S, Cherry JA. 2005. Solvent release into a sandy aquifer. 2. Estimation of DNAPL mass based on a multiple-component dissolution model. Environ Sci Technol 39: 317–324.Google Scholar
  23. Brooks MC, Annable MD, Rao PSC, Hatfield K, Jawitz JW, Wise WR, Wood AL, Enfield CG. 2002. Controlled release, blind tests of DNAPL characterization using partitioning tracers. J Contam Hydrol 59:187–210.Google Scholar
  24. Brooks MC, Wood AL, Annable MD, Hatfield K, Cho J, Holbert C, Rao PSC, Enfield CG, Lynch K, Smith RE. 2008. Changes in contaminant mass discharge from DNAPL source mass depletion: Evaluation at two field sites. J Contam Hydrol 102:140–153, doi: 10.1016/j.jconhyd.2008.05.008.Google Scholar
  25. Brusseau ML, Nelson NT, Cain RB. 1999. The partitioning tracer method for in-situ detection and quantification of immiscible liquids in the subsurface. In Brusseau ML, Sabatini DA, Gierke JS, Annable MD, eds, Innovative Subsurface Remediation, Field Testing of Physical, Chemical, and Characterization Technologies. American Chemical Society, (ACS) Symposium Series 725, ACS, Washington DC, USA.Google Scholar
  26. Brusseau ML, Nelson NT, Zhang Z, Blue JE, Rohrer J, Allen T. 2007. Source-zone characterization of a chlorinated-solvent contaminated Superfund site in Tucson, AZ. J Contam Hydrol 90:21–40.Google Scholar
  27. Brusseau ML, DiFilippo EL, Marble JC, Oostrom M. 2008. Mass-removal and mass-flux-reduction behavior for idealized source zones with hydraulically poorly-accessible immiscible liquid. Chemosphere 71:1511–1521.Google Scholar
  28. Campbell TJ, Hatfield K, Klammler H, Annable MD, Rao PSC. 2006. Magnitude and directional measures of water and Cr(VI) fluxes by passive flux meter. Environ Sci Technol 40:6392–6397.Google Scholar
  29. Carcione JM, Seriani G, Gei D. 2003. Acoustic and electromagnetic properties of soils saturated with salt water and NAPL. J Appl Geophys 52:177–191.Google Scholar
  30. Chatzis I, Morrow NR, Lim HT. 1983. Magnitude and detailed structure of residual oil saturation. Soc Petrol Eng J 23:311–326.Google Scholar
  31. Christ JA, Lemke LD, Abriola LM. 2005a. Comparison of two- and three-dimensional simulations of dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs): Migration and entrapment in a nonuniform permeability field. Water Resour Res 41:W01007, doi:10.1029/2004WR 003239.Google Scholar
  32. Christ JA, Ramsburg CA, Abriola LM, Pennell KD, Löffler FE. 2005b. Coupling aggressive mass removal with microbial reductive dechlorination for remediation of DNAPL source zones – A review and assessment. Environ Health Perspect 113:465–476.Google Scholar
  33. Christ JA, Ramsburg CA, Pennell KD, Abriola LM. 2006. Estimating mass discharge from dense nonaqueous phase liquid source zones using upscaled mass transfer coefficients: An evaluation using multiphase numerical simulations. Water Resour Res 42:W11420, doi:  10.1029/2006WR004886.Google Scholar
  34. Cooke CE Jr. 1971. Method of determining residual oil saturation in reservoirs. U.S. Patent 3,590,923.Google Scholar
  35. Costanza J, Davis WM. 2000. Rapid detection of volatile organic compounds in the subsurface by membrane introduction into a direct sampling ion trap mass spectrometer. Field Anal Chem Technol 4:246–254.Google Scholar
  36. Costanza J, Fletcher KE, Löffler FE, Pennell KD. 2009. Fate of trichloroethene in heated Fort Lewis soil. Environ Sci Technol 43:909–914.Google Scholar
  37. Dai D, Barranco FT Jr, Illangasekare TH. 2001. Partitioning and interfacial tracers for differentiating NAPL entrapment configuration: Column-scale investigation. Environ Sci Technol 34:4894–4899.Google Scholar
  38. Datta-Gupta A, Yoon S, Vasco DW, Pope GA. 2002. Inverse modeling of partitioning interwell tracer tests: A streamline approach. Water Resour Res 38:10.1029.Google Scholar
  39. Deans HA. 1971. Method of determining fluid saturations in reservoirs. U.S. Patent 3,623,842.Google Scholar
  40. Dekker TJ. 1996. An assessment of the effects of field-scale formation heterogeneity on surfactant-enhanced aquifer remediation. Doctoral Dissertation, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA.Google Scholar
  41. Dekker TJ, Abriola LM. 2000a. The influence of field-scale heterogeneity on the infiltration and entrapment of dense nonaqueous phase liquids in saturated formation. J Contam Hydrol 42:187–218.Google Scholar
  42. Dekker TJ, Abriola LM. 2000b. The influence of field-scale heterogeneity on the surfactant-enhanced remediation of entrapped nonaqueous phase liquids. J Contam Hydrol 42:219–251.Google Scholar
  43. Demond AH, Desai FN, Hayes KF. 1994. Effect of cationic surfactants on organic liquid-water capillary-pressure saturation relationships. Water Resour Res 30:333–342.Google Scholar
  44. Deutsch CV, Journel AG. 1998. GSLIB: Geostatistical Software Library and User’s Guide, 2nd ed. Oxford University Press, New York, NY, USA.Google Scholar
  45. DiFilippo EL, Brusseau ML. 2008. Relationship between mass flux reduction and source-zone mass removal: Analysis of field data. J Contam Hydrol 98:22–35.Google Scholar
  46. Einarson MD, Mackay DM. 2001. Predicting impacts of groundwater contamination. Environ Sci Technol 35:66A-73A.Google Scholar
  47. Enfield CG, Wood AL, Espinoza FP, Brooks MC, Annable M, Rao PSC. 2005. Design of aquifer remediation systems: (1) Describing hydraulic structure and NAPL architecture using tracers. J Contam Hydrol 81:125–147.Google Scholar
  48. EnviroFlux. 2007. Accessed August 17, 2011.
  49. Essaid HI, Hess KM. 1993. Monte Carlo simulations of multiphase flow incorporating spatial variability of hydraulic properties. Ground Water 31:123–134.Google Scholar
  50. Falta RW, Lee CM, Brame SE, Roeder E, Coates JT, Wright C, Wood AL, Enfield CG. 1999. Field test of high molecular weight alcohol flushing for subsurface nonaqueous phase liquid remediation. Water Resour Res 35:2095–2108.Google Scholar
  51. Falta RW, Rao PSC, Basu N. 2005a. Assessing the impacts of partial mass depletion in DNAPL source zones I. Analytical modeling of source strength functions and plume response. J Contam Hydrol 78:259–280.Google Scholar
  52. Falta RW, Basu N, Rao PSC. 2005b. Assessing the impacts of partial mass depletion in DNAPL source zones II. Coupling source strength functions to plume evolution. J Contam Hydrol 79:45–66.Google Scholar
  53. Feenstra S, Cherry JA, Parker BL. 1996. Conceptual models for the behavior of dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs) in the subsurface. In Pankow JF, Cherry JA, eds, Dense Chlorinated Solvents and Other DNAPLs in Groundwater. Waterloo Press, Guelph, Ontario, Canada, pp 53–88.Google Scholar
  54. Friis AK, Albrechtsen H-J, Heron G, Berg PL. 2005. Redox processes and release of organic matter after thermal treatment of a TCE-contaminated aquifer. Environ Sci Technol 39:5787–5795.Google Scholar
  55. Friis AK, Heimann AC, Jakobsen R, Albrechtsen H-J, Cox E, Berg PL. 2007. Temperature dependence of anaerobic TCE-dechlorination in a highly enriched Dehalococoides-containing culture. Water Res 41:355–364.Google Scholar
  56. Frind EO, Molson JW, Schirmer M, Guiger N. 1999. Dissolution and mass transfer of multiple organics under field conditions: The Borden emplaced source. Water Resour Res 35:683–694.Google Scholar
  57. Fure AD, Jawitz JW, Annable MD. 2006. DNAPL source depletion: Linking architecture and flux response. J Contam Hydrol 85:118–140.Google Scholar
  58. Glass RJ, Conrad SH, Peplinski W. 2000. Gravity-destabilizing nonwetting phase invasion in macroheterogeous porous media: Experimental observations of invasion dynamics and scale analysis. Water Resour Res 36:3121–3137.Google Scholar
  59. Goltz MN, Kim S, Yoon H, Park J. 2007. Review of groundwater contaminant mass flux measurement. Environ Eng Res 12:176–193.Google Scholar
  60. Goltz MN, Close ME, Yoon H, Huang J, Flintoft MJ, Kim S, Enfield C. 2009. Validation of two innovative methods to measure contaminant mass flux in groundwater. J Contam Hydrol 106:51–61.Google Scholar
  61. Greenhouse J, Brewster M, Schneider G, Redman D, Annan P, Olhoeft G, Lucius J, Sander K, Mazzella A. 1993. Geophysics and solvents: The Borden experiment. The Leading Edge 12:261–267.Google Scholar
  62. Grimm RE, Olhoeft GR, McKinley K, Rossabi J, Riha B. 2005. Nonlinear complex-resistivity survey for DNAPL at the Savannah River Site A-014 outfall. J Environ Eng Geophys 10:351–364.Google Scholar
  63. Guilbeault MA, Parker BL, Cherry JA. 2005. Mass and flux distributions from DNAPL zones in sandy aquifers. Ground Water 43:70–86.Google Scholar
  64. Hatfield K, Annable MD, Kuhn S, Rao PSC, Campbell T. 2002. A new method for quantifying contaminant flux at hazardous waste sites. In Groundwater Quality: Natural and Enhanced Restoration of Groundwater Pollution, IAHS Publication 275, pp 25–31.Google Scholar
  65. Hatfield K, Annable MD, Cho J, Rao PSC, Klammler H. 2004. A direct passive method for measuring water and contaminant fluxes in porous media. J Contam Hydrol 75:155–181.Google Scholar
  66. Held RJ, Illangasekare TH. 1995. Fingering of dense nonaqueous phase liquids in porous media: 1. Experimental investigation. Water Resour Res 31:1213–1222.Google Scholar
  67. Heron G, Gierke JS, Faulkner B, Mravik S, Wood L, Enfield CG. 2002. Pulsed air sparging in aquifers contaminated with dense nonaqueous phase liquids. Ground Water Monitor Remediat 22:73–82.Google Scholar
  68. Heron G, Carroll S, Nielsen SG. 2005. Full-scale removal of DNAPL constituents using steam-enhanced extraction and electrical resistance heating. Ground Water Monitor Remediat 25:92–107.Google Scholar
  69. Hofstee C, Oostrom M, Dane JH, Walker RC. 1998a. Infiltration and redistribution of perchloroethylene in partially saturated, stratified porous media. J Contam Hydrol 34:293–313.Google Scholar
  70. Hofstee C, Walker RC, Dane JH. 1998b. Infiltration and redistribution of perchloroethylene in stratified water-saturated porous media. Soil Sci Soc Am J 62:13–22.Google Scholar
  71. Holder TH, Teutsch GP, Schwarz R. 1998. A new approach for source zone characterization: The Neckar Valley study. Groundwater Quality: Remediation and Protection, IAHS Publication 250, pp 49–55.Google Scholar
  72. Holzmer FJ, Pope GA, Yeh L. 2000. Surfactant-enhanced aquifer remediation of PCE DNAPL in low-permeability sand. In Wickramanayake GB, Gavaskar AR, Gupta N, eds, Treating Dense Nonaqueous-Phase Liquids (DNAPLs): Remediation of Chlorinated and Recalcitrant Compounds. Battelle Press, Columbus, OH, USA, pp 211–218.Google Scholar
  73. Hrapovic L, Sleep BE, Major DJ, Hood ED. 2005. Laboratory study of treatment of trichloroethene by chemical oxidation followed by bioremediation. Environ Sci Technol 39:2888–2897.Google Scholar
  74. Huang KC, Zhao ZQ, Hoag GE, Dahmani A, Block PA. 2005. Degradation of volatile organic compounds with thermally activated persulfate oxidation. Chemosphere 61:551–560.Google Scholar
  75. Imhoff PT, Pirestani K. 2004. Influence of mass transfer resistance on detection of nonaqueous phase liquids with partitioning tracer tests. Adv Water Resour 27:429–444.Google Scholar
  76. Istok JD, Field JA, Schroth MH, Davis BM, Dwarakanath V. 2002. Single-well “push-pull” partitioning tracer test for NAPL detection in the subsurface. Environ Sci Technol 36:2708–2716.Google Scholar
  77. ITRC (Interstate Technology and Regulatory Council). 2000. Dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs): Review of emerging characterization and remediation technologies.Google Scholar
  78. ITRC. 2003. An introduction to characterizing sites contaminated with DNAPL.Google Scholar
  79. ITRC. 2004. Strategies for Monitoring the Performance of DNAPL Source Zone Remedies.Google Scholar
  80. Jackson RE, Jin M. 2005. The measurement of DNAPL in low-permeability lenses within alluvial aquifers by partitioning tracers. Environ Eng Geosience 11:405–412.Google Scholar
  81. James AI, Graham WD, Hatfield K, Rao PSC, Annable MD. 1997. Optimal estimation of residual non-aqueous phase liquid saturations using partitioning tracer concentration data. Water Resour Res 33:2621–2636.Google Scholar
  82. James AI, Graham WD, Hatfield K, Rao PSC, Annable MD. 2000. Estimation of spatially variable residual nonaqueous phase liquid saturations in nonuniform flow fields using partitioning tracer data. Water Resour Res 36:999–1012.Google Scholar
  83. Jarsjö J, Bayer-Raich M, Ptak T. 2005. Monitoring groundwater contamination and delineating source zones at industrial sites: Uncertainty analyses using integral pumping tests. J Contam Hydrol 79:107–134.Google Scholar
  84. Jawitz JW, Annable MD, Rao PSC. 1998. Using interwell partitioning tracers and the method of moments to estimate the spatial distribution of non-aqueous phase contaminants in aquifers. GQ 98 Conference Proceedings, Groundwater Quality: Remediation and Protection, IAHS Publication 250, pp 422–425.Google Scholar
  85. Jawitz JW, Sillan RK, Annable MD, Rao PSC, Warner K. 2000. In-situ alcohol flushing of a DNAPL source zone at a dry cleaner site. Environ Sci Technol 34:3722–3729.Google Scholar
  86. Jawitz JT, Annable MD, Demmy GC, Rao PSC. 2003. Estimating nonaqueous phase liquid spatial variability using partitioning tracer higher temporal moments. Water Resour Res 39:1192, doi:10.10 29/2002WR001309.Google Scholar
  87. Jawitz JT, Fure AD, Demmy GC, Berglund S, Rao PSC. 2005. Groundwater contaminant flux reduction resulting from nonaqueous phase liquid mass reduction. Water Resour Res 41:W10408, doi: 10.1029/2004WR003825.Google Scholar
  88. Jin M, Delshad M, Dwarakanath V, McKinney DC, Pope GA, Sepehrnoori K, Tilburg CE, Jackson RE. 1995. Partitioning tracer test for detection, estimation and remediation performance assessment of subsurface nonaqueous phase liquids. Water Resour Res 31:1201–1211.Google Scholar
  89. Johnson RH, Poeter EP. 2005. Interpreting DNAPL saturations in a laboratory-scale injection using one- and two-dimensional modeling of GPR data. Ground Water Monitor Remediat 25:159–169.Google Scholar
  90. Johnson RH, Poeter EP. 2007. Insights into the use of time-lapse GPR data as observations for inverse multiphase flow simulations of DNAPL migration. J Contam Hydrol 89:136–155.Google Scholar
  91. Kao CM, Wang YS. 2001. Field investigation of the natural attenuation and intrinsic biodegradation rates at an underground storage tank site. Environ Geol 40:622–631.Google Scholar
  92. Karagunduz A, Pennell KD, Young MD. 2001. Influence of a nonionic surfactant on the water retention properties of unsaturated soils. Soil Sci Soc Am J 65:1392–1399.Google Scholar
  93. Kaye AJ, Cho J, Basu NB, Chen X, Annable MD, Jawitz JW. 2008. Laboratory investigation of flux reduction from dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) partial source zone remediation by enhanced dissolution. J Contam Hydrol 102:17–28.Google Scholar
  94. King MWG, Barker JF, Devlin JF, Butler BJ. 1999. Migration and natural fate of a coal tar creosote plume: 2. Mass balance and biodegradation indicators. J Contam Hydrol 39:281–307.Google Scholar
  95. Kram ML, Keller AA, Rossabi J, Everett LG. 2001. DNAPL characterization methods and approaches, Part 1: Performance comparisons. Ground Water Monitor Remediat 21:109–123.Google Scholar
  96. Kram ML, Keller AA, Rossabi J, Everett LG. 2002. DNAPL characterization methods and approaches, Part 2: Cost comparisons. Ground Water Monitor Remediat 22:46–61.Google Scholar
  97. Kübert M, Finkel M. 2006. Contaminant mass discharge estimation in groundwater based on multi-level point measurements: A numerical evaluation of expected errors. J Contam Hydrol 84:55–80.Google Scholar
  98. Kueper BH, Gerhard JI. 1995. Variability of point source infiltration rates for two-phase flow in heterogeneous porous media. Water Resour Res 31:2971–2980.Google Scholar
  99. Kueper BH, Redman D, Starr RC, Reitsma S, Mah M. 1993. A field experiment to study the behavior of tetrachloroethylene below the water table: Spatial distribution of residual and pooled DNAPL. Ground Water 31:756–766.Google Scholar
  100. Lake LW. 1989. Enhanced Oil Recovery. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, USA.Google Scholar
  101. Lemke LD, Abriola LM. 2006. Modeling DNAPL mass removal in nonuniform formations: Linking source zone architecture and system response. Geosphere 2:74–82.Google Scholar
  102. Lemke LD, Abriola LM, Goovaerts P. 2004a. DNAPL source zone characterization: Influence of hydraulic property correlation on predictions of DNAPL infiltration and entrapment. Water Resour Res 40:W01511, doi:  10.1029/2003WR001980.Google Scholar
  103. Lemke LD, Abriola LM, Lang JR. 2004b. DNAPL source zone remediation: Influence of source zone architecture on predictions of DNAPL recovery and contaminant flux. Water Resour Res 40:W12417, doi: 10.1029/2004WR003061.Google Scholar
  104. Li KB, Abriola LM. 2009. A multistage multicriteria spatial sampling strategy for estimating contaminant mass discharge and its uncertainty. Water Resour Res 45:W06407.Google Scholar
  105. Li DX, Schwartz FW. 2003. Permanganate oxidation schemes for the remediation of source zone DNAPLs and dissolved contaminant plumes. In Henry SM, Warner SD, eds, Chlorinated Solvent and DNAPL Remediation: Innovative Strategies for Subsurface Cleanup (ACS Symposium Series, No. 837). ACS, Washington, DC, USA, pp 73–85.Google Scholar
  106. Li K, Goovaerts P, Abriola LM. 2007. A geostatistical approach for quantification of contaminant mass discharge uncertainty using multi-level sampler measurements. Water Resour Res 43:W06436, doi: 10.1029/2006WR005427.Google Scholar
  107. Liang CJ, Bruell CJ, Marley MC, Sperry KL. 2003. Thermally activated persulfate oxidation of trichloroethylene (TCE) and 1,1,1-trichloroethane (TCA) in aqueous systems and soils slurries. Soil Sediment Contam 12:207–228.Google Scholar
  108. Liang CJ, Bruell CJ, Marley MC, Sperry KL. 2004. Persulfate oxidation for in situ remediation of TCE. I. Activated by ferrous ion with and without a persulfate-thiosulfate redox couple. Chemosphere 55:1213–1223.Google Scholar
  109. Londergan JT, Meinardus HW, Mariner PE, Jackson RE, Brown CL, Dwarakanath V, Pope GA, Ginn JS, Taffinder S. 2001. DNAPL removal from a heterogeneous alluvial aquifer by surfactant-enhanced aquifer remediation. Ground Water Monitor Remediat 21:57–67.Google Scholar
  110. Lord DL, Demond AH, Hayes KF. 2000. Effects of organic base chemistry on interfacial tension, wettability, and capillary pressure in multiphase subsurface waste systems. Tran Porous Media 38:79–92.Google Scholar
  111. Lowe KS, Gardner FG, Siegrist RL. 2002. Field evaluation of in situ chemical oxidation through vertical well-to-well recirculation of NaMnO4. Ground Water Monitor Remediat 22:106–115.Google Scholar
  112. Maji R, Sudicky EA, Panday S, Teutsch G. 2006. Transition probability/Markov chain analyses of DNAPL source zones and plumes. Ground Water 44:853–863.Google Scholar
  113. Marble JC, DiFilippo EL, Zhang Z, Tick GR, Brusseau ML. 2008. Application of a lumped-process mathematical model to dissolution of non-uniformly distributed immiscible liquid in heterogeneous porous media. J Contam Hydrol 100:1–10.Google Scholar
  114. Mayer AS, Miller CT. 1996. The influence of mass transfer characteristics and porous media heterogeneity on nonaqueous phase dissolution. Water Resour Res 32:1551–1568.Google Scholar
  115. McGuire T, Hughes JB. 2003. Effects of surfactants on the dechlorination of chlorinated ethenes. Environ Toxicol Chem 22:2630–2638.Google Scholar
  116. McGuire TM, McDade JM, Newell CJ. 2006. Performance of DNAPL source depletion technologies at 59 chlorinated solvent impacted sites. Ground Water Monit Remediat 26:73–84.Google Scholar
  117. McWhorter DB, Kueper BH. 1996. Mechanisms and mathematics of the movement of dense nonaqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs) in porous media. In Pankow JF, Cherry JA, eds, Dense Chlorinated Solvents and Other DNAPLs in Groundwater: History, Behavior, and Remediation. Waterloo Press, Portland, OR, USA, pp 89–128.Google Scholar
  118. Mercer JW, Cohen RM. 1990. A review of immiscible fluids in the subsurface: Properties, models, characterization and remediation. J Contam Hydrol 6:107–163.Google Scholar
  119. Meinardus HW, Dwarakanath V, Ewing J, Hirasaki GJ, Jackson RE, Jin M, Ginn JS, Londergan JT, Miller CA, Pope GA. 2002. Performance assessment of NAPL remediation in heterogeneous alluvium. J Contam Hydrol 54:173–193.Google Scholar
  120. Michalak AM, Kitanidis PK. 2004. Estimation of historical groundwater contaminant distribution using the adjoint state method applied to geostatistical inverse modeling. Water Resour Res 40:W08302.Google Scholar
  121. Miller CT, Christakos G, Imhoff PT, McBride JF, Pedit JA, Trangenstein JA. 1998. Multiphase flow and transport modeling in heterogeneous porous media: Challenges and approaches. Adv Water Resour 21:77–120.Google Scholar
  122. Moreno-Barbero E, Illangasekare TH. 2006. Influence of dense nonaqueous phase liquid pool morphology on the performance of partitioning tracer tests: Evaluation of the equilibrium assumption. Water Resour Res 42:W04408.Google Scholar
  123. Moreno-Barbero E, Saenton S, Illangasekare TH. 2004. Potential use of partitioning tracer and mass flux emission data to characterize DNAPL source zone architecture. In Gavaskar AR, Chen ASC, eds, Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Remediation of Chlorinated and Recalcitrant Compounds. Battelle Press, Columbus, OH, USA, Paper 1B-08.Google Scholar
  124. NRC (National Research Council). 1999. Groundwater & Soil Cleanup. The National Academies Press, Washington, DC, USA.Google Scholar
  125. NRC. 2005. Contaminants in the Subsurface: Source Zone Assessment and Remediation. The National Academies Press, Washington, DC, USA.Google Scholar
  126. NAVFAC (Naval Facilities Engineering Services Center). 2004. Assessing the feasibility of DNAPL source zone remediation: review of case studies. Contract Report CR-004-02-ENV.Google Scholar
  127. Nelson MD, Parker BL, Al TA, Cherry JA, Loomer D. 2001. Geochemical reactions resulting from in situ oxidation of PCE-DNAPL by KMnO4 in a sandy aquifer. Environ Sci Technol 35:1266–1275.Google Scholar
  128. Newman MA, Hatfield K, Hayworth J, Rao PSC, Stauffer T. 2006. Inverse characterization of NAPL source zones. Environ Sci Technol 40:6044–6050.Google Scholar
  129. Newmark RL, Daily WD, Kyle KR, Ramirez AL. 1997. Monitoring DNAPL pumping using integrated geophysical techniques. U.S. Department of Energy Report UCRL-ID-122215.Google Scholar
  130. Nichols E, Roth T. 2004. Flux redux – Using mass flux to improve cleanup decisions. L.U.S.T. Line, New England Interstate Water Pollution Control Commission, Bulletin 46, pp 6–9.Google Scholar
  131. O’Carroll DM, Bradford SA, Abriola LM. 2004. Infiltration of PCE in system containing spatial wettability variations. J Contam Hydrol 73:39–63.Google Scholar
  132. Park E, Parker JC. 2005. Evaluation of an upscaled model for DNAPL dissolution kinetics in heterogeneous aquifers. Adv Water Resour 28:1280–1291.Google Scholar
  133. Parker BL, Gillham RW, Cherry JA. 1994. Diffusive disappearance of immiscible-phase organic liquids in fractured geologic media. Ground Water 32:805–820.Google Scholar
  134. Parker BL, Chapman SW, Guilbeault MA. 2008. Plume persistence caused by back diffusion from thin clay layers in a sand aquifer following TCE source-zone hydraulic isolation. J Contam Hydrol 102:86–104.Google Scholar
  135. Parker JC, Lenhard RJ. 1987. A model for hysteretic constitutive relations governing multiphase flow, 1. Saturation-pressure relations. Water Resour Res 23:2187–2196.Google Scholar
  136. Parker JC, Park E. 2004. Field-scale DNAPL dissolution kinetics in heterogeneous aquifers. Water Resour Res 40:W05109, doi: 10.1029/2003WR002807.Google Scholar
  137. Pennell KD, Abriola LM, Weber WJ. 1993. Surfactant enhanced solubilization of residual dodecane in soil columns 1. Experimental investigation. Environ Sci Technol 27:2332–2340.Google Scholar
  138. Pennell KD, Pope GA, Abriola LM. 1996. Influence of viscous and buoyancy forces on the mobilization of residual tetrachloroethylene during surfactant flushing. Environ Sci Technol 30:1328–1335.Google Scholar
  139. Phelan TJ, Lemke LD, Bradford SA, O’Carroll DM, Abriola LM. 2004. Influence of textural and wettability variations on predictions of DNAPL persistence and plume development in saturated porous media. Adv Water Resour 27:411–427.Google Scholar
  140. Pitkin SE, Cherry JA, Ingleton RA, Broholm M. 1999. Field demonstrations using the Waterloo Groundwater Profiler. Ground Water Monitor Remediat 19:122–131.Google Scholar
  141. Powers SE, Tamblin ME. 1995. Wettability of porous media after exposure to synthetic gasolines. J Contam Hydrol 19:105–125.Google Scholar
  142. Powers SE, Abriola LM, Weber WJ Jr. 1992. An experimental investigation of NAPL dissolution in saturated subsurface systems: Steady-state mass transfer rates. Water Resour Res 28:2691–2705.Google Scholar
  143. Ramsburg CA, Pennell KD. 2001. Experimental and economic assessment of two surfactant formulations for source zone remediation at a former dry cleaning facility. Ground Water Monitor Remediat 21:68–82.Google Scholar
  144. Ramsburg CA, Abriola LM, Pennell KD, Löffler FE, Gamache M, Amos BK. 2004. Stimulated microbial reductive dechlorination following surfactant treatment at the Bachman road site. Environ Sci Technol 38:5902–5914.Google Scholar
  145. Ramsburg CA, Pennell KD, Abriola LM, Daniels G, Drummond CD, Gamache M, Hsu H, Petrovkis EA, Rathfelder KM, Ryder J, Yarkarski T. 2005. A pilot-scale demonstration of surfactant enhanced PCE solubilization at the Bachman road site: 2. System operation and evaluation. Environ Sci Technol 39:1791–1801.Google Scholar
  146. Rao PSC, Jawitz JW. 2003. Comment on “Steady state mass transfer from single-component dense nonaqueous phase liquids in uniform flow fields” by Sale TC, McWhorter DB, Water Resour Res 39:1068, doi: 10.1029/2001WR000599.Google Scholar
  147. Rao PSC, Annable MD, Kim H. 2000. NAPL source zone characterization and remediation technology performance assessment: recent developments and applications of tracer techniques. J Contam Hydrol 45:63–78.Google Scholar
  148. Rao PSC, Jawitz JW, Enfield CG, Falta RW, Annable MD, Wood AL. 2002. Technology integration for contaminated site remediation: clean-up goals and performance criteria. Groundwater Quality: Natural and Enhanced Restoration of Groundwater Pollution. IAHS Publication 275, pp 571–578.Google Scholar
  149. Rathfelder KM, Abriola LM, Taylor TP, Pennell KD. 2001. Surfactant enhanced recovery of tetrachloroethylene from a porous media containing low permeability lenses: 2. Numerical simulations. J Contam Hydrol 48:351–374.Google Scholar
  150. Rathfelder KM, Abriola LM, Singletary MA, Pennell KD. 2003. Influence of surfactant-facilitated interfacial tension reduction on chlorinated solvent migration in porous media: Observations and numerical simulation. J Contam Hydrol 64:227–252.Google Scholar
  151. Richardson RE, James CA, Bhupathiraju VK, Alvarez-Cohen L. 2002. Microbial activity in soils following steam treatment. Biodegradation 13:285–295.Google Scholar
  152. Rivett MO, Feenstra S. 2004. Dissolution of an emplaced source of DNAPL in a natural aquifer setting, Environ Sci Technol 39:447–455.Google Scholar
  153. Robbat A Jr, Smarason S, Gankin Y. 1998. Dynamic work plans and field analytics, the keys to cost-effective hazardous waste site Investigations. Field Anal Chem Technol 2:253–265.Google Scholar
  154. Rossabi J, Looney BB, Eddy-Dilek CA, Riha BD, Jackson DG. 2000. DNAPL Site Characterization: The Evolving Conceptual Model and Toolbox Approach. US Department of Energy Report WSRC-MS-2000-0183.Google Scholar
  155. Saba T, Illangasekare TH. 2000. Effect of groundwater flow dimensionality on mass transfer from entrapped nonaqueous phase liquid contaminants. Water Resour Res 36:971–979.Google Scholar
  156. Saenton S, Illangasekare TH. 2003. Determining the entrapment architecture in the DNAPL source zone using down-gradient mass flux measurements: A combined numerical and stochastic study. In Proceedings of MODFLOW and More 2003: Understanding through Modeling, Vol. 2, pp 615–619.Google Scholar
  157. Saenton S, Illangasekare T. 2007. Upscaling of mass transfer rate coefficient for the numerical simulation of dense nonaqueous phase liquid dissolution in heterogeneous aquifers. Water Resour Res 43:WR004274.Google Scholar
  158. Sahl JW, Munakata-Marr J, Crimi ML, Siegrist RL. 2007. Coupling permanganate oxidation with microbial dechlorination. Water Environ Res 79:5–12.Google Scholar
  159. Sale TC, McWhorter DB. 2001. Steady state mass transfer from single-component dense nonaqueous phase liquids in uniform flow fields. Water Resour Res 37:393–404.Google Scholar
  160. Sale TC, Zimbron JA, Dandy DS. 2008. Effects of reduced contaminant loading on downgradient water quality in an idealized two-layer granular porous media. J Contam Hydrol 102:72–85.Google Scholar
  161. Schaerlaekens J, Feyen J. 2004. Effect of scale and dimensionality on the surfactant-enhanced solubilization of a residual DNAPL contamination. J Contam Hydrol 71:283–306.Google Scholar
  162. Schwarz R, Ptak T, Holder TH, Teutsch G. 1998. Groundwater risk assessment at contaminated sites: A new investigation approach. Groundwater Quality: Remediation and Protection, IAHS publication 250, pp 68–71.Google Scholar
  163. Schwille F. 1988. Dense Chlorinated Solvents in Porous and Fractured Media. Translated by Pankow JF. Lewis Publishers, Chelsea, MI, USA.Google Scholar
  164. Semprini L, Kitanidis PK, Kampbell DH, Wilson JT. 1995. Anaerobic transformation of chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons in a sand aquifer based on spatial chemical distributions. Water Resour Res 31:1051–1062.Google Scholar
  165. Siegrist RL, Urynowicz MA, West OR, Crimi ML, Lowe KS. 2001. Principles and Practices of In Situ Chemical Oxidation Using Permanganate. Battelle Press, Columbus, OH, USA.Google Scholar
  166. Smith JE, Zhang ZF. 2001. Determining effective interfacial tension and predicting finger spacing for DNAPL penetration into water-saturated porous media. J Contam Hydrol 48:167–183.Google Scholar
  167. Sneddon KW, Olhoeft GR, Powers MH. 2000. Determining and mapping DNAPL saturation values from noninvasive GPR measurements, In Powers MH, Ibrahim A-B, Cramer L, eds, Symposium on the Applications of Geophysics to Engineering and Environmental Problems (SAGEEP 2000), Environmental and Engineering Geophysical Society (EEGS), pp 293–302.Google Scholar
  168. Soga K, Page JWE, Illangasekare TH. 2004. A review of NAPL source zone remediation efficiency and the mass flux approach. J Hazard Mater 110:13–27.Google Scholar
  169. Stewart M, North L. 2006. A borehole geophysical method for detection and quantification of dense, non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs) in saturated soils. J Appl Geophys 60:87–99.Google Scholar
  170. Stroo HF, Unger M, Ward CH, Kavanaugh MC, Vogel C, Leeson A, Marquesee JA, Smith BP. 2003. Remediating chlorinated solvent source zones. Environ Sci Technol 37:224A-230A.Google Scholar
  171. Suchomel EJ, Pennell KD. 2006. Reductions in contaminant mass discharge following partial mass removal from DNAPL source zones. Environ Sci Technol 40:6110–6116.Google Scholar
  172. Sun AY. 2007. A robust geostatistical approach to contaminant source identification. Water Resour Res 43:W02418, doi: 10.1029/2006WR005106.Google Scholar
  173. Sun AY, Painter SL, Wittmeyer GW. 2006. A robust approach for iterative contaminant source location and release history recovery. J Contam Hydrol 88:181–196.Google Scholar
  174. Temples TJ, Waddell MG, Domoracki W. 2001. Non-invasive determination of the location and distribution of DNAPL using advanced seismic reflection techniques. Ground Water 39:465–474.Google Scholar
  175. Teutsch G, Ptak T, Schwarz R, Holder T. 2000. Ein neues integrals verfahren zur quantifizierung der grundwasserimmission: I. Beschreibung der grundlagen. Grundwasser 4:170–175.Google Scholar
  176. Tomich JF, Dalton RL, Deans HA, Shallenberger LK. 1973. Single-well tracer method to measure residual oil saturation. J Petrol Technol, February.Google Scholar
  177. USEPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 2003. The DNAPL remediation challenge: Is there a case for source depletion? EPA/600/R-03-143. USEPA, Washington DC, USA.Google Scholar
  178. USGS (U.S. Geological Survey). 2003. Methodology for Estimating Times of Remediation Associated with Monitored Natural Attenuation. Water Resources Investigation Report 03–4057.Google Scholar
  179. Van Valkanburg ME, Annable MD. 2002. Mobilization and entry of DNAPL pools into finer sand media by cosolvents: Two-dimensional chamber studies. J Contam Hydrol 59:211–230.Google Scholar
  180. Waldemer RH, Tratnyek PG, Johnson RL, Nurmi JT. 2007. Oxidation of chlorinated ethenes by heat-activated persulfate: Kinetics and products. Environ Sci Technol 41:1010–1015.Google Scholar
  181. Willson CS, Pau O, Pedit JA, Miller CT. 2000. Mass transfer limitation effects on partitioning tracer tests. J Contam Hydrol 45:79–97.Google Scholar
  182. Wise WR. 1999. NAPL characterization via partitioning tracer tests: Quantifying effects of partitioning nonlinearities. J Contam Hydrol 36:167–183.Google Scholar
  183. Wise WR, Dai D, Fitzpatrick EA, Evans LW, Rao PSC, Annable MD. 1999. Non-aqueous phase liquid characterization via partitioning tracer tests: A modified Langmuir relation to describe partitioning nonlinearities. J Contam Hydrol 36:153–165.Google Scholar
  184. Zeru A, Schafer G. 2005. Analysis of groundwater contamination using concentration-time series recorded during an integral pumping test: Bias introduced by strong concentration gradients within the plume. J Contam Hydrol 81:106–124.Google Scholar
  185. Zhang C, Yoon H, Werth CJ, Valocchi AJ, Basu NB, Jawitz JW. 2008. Evaluation of simplified mass transfer models to simulate the impacts of source zone architecture on nonaqueous phase liquid dissolution in heterogeneous porous media. J Contam Hydrol 102:49–60.Google Scholar
  186. Zhang Y, Graham WD. 2001. Spatial characterization of a hydrogeochemically heterogeneous aquifer using partitioning tracers: Optimal estimation of aquifer parameters. Water Resour Res 37:2049–2063.Google Scholar
  187. Zhang ZF, Smith JE. 2002. Visualization of DNAPL fingering processes and mechanisms in water-saturated porous media. Trans Porous Media 48:41–59.Google Scholar
  188. Zhu J, Sykes JF. 2000. The influence of NAPL dissolution characteristics on field-scale contaminant transport in subsurface. J Contam Hydrol 41:133–154.Google Scholar
  189. Zhu J, Sykes JF. 2004. Simple screening models of NAPL dissolution in the subsurface. J Contam Hydrol 72:245–258.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • L. M. Abriola
    • 1
  • J. A. Christ
    • 2
  • K. D. Pennell
    • 1
  • C. A. Ramsburg
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Civil and Environmental EngineeringTufts UniversityMedfordUSA
  2. 2.Department of Civil and Environmental EngineeringU.S. Air Force AcademyColorado SpringsUSA

Personalised recommendations