Advertisement

Ionic Chain-Growth Polymerization

  • A. Ravve
Chapter

Abstract

Ionic polymerization can be either cationic or anionic. This difference stems from the nature of the carrier ions on the growing polymeric chains. If in the process of growth, the chains carry positive centers, or carbon cations, the mechanism of chain growth is designated as cationic. On the other hand, if the growing chains carry negative ions, or carbanions, then the polymerization is designated as anionic.

Keywords

Lewis Acid Vinyl Ether Anionic Polymerization Cationic Polymerization Narrow Molecular Weight Distribution 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. 1.
    J.P. Kennedy and E. Marechal, Cationic Polymerization, Wiley-Interscience, New York 1982; M.Mofton, Anionic Polymerization, Principles and Practice, Academic Press New York 1983Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    T.E. HogenEsch and J. Smid, eds, Recent Advances in Anionic Polymerization, Elsevier, New York, 1987Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    M.L Burstall and FE. Treloar, Chapt. 1, The Chemistry of Cationic Polymerization, P.R Plesch, ed Macmillan Co., New York, 1963Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    D.N. Bhattacharyya, C.L Lee I Smid, and M. Szwarc, J. Phys. Chem,1965, 69, 612Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    D.N. Bhattacharyya, I Smid, and M. Szwarc,J. Phys. Chem.,1965, 69, 624Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    G.T. Chen, J. Polymer Sci., Polymer Chem. Ed. 1982., 20, 2915Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    T. Keii, E. Suzuki, M. Tamura, M. Murata, and Y. Doi, Mak.romoL Chem., 1982, 183, 2285Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    J. P. Kennedy and R.M. Thornas, Advan. Chem. Ser., 1967, 34, 111; Aoshima, S., Yoshida, T., Kanazawa, A. and Kanaoka, S. J. Polym. Sc!., Part A: Polym. Chem., 2007, 45, 1801;Yoshida, T., Kanaoka, S. and Aoshima, S., J. Polym. Sc!., Port A: Polym.Chem. 2005, 43, 5138Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    J.P. Kennedy and B Marechal, J. Polymer Sci., MacromoL Rev., 1981, 16, 123Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    G. A. Olah, Makromol. Chemie, 1974, 175, 1039Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    M. Chmelir, J. Polymer Sci. Symposium, 1976 , #56, 311Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Z. Zlamal, Chapt. 6, Vinyl Polymerization, Part Il, G.E.Ham, ed. Dekker, New York, 1969Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    D.D. Eley, The Chemiatiy of Cationic Polymerization”. P.H. Plesch, ed., MacMillan, New York, 1963Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    O. Wichterle, M. Kolinsky, and M. Marek, Chem. Listy, 1958, 52, 1049Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    R.G.. Heiligman, J. Polymer Sci.,1951, 6, 155Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    NA. Ghanem and H Mark, Eur. Polymer J, 1972, 8, 999Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    AG. Evans, G.W. Meadows and M. Polanyi, Nature, 1946, 158, 94; ibid. 1947, 160, 869Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    P.H. Pleat, The Chemistry of Cationic Polymerization. P.R Plesch, ed., Macmillan, N.Y., 1963Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    H.C. Brown and B.W. Kanner, J. Am Chem.. Soc, 1963, 75, 3865Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    M.J. Moulis, J. Collomb, A Gandini, and H Cheradame, Polymer Bull. (Berlin), 1980, 3 (4), 197, From Chem.Abstr 1981, 94, 31143uGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    J.P. Kemedy, T. Kelen, S.C Guhaniyogi, and R.T. Chou,, J. MacromoL Sci.-Chem., 1982 , 4,18, 129Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    M. Masure and P. Sigwalt, MakromoL Chem., Rapid Commun, 1983, 4,269Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    PH. Plesch, Makromol Chemie, 1974, 75, 1065Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    M. Chmelir, M. Marek and O. Wichterle, J. Polymer Sci., 1967, C-16, 833Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    M. Chmelir, J. Polymer Sci., Symposium, 1970, # 56, 311Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    J.P. Kennedy, J.MacromoL Sci. 1972,. 6-A, 329Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    G. Sauvet, J.P.Vairon, and P. Sigwalt, J. Polymer sci., Chem.., 1978, 16, 3047Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    P. Sigwalt, Makromol. Chemie, 1974, 175, 1017Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    G.A. Olah, Makromol. Chemie, 1974, 175,1039Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    V. Korshakand N.N. Lebedev, J. Gen. Chem. U.S.S.R. 1948, 18, 1766Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    G. Sauvet, J.P.Vairon, and P. Sigwalt, Bull. Soc. Chim. France, 1970, 4031Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    M. Marek and M. Chmelir, Intent Symp. MacromoL Chem., Prague, 1965, p.4.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    F.A.M. Abdul-Rasoul, A Ledwith, and Y. Yagci, Polymer, 1978, 19, 1219Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    M. Chmelir and M. Marek, J. Polymer Sci, 1968, C,22, 177Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    P. Lopour and M. Marek, Makromol Chem., 1970, 134, 23Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    D.W.Grattan and P.H. Plesch, Makromol. Chem., 1980, 181, 751; Sipos, L., De, P. and Faust, R. Macromolecules 2003, 36, 8282; Dimitrov, I. and Faust, R. Macromolecules 2004, 37, 9753; Hadjikyriacou, S., Acar, M. and Faust, R. Macromolecules 2004, 37, 75; Dc, P. and Faust, R. Macromolecules 2006,39, 7527Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    J.P. Kenedy, S.Y. Huang, and S.C, Feinberg,, J. Polymer Sci., 1977, 15, 2801Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    P. Giusti, F. Andrizzi, P. Cerrai, and G.L Possanzini, Makromol. Chem., 1970, 136, 97Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    C.E.H Bawn, C. Fitzimmons, and A. Ledwith, Proc. Chem. Soc., 1964, 391Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    A. Ledwith, Makromol. Chem., 1974, 175, 1117Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    C.E.H. Bawn, Pure and Applied Chem, 1968, 16(2-3), 385Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    G. Natta, G. Dall Asta, G. Mazzxanti, U. Giannini, and S. Cesea, Angew. Chem.,1959, 71, 205Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    G. Natta, G. Dall Asta, G. Mazzxanti, and S. Cesea, Makromol. Chem., 1962, 58,217Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    J.P. Kennedy, Am. Chem. Soc. Polymer Preprints, 1966, 7, 485: J. Polymer Sci., Symposium, 1976, #56, 1Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    T. Saegusa, in Structure and Mechanism in Vinyl Polymerization, T. Tsuruta and H.S. O’driscoll, eds.,Dekker, New York, 1969Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    J.C. Bevington in Polyethers #1, N. Gaylord, ed., (High Polymers, Vol 13), Wiley-Interscience, New York 1963Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    H. Sinn, H. Winter, W.V. Tirptiz, Makromol. Chem., 1961, 48, 59Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    T. Saegusa,. H. Imai, and J. Furukawa, Makromol. Chem. 1963, 65, 60Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    K. Iwasaki, H. Imai, and Y. Tsuchita, and S. Nakano, J. Polymer Sci., 1963 , A-1,1, 2371Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    J.M. Bruce and D.W. Farren, Polymer, 1963, 4, 407Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    M. Udo, KM. Stehling M.R Stein, and ItW. Wamouth,Macromolecules, 1998, 31, 2019Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    AG. Can, D.M. Dawsom, andM. Bothmann, Mocromolecules, 1998, 31, 2035Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Q. Wang. D. Jeremic, F. Barsan, It Quyoum, D.J. Gills, and M.C. Baird. Am. Chem. Soc Polymer Preprints, 1996, 37(1), 251Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    K Matsuzaki, R Mciii, N. Inoue, and T. Kanai, Makromol. Chem., 1981, 182, 2421Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    F.A.M Abdul-Rasoul, A Ledwith, and Y. Yagci, Polymer Bull., 1978, 1, 1Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    A Ledwith, Polymer, 1978, 19, 1217Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    LP. Ellinger, Advan. Macromol Chem., 1968, 1, 169Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    H. Gilbert, F.F. Miller, S.J. Averill, B.H. Carlson, J.L Folt, H.J. Heller, F.D. Stewart, R.F. Schmidt, and IL L Trumbull, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1956, 78, 1669Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    A Ledwith, J. Polymer Sci.,., Symposium #56, 1976, 483Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    RF. Tarvin, S. Aoki, and J.K Stille, Macromolecules, 1972, 5, 663Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    T. Natsuume, M. Naahiniura, M. Fujirnatsu, M. Shimizu, Y. Shirota, H. Hirata, S. Kikabayaahi, and a Mikawa, Polymer J. Japan. 1971, 1, 181 (From a private translation)Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    K Takakura, K Hayashi, and S. Okamura, J. Polymer Sci., Polymer Letters. 1965, 3, 565Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    K Takakura, K Hayashi, and S. Okamura, J. Polymer Sci., PolymerLetters, 1965, 4, 5 09Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    M. Irie, S. Tominto, R Hsyashi, J. Polymer Sci., Polymer Letters, 1970, 8, 809Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    M. Marek and L Toman, J.. Polymer Sci. Polymer Symposium #42, 1973 339Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    M. Marek and LToman, Makromol. Chem., Rapid Commun., 1980, 1,161Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    J.V. Criveilo and J.H. Lam, J. Polymer Sci., Symposium #56, 1976, 383Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    J.V. Crivello and J.H. Lam, J. Polymer Sci, Polymer Letters, 1978, 16, 563Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    J.V. Crivello and J.H. Lam,,J. Polymer Sci., Chem. Ed., 1980, 17, 1047; ibid. 1980, 18, 2677; ibid, 1980,. 18, 2697Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    J.V. Crivello and J. H. L.am. J. Polymer Sci., Polymer Letters, 1979, 17, 759Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    J.V. Crivelloand J.H Lam, J. Polymer Sci., Chem. Ed, 1980, 18, 1021Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    K Hayashi and S. Okamura, J. Polymer Sci., Symposium. #22, 1968, 15Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    F. Williams et aL, Discussion Faraday Soc., 1963, 36, 254Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    R.K Ueno, K Hayashi, and S. Okamura, J. Polymer Sci., Polymer Letters, 1965, 3, 363; Polymer, 1966 , 7,451Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    R.C. Potter, R.M. Bretton and D.J… Metz, J. Polymer Sci, 1966, A-1,4, 419, 2259Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    F. Williants, J. Am. Chem. Soc,.1964, 86, 3954Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    R.B Taylor and F. Williams, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1969, 91, 3728Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    J.W. Breitenback and C.H. Srna, Pure and AppL Chem., 1962, 4, 245Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    B.I. Funt and S.W. Laurent, J. Polymer Sci., 1964, A-1,2, 865Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    B.I Funt and K.C. Yu, J. Polymer Sci., 1962, 62, 359Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    J.W. Breitenbath, Ch. Sma, and 0. F. Olaj, Macromol. Chem., 1960, 42, 171Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    JW. Breitenbach and H. Gabler, Monatsch. Chem., 1961, 91, 202Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    F. Sommer and J.W. Breitenbach, IUPAC Int. Symp. MacromoL Chem., 1069, 1, 257Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    U. Akbulut, J.E. Fernandez, and R.L. Birke, J. Polymer Sci., Polymer Chem Ed., 1975, 13, 133Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    B.L. Funt and T.J Blain,J.Polymer Sci., 1971, A-2,9, 115Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    J.P. Kennedy and R.M. Thomas, J. Polymer Sci., 1960, 46, 233Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    T. Higashisnura, 5. Okamura, and J. Masamoto, Kibunski Kagaku, 1968, 25, (282) 702 (private translation)Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Y. Wang and L M. Dorfmann, Macromolecules, 1980, 13, 63Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    N. Kolishetti and R. Faust, Macromolecules, 2008, Web edition 10.1021/ma801669tGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    J P. Kennedy, Copolymerization, G.B. Ham, ed., Wiley-Interscience. New York, 1964Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    D.C. Pepper and PJ. Reilly, J. Polymer Sal., 1961, 58, 639Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    A.G. Evans and M. Polanyi, J. Chem. Soc., 1947, 252Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    CE. Schiklmecht A.O.. Zoss, and E. McKinley, Ind. Eng. Chem., 1948, 39, 180Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    G. Natta, I.W. Bossi, and P. CaRradini, MakromoL Chem., 1955, 18, 455Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    C. E. Schildknecht, Ind. Eng. Chem., 1958 50, 107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    S.Okamura, T. Higashimura, and! Sakurada, J. Polymer Chem, 1959, 39, 507Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    T. Saegusa, H lmai, and J. Furukawa, Macromol Chem., 1964, 79, 207Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    J. Freenley, A Ledwith, and R.H, Sutcliffe, J. Chem. Soc., 1962, 2021Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    C.E.H. Bawn and A. Ledwith, Quart.Rev. (London), 1962, 16, 361Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    D.J. Cram and K R Kopecky, J. Am. Chem. Soc, 1959, 81, 2748Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    T. Kunitake and C Aso, J. Polymer Sci.., 1970, A-1,8, 665Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    Y. Hirokawa, T.R Higashimura, K Matsuzaki, T. Kawamura, and T. Uryu, J. Polymer Sci., Chem. Ed, 1979, 17, 3923Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    D.1 Sikkerna and H. Angad-Gaur, MakromoL Chem., 1980, 181, 2259Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    A Ledwith, B. Chiellini and K Solano, Macromolecules, 1979, 12, 240Google Scholar
  105. 105.
    T Kunitake and K Takarabe, Mokromol. Chem., 1981, 182, 817Google Scholar
  106. 106.
    G. Heublin, J. Macromol Sci.-Chem., 1981, A,16, 563Google Scholar
  107. 107.
    J. Furukawa, Polymer, 1962, 3,487CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    S. Nakano, K Iwasaki and H. Fukutani, J. Polymer Sat, 1963, A-1,1, 3277Google Scholar
  109. 109.
    P.H. Plesch B. Polymer J.., 1973, 1; P.H. Plesch, Mokromol Chem., Macromol Symp., 1988, 13/14, 375,393; K Matyjaszewski, Mokromol. Chem. Macromol Symp., 1988, 13/14,389Google Scholar
  110. 110.
    A Gandini and P. H. Plesch, Eur. Polymer J., 1968, 4,55; D.C. Pepper, Makromol. Chem., 1974, 175, 1077Google Scholar
  111. 111.
    S. Bywater and D.J.. Woisford, Can..J. Chem., 1966, 44, 1671CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    T. Masuda and T. Higashimura, J.Polymer Sci., Polym. Letters, 1972, 9, 783Google Scholar
  113. 113.
    S.D. Hamann, A.J. Murphy, D.M. Solomon, and R. Willing, J. Macromol Sci.-Chem., 1972, A6, 771Google Scholar
  114. 114.
    M. Szwarc, Macromolecules, 1995, 28,7309, 7312Google Scholar
  115. 115.
    K Matyjaszewski, Mokromol Chem. Symp., 1988, 13/14, 389Google Scholar
  116. 116.
    J.P. Kennedy, Trans. N.Y. Acad. Sci., 1966, 1080Google Scholar
  117. 117.
    J.P. Kennedy and J.A. Hinlicky, Polymer. 1965, 6, 133CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    G. Santori, A Valvassori, V. Turba, and M.P. L.achi, Chim. Ind (Mllano), 1963 , 45, 1529Google Scholar
  119. 119.
    J.P. Kennedy and H.S. Makowski,J. Polymer Sci., 1968, C(22), 247Google Scholar
  120. 120.
    J.P. Kennedy, J.J. Elliott and W. Naegele,,J. Polymer Sci., 1964, A-1,2, 5029Google Scholar
  121. 121.
    C.G. Wanless and J.P. Kenedy,,Polymer 1965, 6, 111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    J.P. Kennedy, W.W. Schulz, RG. Squires, and R.M. Thomas, Polymer, 1965, 6, 289Google Scholar
  123. 123.
    G.A Sartori, Hi Lammens, J. Siffert and A Bernard, J. Polymer Sci., Polymer Letters, 1971, 9, 599Google Scholar
  124. 124.
    J.P. Kennedy, P. Berzel, W. Naegele, and R.G. Squires, J. MacromoL Sci.-Chem., 1966, 93, 191Google Scholar
  125. 125.
    P. Dimitrov, J. Emert, J. Hua, S. Kekis, and R. Faust, Macromolecules, 2011, 44, 1831Google Scholar
  126. 126.
    J.P. Kennedy, A Schinakawa, and F. Williams, J. Polymer Sci.,1971, A-1,9, 1551Google Scholar
  127. 127.
    J.P. Kannedy, S.Y. Huang and S.C. Feinberg. J. PaJymer Sci., 1977, 2801Google Scholar
  128. 128.
    J.P. Kennedy, J.Polymer Sci., Symposia #56, 1976, 1Google Scholar
  129. 129.
    J.P. Kennedy and E.Marechal, Cationic Polymerization, Wiley-Interscience, New York, 1982;Google Scholar
  130. 130.
    M. Karnigaito, K Yarnaoka, M. Sawarnoto, and T.H Higashirnura, Macromolecules, 1992, 25, 6400; J.P. Kennedy, S. Midha, and B Keszler, Macromolecules, 1993, 26, 424, J. Lu, M. Karnigaito, M. Sawarnoto, T.H. Higashirnura, and Y.-X Deng, Macromolecules, 1997, 30, 22Google Scholar
  131. 131.
    J.P. Kemedy, T. Kelen, and F. Tudoa, J. Macromol.Sci.-Chem., 1982-1983 , A,18, 1189Google Scholar
  132. 132.
    K Faust, A Fehervari, and J.P. Kennedy, J. Macromol. Sci.-Chem., 1982-1983, A,18, 1209Google Scholar
  133. 133.
    J.Puskas, G. Kaszas, J.P. Kennedy, T. Kelen, and F. Tudoa, J. Macroml. Sci.-Chem., 1982-1983, A,18 1229Google Scholar
  134. 134.
    J.Puskas, G. Kaszas, J.P. Kennedy, T. Kelen, and F. Tudoa, J. Macroml. Sci.-Chem., 1982-1983, A,18, 1245Google Scholar
  135. 135.
    J.Puskas, G. Kaszas, J.P. Kennedy, T. Kelen, and F. Tudoa, J. Macroml. Sci.-Chem., 1982-1983, A,18, 1263Google Scholar
  136. 136.
    M.. Sawamoto and J.P. Kennedy,J. MacromoL Sci.-Chem., 1982-1983, A,18, 1275; S. Aoshima and S. Kanaoka, Chem. Rev.,2009, 109,5245Google Scholar
  137. 137.
    K Faust and J.P. Kerinedy, J. Polymer Sci., Polymer Chem. Ed, 1987, 25, 1847; T. Higashumura, S. Aoshima, and M. Sawamoto, Makromol. Chem.,Macromol. Symp. 1988, 13/14,457(1988); Y. lshihara, M. Sawamoto, and T. Higashimura, Polym. Bull, 1990, 24, 201Google Scholar
  138. 138.
    G. Kaszaa, J.E. Puskas, C.C. Chen, and JP. Kennedy, Macromolecules, 1990, 23, 3909; J.P. Kennedy, Makromol. Chem., MacromoL Symp., 1992, 32,119; O.. Nuyken and H. Kroner, Makromol. Chem., 1990, 191, 1; L Thomas, A Poton, M. Tardi, and P. Sigwalt, Macromolecules, 1992, 25, 5886Google Scholar
  139. 139.
    M. Sawamoto and T. Higashimura, Am. Chem. Soc., Polymer Preprints, 1991, 32, 312; Yoshida, T., Kanazawa, A., Kanaoka, S. and Aoshima, S,. J. Polym.. Sci., Part A: Polym. Chem. 2005, 43, 4288, Kanazawa, A., Kanaoka, S. and Aoshima, S. Macromolecules 2009, 42, 3965; Kanazawa, A., Kanaoka, S. and Aoshtma, S. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2007, 129, 2420; Sugihara, S., Tanabe, Y., Kitagawa, M. and lkeda, I. J. Polym. Sci., Part A: Polym. Chem. 2008, 46, 1913Google Scholar
  140. 140.
    R.F. Storey, C.L Curry, and L.B. Blister, Macromolecules, 1998, 31, 1058Google Scholar
  141. 141.
    Z. Fedor, Y.C. Bae, and R. Faust, Macromolecules, 1998, 31,4439CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    A. Kanazawa, S. Kanaoka and S. I. Aoshlma, Macromoleculee, 2010, 43, 3682CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    D.H Richards, Polymer, 1978, 19, 109Google Scholar
  144. 144.
    D. Margerison and J.P. Newport, Trans. Faraday Soc., 1963, 59, 2058Google Scholar
  145. 145.
    T.L Brown, R.L. Gerteis, D.A Bafus and J.A Ladd, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1964, 86, 2134Google Scholar
  146. 146.
    J. Smid, Chapt 11, Stnidure and Mechanism in Vinyl Polymerization, T. Tsunita and K.F. O’Driscoll, eds.. Dekker, New York, 1969Google Scholar
  147. 147.
    T.L. Brown, Advan. Organometallic Chem., 1965, 3, 365CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    H.F. Ebel, Tetrahedron, 1965, 21, 699CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    G. Fraenkel, D.G. Adams, and J. Williams, Tetrahedron Letters, 1963, 767Google Scholar
  150. 150.
    D.J. Worsford and S. Bywater, Can. S Chem., 1962, 40, 1564CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    C.G. Screttas and J.F. Eastham, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1965, 87, 3276CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    A Zilkha, S. Barzakay, A Ottolenghi, J. Polymer Sci.., 1963, A-1,1, 1813Google Scholar
  153. 153.
    J.P. Kennedy and AW. Langer, Jr., Fortschr. Hochpolymer Forsch., 1964, 3, 544Google Scholar
  154. 154.
    J. Geerts, M.Van Beylen, and G. Smets, J. Polymer Sci., 1969, A-1,7, 2859Google Scholar
  155. 155.
    Ch.B. Tsvetanov, Eur. Polymer J, 1979, 15, 503CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    A.A Korotkov, S.P. Mitzengendler, and V.N. Krasulina, J Polmer Sci., 1961,53, 217Google Scholar
  157. 157.
    T. Fujimoto, N. Kawabata and J Furukawa, J. Polymer Sci., 1968, A-1,6, 1209Google Scholar
  158. 158.
    K Hatada, T. Kitayama, K Fujikawa, K Ohta, and a Yuki, Am. Chem. Soc. Polymer Preprints, 1980, 21(1), 59Google Scholar
  159. 159.
    G. Lohr and G.V.Schulz, Eur. Polymer J., 1974, 10, 121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. 160.
    V. Warzelhan, H. Hocker, and G.V. Schulz, Makromol Chem., 1978, 179, 2221CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. 161.
    R Kraft A.H.E. Muller, V. Warzelhan, H. Hocker, and G.V. Schulz, Macromolecules, 1978, 11, 1093Google Scholar
  162. 162.
    R Kraft, A.H.E. Muller, H. Hocker, and G.V, Schulz, Makromol Chem., Rapid Commun., 1980, 1, 363Google Scholar
  163. 163.
    Y. Joh Y. Kotake T. Yoshihara, F. Ide and K Nakatsuka J. Polymer Sci., 1967, A-lA 593, 605Google Scholar
  164. 164.
    Ch.B. Tsvetanov, Eur. Polymer J.., 1979, 15, 503CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. 165.
    P.E.M.. Alien,.J. Macromol Sci, 1980, A,14, 11Google Scholar
  166. 166.
    B.L Erussaliniski, I.V. Kulevskaya, and V.V. Mazurek,,J. Polymer Sci., 1967, 16, 1355Google Scholar
  167. 167.
    B.L Erussalinski, Vysokomol Soed, 1971, A13, 1293Google Scholar
  168. 168.
    A.R Lyons and Catterall, Eur. Polymer J., 1970, 7, 839Google Scholar
  169. 169.
    N.G. Gaylord and S.S. Dixit, Macromol. Rev., 1974, 8, 51CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. 170.
    C.G.. Overberger and Y. Yamamoto, J. Polymer Sci., 1959, B, 3,569 (1959); J. Polymer Sci, 1966, A-1,4, 3101Google Scholar
  171. 171.
    K Higashi, H. Baba, and A Reanbaum, Quantum Organic Chemistry, Wiley-Interscience, New York, 1965Google Scholar
  172. 172.
    D.C. Pepper, Makromol. Cliem. 1974, 175, 1077CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. 173.
    D.H. Richards, Polymer, 1972, 19, 109CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. 174.
    M. Szwarc, Nature, 1956, 178,1168CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. 175.
    M. Brady, M. Ladaki, R Miilcovich, and M. Szwarc, J. Polymer Sci., 1957, 221Google Scholar
  176. 176.
    M. Szwarc, M. Levy, and R Milkovich, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1956, 78, 2656Google Scholar
  177. 177.
    M. Szwarc, Makromol Chem., 1960, 35, 132CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. 178.
    M. Szwarc and Van Beylen, ‘Ionic Polymerization and Living Polymers’, Chapman and Hall, New York, 1993 Google Scholar
  179. 179.
    M. Levy and M. Szwarc, J. Am. Chem. Soc.,1961, 82, 521Google Scholar
  180. 180.
    M. Szwarc, Carbanions, Living Polymers, and Electron Transfer Processes, Interscience, New York, 1968Google Scholar
  181. 181.
    A Zilkha. P. Neta, and M. Frankel, J. Chem. Soc., 1960, 3357Google Scholar
  182. 182.
    S. Inoue, T. Tsunita, and J. Furukawa, Makromol. Chem., 1960, 42, 12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. 183.
    I.M. Panagotov, I.B. Rashkov, and I. N. Yukhnovski Eur. Polymer J.., 1971, 7, 749CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. 184.
    A.A. Morton, B.B. Magat, and R.L Letsinger, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1947, 69, 950Google Scholar
  185. 185.
    A.A. Morton, F.M. Bolton, F.W. Co1lins and B.F. Cluf, Ind. Eng. Chem., 1952, 44, 2876Google Scholar
  186. 186.
    A.A. Morton, RubberAge 1953, 72, 473Google Scholar
  187. 187.
    A.A. Morton, Ind. Eng. Chem., 1950, 42, 1488CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. 188.
    A.A. Morton and B.J. Laupher, J. Polymer Sci., 1960, 44, 233Google Scholar
  189. 189.
    L Reich and A Schindler, Polymerization by Organometallic Compounds, Wiley-Interscience, New York, 1966Google Scholar
  190. 190.
    N. Yamazaki, S. Nakarnura, and S. Karnbara, J. Polymer Sci., Polymer Letters, 1965, 3, 57Google Scholar
  191. 191.
    D. Laurin and G. Parravane, .J Polymer Sci.., Polymer Letters, 1966, 4, 797Google Scholar
  192. 192.
    B.L Funt and S.N. Bhadani,J. Polymer Sci., 1968. C,17, 1Google Scholar
  193. 193.
    F.I Welch, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1959, 81, 1345Google Scholar
  194. 194.
    KF. O’Driscoll and AV. Tobolsky, J. Polymer Sci.,,1959, 35,259.Google Scholar
  195. 195.
    S. Bywater and D.J. Woraford, Can. J. Chem., 1966, 44, 1671CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  196. 196.
    K Matsuzaki, Y. Shinobara, and T. Kanai,Makromol Chem., 1980, 18, 1923 (1980)Google Scholar
  197. 197.
    J. Boor Jr., Ziegler-Natta Catalysts and Polymerization, Academic Press, New York, 1979 180.Google Scholar
  198. 198.
    K.F. O’Driscoll, T. Yonezawa, T. Higashimura J.Macromol Sci.-Chem., 1966, 1, 1Google Scholar
  199. 199.
    M. Morton, R.D. Sanderson, R Sakata, J. Polymer Sci, Polymer Letters, 1971, 9, 61Google Scholar
  200. 200.
    M. Morton, Ind.Eng. Chem., Prod Res. Dev., 1972, 11, 106Google Scholar
  201. 201.
    D.L. Glusker, E. Stiles, B. Yancoskie, J. Polymer Sci., 1961, 49, 297Google Scholar
  202. 202.
    K Butler, P.R Thomas, and J. Tyler, J. Polymer Sci.., 1960, 48, 357Google Scholar
  203. 203.
    R Kraft, AHE. Muller, H. Hoker, and G.V. Schulz, Macromol. Chem, Rapid Commun., 1980, 1, 363Google Scholar
  204. 204.
    G. Lohr and G.V. Schulz, Makromol Chem., 1973, 172, 137CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  205. 205.
    V. Warzelhan, H. Hocker, and G.V. Schulz, Makromol. Chem., 1978, 179, 2221CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  206. 206.
    R Kraft, ARE. Muller, V. Warzelhan, H. Hocker, and G.V. Schulz, Macromolecules, 1978, 11, 1093Google Scholar
  207. 207.
    W. Fowells, C. Schuerch, F.A. Bovey, and F.P. Hood, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1967, 89, 1396;CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  208. 208.
    D.L Gluaker, E. Stiles, and B. Yonkpskie, J. Polymer Sci., 1961, 49, 297Google Scholar
  209. 209.
    C.E.H Bawn and A Ledwith, Quart Rev. (London), 1962, 16, 361Google Scholar
  210. 210.
    Huynh ba Gia and J.E. McGrath, Am. Chem. Soc. Polymer Preprints, 1980, 21(1), 74Google Scholar
  211. 211.
    T.E. Hogen-Esch and J. Smid, eds, Recent Advances in Anionic Polymerization, Elsevier, NewYork, 1987Google Scholar
  212. 212.
    T.J. Clark, J. Tien, D.C. Duffy, and P.K.E. Whitesides, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2001, 123, 7677CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  213. 213.
    W.J. Evans, D.G. Giarikos, and N.T. Allen, Macromolecules, 2003, 36, 4256CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  214. 214.
    D.J. Breslow, G.E. Hulse, and A.S.. MatlacK, J..Am. Chem. Soc., 1957, 79, 3760CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  215. 215.
    L.W. Bush and D.S. Breslow, Macromolecules, 1968, 1, 189CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  216. 216.
    Y. Kohuke, K Hanji, J. Furukawa, and T. Fueno, J. Polymer Sci., 1971, A-1,9 431; T Otsu, B. Yamada, M. Itahashi, and T. Mori,.J. Polymer Sci., Polymer Chem. Ed., 1976, 14, 1347Google Scholar
  217. 217.
    W.M. Saltman, W.E. Gildes, and J. Lal, J.Am. Chem. Soc., 1958, 80, 5615CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  218. 218.
    K Yamaguchi and M. Mirioura, J. Polymer Sci., 1972, A-1,10, 1217Google Scholar
  219. 219.
    D.J. Cram and K.R. Kopecky, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1959. 81, 2748; T.E. Hogen-Esch and J. Smid, eds., Recent Advances in Anionic Polymerization, Elsevier, New York, 1987; AH.E. Muller, Carbonionic Polymerization Kinetics and Thermodynamics, in Comprehensive Polymer Science, VoL 3, G.C. Eaatmond, A. Ledwith, S. Russo, and P. Sigwalt, eds. Pergamon Press, London,. 1989Google Scholar
  220. 220.
    A Ottolenghi and A Zilkha, J. Polymer Sci., 1963, A-1,l, 687; Y. Imanishi, Carbanionic Polymerization: Hydrogen Migration Polymerization in Comprehensive Polymer Science, VoL 3, G.C Eaatmond, A Ledwith, S.Russo, and P. Sigwalt, eds., Pergamon Press, I.ondon, 1989Google Scholar
  221. 221.
    Ph. Teyssie, K Fayt, J.P. Hautekeer, C. Jacobs, R Jerome, L Leemans, and S.K Varshney, Macromol. Chem., Macromol Symp., 1990, 32, 61; S.K Varshney, J.P. Hautekeer, K Fayt, R Jerome, and Ph. Teysaie, Macromolecules,1990, 23, 2618Google Scholar
  222. 222.
    M. Kuroki, T. Watanabe, T. Aida, and S. Inoue, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1991, 113, 5903 : T. Adachi, H. Sugirnoto, T. Aida, and S. Inoue, Macromolecules, 1992, 25, 2280Google Scholar
  223. 223.
    T. Suzuki, J. Kusakabe, K. Kitazawa,T. Nakagawa, S. Kawauchi and T. Ishizone, Macromolecules, 2010, 43, 107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  224. 224.
    K Ziegler, E. Holzkamp, H. Breil, and H. Martin, Angew. Chem., 1955, 67, 541Google Scholar
  225. 225.
    G. Natta, J. Polymer Sci., 1955, 16, 143Google Scholar
  226. 226.
    W. Cooper, Chapt.l in Vinyl and Allied Polymers, Vol.1, P.D. Ritchie, ed., CRC Press, 1968Google Scholar
  227. 227.
    H. Bestian, K Clauss, H. Jensen, and E. Prinz, Angew. Chem., Intern. Ed. 1963. 2, 32Google Scholar
  228. 228.
    G. Natta, J. Inorg. Nuc. Chem., 1958. 8, 589CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  229. 229.
    D.O. Jordan, Chapt.l in Stereochemistry of Macromolecules, Vol.1, A V. Ketley, ed., Dekker, New York, 1967Google Scholar
  230. 230.
    R Rieger, X. Mu, D.T. Mallin, M.D. Raush, and J.C.W. Chen, Macromolecules, 1990, 23, 383; N,H, Cheng and J.A Ewen, Makromol. Chem., 1989, 190, 1931; A Grassi, A.Zambelli, L Resconi, E. Albizzati, and R Mazzocchi, Macromolecules, 1988, 21, 617; Y.V.Kissin, T.E Nowlin, and R.I. Mink, Macromolecules, 1993, 26, 2151Google Scholar
  231. 231.
    L.ewis and Rundle, J. Chem. Phys., 1953, 1,986Google Scholar
  232. 232.
    G. Natta, P. Pino, G. Mazzanti, V. Gianini, E. Mantica, and M. Peraldo, J. Polymer Sci., 1957, 26, 20Google Scholar
  233. 233.
    G. Natta and G. Mazzanti, Tetrahedron, 1960 , 6, 86CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  234. 234.
    N. C. Billinghani, Br. Polymer.J.., 1974, 6, 299CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  235. 235.
    P. Corradini, G. Guerra, R Rusco, and V. Barone, Eur. Polymer.J., 1980, 16, 835Google Scholar
  236. 236.
    P. Cossee, Tetrahedron Letters, 1960, 17, 12, 17, Trans. Faraday Soc., 1962, 58, 1226Google Scholar
  237. 237.
    P. Cossee and E. J. Arlman, J. Catalysis, 1964, 3, 99; P. Cosaee,J. Catalysis, 1964, 3, 80Google Scholar
  238. 238.
    J. Chatt and B.I. Shaw, J. Chem. Soc., 1959, 705Google Scholar
  239. 239.
    A Zambelli, I Pasquon, R Signorini, and G. Natta, Makromol. Chem., 1968, 112, 160Google Scholar
  240. 240.
    A Zambelli, M.G. Giongo, and G. Natta, Makromol. Chem., 1968, 112, 183; M.Goodman, Concepts of Polymer Stereochemistry, Topics in Stereochemistry, N.G. Allinger and E.L Eliel, eds., Wiley-Interscience, New York, 1967Google Scholar
  241. 241.
    K J.. Ivin, J..J. Rooney, C.D. Stewaft, M.L.H. Green, and R Mahtab, J. Chem. Soc., Chem. Commun., 1978, 604; K.J.. Ivin, Proc. Eur. Symp. Polym. Spectrosc., 1978, 11, 267Google Scholar
  242. 242.
    T. Kahara, M. Shinoyama, Y. Doi, and T. Keii, Makromol. Chem., 1979, 180, 2199Google Scholar
  243. 243.
    A Zambelli, M.C.Sacchi, and P. Locatelli, Macromolecules. 1979, 12, 1051; A Zanibelli and G. Allegra, Macromolecules, 1980, 13, 42Google Scholar
  244. 244.
    L Cavallo, G. Guerra, P. Caradini, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1998, 120, 2428Google Scholar
  245. 245.
    P. Pino, G.P. Lorenzi, and L Lardicci, Chim. Ind (Milan), 1960, 42, 712Google Scholar
  246. 246.
    P. Pino, F. Ciardelli, G.P. Lorenzi, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1961, 84, 1487CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  247. 247.
    P. Pino, F. Ciardelli, and G.P. Lonenzi, J. Polymer Sci., 1963, C,4, 21Google Scholar
  248. 248.
    P. Carradini, G. Pajaro, and A Pannunzi, J. Polymer Sci., 1967, C,l6, 2905Google Scholar
  249. 249.
    A Zambelli, P. Locatelli, M. C. Sacchi, and E. Rigamoti, Macromolecules. 1980, 13, 798Google Scholar
  250. 250.
    P. Pino, Fortschr. Hochpolym. Forsch.,1965, 4, 393Google Scholar
  251. 251.
    G. Allegra, Macromol. Chem., 1971, 145, 235; F. Ciardelli, Macrornolecules, 1970, 3,527Google Scholar
  252. 252.
    P. Pino and R Melhaupt, Angew. Chem., Intern. Ed.., 1980, 19, 857Google Scholar
  253. 253.
    C.P. Casey, Macromolecules, 1981, 14, 64CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  254. 254.
    M.L.H. Green, Pure Appl. Chem., 1978, 50, 27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  255. 255.
    F.A Bovey, High Resolution NMR of Macromolecules, Acad. Press, New York, 1972Google Scholar
  256. 256.
    P. Margl, L Deng, and T. Ziegler, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1998, 120, 5517Google Scholar
  257. 257.
    J.W.L. Fordham, PH. Burleigh, and C.L Sturm, J. Polymer Sci., 1959, 42, 73Google Scholar
  258. 258.
    F.A. Bovey, J. Polymer Sci., 1960, 46, 59Google Scholar
  259. 259.
    G. Natta, I.Pasquon, and A Zambelli, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1962, 84, 1488Google Scholar
  260. 260.
    A Zambelli, G. Natta, and I Pasquon, J. Polymer Sci., 1963, C4, 411Google Scholar
  261. 261.
    A Zambelli, 23rd. Int. Cong. of IUPAC, Macromoll Preprints, 1971, 1, 124; A Zambelli and G. Gatti, Macromolecules, 1978, 11,485; A Zambelli, P. Locatelli, M.C. Sacchi, and E. Rigamonte, Macromolecules, 1980, 13, 798; P. Amandolla, T. Tancredi, and A. Zambelli, Macromolecules, 1986, 19, 307; I. Tnitto, M.C. Zacchi, and P. Locatelli, Makromol. Chem. 1986, 187, 214Google Scholar
  262. 262.
    J. Boor Jr, Ziegler-Nalta Catalysts and Polymerizations, Academic Press, New York, 1979Google Scholar
  263. 263.
    B.G. Dolgoploak, P.A Vinogradov, OP. Parenago, E.I. Tinyatova, and B.S. Turov, IUAPC Int Symp. Macromol. Chem. Prague Preprints, p.1314, 1965Google Scholar
  264. 264.
    A Ledwith and D.C. Sherrington, Reactivity and Mechanism In Polymerization by Complex Organometallic Derivatives in Reactivity, Mechanism and Structure in Polymer Chemistry, A D. Jenkins and A Ledwith, eds., Wiley-Interscience, London, 1974Google Scholar
  265. 265.
    K.Matsuzaki and T.Yasukawa, J.Polymer Sci, 1967, A-l,5, 521Google Scholar
  266. 266.
    K Matsuzaki and T. Yasukawa, J. Polymer Sci., 1967, A-2,5, 511Google Scholar
  267. 267.
    H. Hirai, K. Hiraki, I. Noguchi, T. lnoue, and S. Makishima, J. Polymer Sci., 1970, A-l,8, 2395Google Scholar
  268. 268.
    S. Destri, M.C. Gallazzi, A. Giarrusso, and L Pori, Mokromol. Chem., Rapid Commun., 1980, 1,193Google Scholar
  269. 269.
    R.P. Hughes and J. Powell, J.Am. Chem. Soc., 1972, 94, 7723CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  270. 270.
    H.O. Murdoch and E. Weiss, Halv. Chim. Acta., 1962, 45, 1156CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  271. 271.
    C.A. Tolman, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1970, 92, 6785CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  272. 272.
    A Yammoto and T. Yamamoto, J.Polymer Sci., Macromol. Reviews, 1978, 13, 161Google Scholar
  273. 273.
    G. Wilke and B. Bogdanovic, Angew. Chem., 1961, 73, 756CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  274. 274.
    G Wilke, Angew. Chem., Intern Ed, 1963, 2, 105Google Scholar
  275. 275.
    M.L.H. Green, Organometallic Compounds, VoL 2, Menthen, London, p.39 (1968)Google Scholar
  276. 276.
    G. WiIke, Angew. Chem., Intern. Ed., 1966, 5, 151Google Scholar
  277. 277.
    D.G.B. Ballard, E. Jones, T. Medinger, and A.J.P. Pioli, Mokromol. Chem, 1971, 148, 175CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  278. 278.
    D.G.H. Ballard, Adv. Catal., 1973, 23, 263CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  279. 279.
    F. Dawans and P. Teyssie, Ind Eng. Chem., Prod Res. Develop., 1971, 10(3), 261Google Scholar
  280. 280.
    P. Bourdauducq and F. Dawans, J. Polymer Sci., 1971, A-1,10, 2527Google Scholar
  281. 281.
    V.1. Klepkova, G.P. Kondratenkov, V.A Kormer, M.I Lobach, L.A Churlyaeva, J. Polymer Sci.,Polymer Letters, 1973, 11, 193Google Scholar
  282. 282.
    J.P. Durand, F. Dawans, and Ph.Teyssie, J. Polymer Sci., Polymer Letters, 1967, 5, 785Google Scholar
  283. 283.
    P. J. T.Tait. and N. D. Watkins, Monoalkene Polymerization: Mechanisms, Chap. 2 in Comprehensive Polymer Science, Vol. 4, G.C. Eastman, A. Ledwith, S. Russo, and P. Sigwalt, Eds., Pergamon Press, Oxford, 1989Google Scholar
  284. 284.
    R Wessermel, H. Cbedron, J. Berthod, B Diedrich, K.D. Keil, K Rust, H. Strarnelz, and T. Toth, J. Polymer Sci, Symposia, 1975, 51, 187Google Scholar
  285. 285.
    A Simon and A Grobler, J.Polymer Sci.,Polymer Chem. Ed, 1980, 18, 3111Google Scholar
  286. 286.
    Y. Doi, E. Suzuki, and T. Keii, Makromol. Chem., Rapid Comm., 1981, 2, 293Google Scholar
  287. 287.
    S. Sivaram, Ind Eng. Chem., Prod Res.Dev., 1977, 16, 121Google Scholar
  288. 288.
    K Soga and M. Terano, Mokromol Chem., 1981, 182, 2439Google Scholar
  289. 289.
    B. Kezler, A Grobler, E. Takacs and A Simon, Polymer, 1981, 22, 818Google Scholar
  290. 290.
    B. Rieger, X. Mu, D.T. Mallin, M.D. Raush, and J.C.W. Chen, Macromolecules, 1990, 23, 383; N,H, Cheng and J.A Ewen, Makromol. Chem., 1989, 190, 1931; A Grassi, A Zambelli, I. Resconi, E. Albizzati, and R. Mazzocchi, Macromolecules, 1988, 21, 617; Y.V.Kiasin, T.E. Nowlin, and R.I. Mink, Macromolecules, 1993,26, 2151Google Scholar
  291. 291.
    T. Asanurna, Y. Nishirnori, M. Ito, N. Uchicawa, and T. Shiornura, Polym. BulL, 1991, 25, 567Google Scholar
  292. 292.
    W. Kaminsky, R. Engehausen, and J. Kopf, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed, 1995, 34, 2273CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  293. 293.
    T.K. Han, B.W. Woo, J.T. Park, Y. Do, Y.S. Ko, and S.I. Woo, Macromolecules, 1995, 8, 4801CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  294. 294.
    S. Miyake, Y; Okumura. and S. Inazawa, Macromolecules, 1995, 28, 3074Google Scholar
  295. 295.
    H. Kuribayashi-Kawamura, N. Koga, and K. Morokuma, J. Am.Chem. Soc., 1992, 114, 8687CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  296. 296.
    J.C.W. Lohrenz, R.K. Woo, L Fan, and T. Ziegler, Am. Chem. Soc. Polymer Preprints, 1995, 36(1), 231Google Scholar
  297. 297.
    T.K. Woo, L. Fan, and T. Ziegler, Organometallics, 1994, 13, 2252CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  298. 298.
    G. Guerra, L. Cavallo, G. Moscardi, M. Vacatello, and P. Corradini, Macromolecules, 1996, 29, 4834CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  299. 299.
    V. Busico, D. Brita, L. Caporaso, R. Cipullo, and M. Vacalello, Macromolecules, 1997, 30, 3971CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  300. 300.
    W. Zang. K. Wei., and L.R. Sita, Macromolecules, 2008, Web publication 10.1021/801962vGoogle Scholar
  301. 301.
    M. Watanabe and K. Okamoto, Jpn. Kokai, Tokkyo Kobe JP, 2004 107,390, from, Chem. AbstrGoogle Scholar
  302. 302.
    H.Li, C.L.Stern, and T.J. Marks, Macromolecules, 2005, 38,9028CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  303. 303.
    H. Li, L. Li, and T.J. Marks, Ang. Chem. Int. Ed. 2004, 37, 4937CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  304. 304.
    M.R. Salata and T.J. Marks, Macromolecules, 2009, Web publication 10.1021/ma8020745 Google Scholar
  305. 305.
    K. Homura, H. Fukuda;, S. Katao, M. Fujiki; H. J. Kim, D.-H. KIm, and I. Saeed; Macromolecules, 2011,44 1986Google Scholar
  306. 306.
    AD. Caunt, J..Polymer Sci, 1964, C,4, 49; A.D. Caunt, Brit. Polymer J., 1981, 13, 22Google Scholar
  307. 307.
    I.C.W. Chien, J.C. Wu, and C.I. Kuo, J. Polymer Sci.,, Polymer Chem. Ed, 1982, 20, 2019; KSoga, T. Shiono, and Y. Doi, Makromol Chem., 1988, 189,1531; M.C. Sacchi, C. Shan, P. Locatelli, and S. Tritto, Macromolecules, 1990, 23,383Google Scholar
  308. 308.
    N. 0. Gaylord and H. F. Mark, Linear and Stereoregular Addition Polymers, Wiley-lnterscience, New York 1959Google Scholar
  309. 309.
    E.F. Peters, A Zletz, and B.L. Evering, Ind Eng. Chem., 1957, 48, 1879Google Scholar
  310. 310.
    A Clark, J.P. Hogan, B.L. Banks, and W.C. Lanning, Ind Eng. Chem., 1956, 48, 1152Google Scholar
  311. 311.
    K Endo and T. Otsu, J. Polymer Sci. Polymer Chem. Ed, 1979, 17, 1453Google Scholar
  312. 312.
    A Shimizu, T. Otsu, and M. Imoto, J. Polymer Sci.., Polymer Letters, 1965, 3,449, 1031; A Shimizu, T. Otsu, and M. Ito, J. Polymer Sci.,,1966, A-1,4, 1579Google Scholar
  313. 313.
    M.Delferro and T.J. Marks, Chem. Rev., 2011, 111, 2450CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  314. 314.
    J.P. Kennedy and T. Otsu, Adv. Polymer Sci., 1970, 7, 369CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  315. 315.
    A Shirnizu, K. Itakura, T. Otsu, and M. Imoto, J. Polymer Sci., 1969, A-1,7, 3119Google Scholar
  316. 316.
    T. Otsu, H. Nagahama, and K Fndo, J. Polymer Sci, Polymer Letters, 1972, 10, 601Google Scholar
  317. 317.
    T. Otsu, H. Nagahama, and K Endo, J. Macromol. Sci.-Chem., 1975, 9, 1249Google Scholar
  318. 318.
    T. Otsu and K Endo, J. Macromol Sci.-Chem., 1975, 9, 899Google Scholar
  319. 319.
    T. Otsu, A Shimizu, K Itakura, and K.Endo, J. Polymer Sci.,., Polymer Chem. Ed,1975, 13, 1589Google Scholar
  320. 320.
    K.Endo and T. Otsu, J. Polymer Sci., Polymer Chem. Ed., 1991, 29, 847Google Scholar
  321. 321.
    K. Endo, It Ueda, and T. Otsu, Macromolecules, 1991, 24, 6849Google Scholar
  322. 322.
    O. Vogl, Makromol. Chem., 1975, 175, 1281CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  323. 323.
    O. Vogl, .J.Macromol. Sci., Rev.Macromol Chem., 1975, C12 (1), 109Google Scholar
  324. 324.
    O. Vogl, Polyaldehydes, Dekker, New York, 1967Google Scholar
  325. 325.
    W. Kern, E. Eberius, and V. Jaacks, Mokromol. Chem., 1971, 141, 63CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  326. 326.
    V. Jaacks, K Boehlke, and E. Eberius, Makromol Chem., 1968, 118, 354Google Scholar
  327. 327.
    K Boehlke and V. Jaacks, Makromol Chem., 1971, 142, 189Google Scholar
  328. 328.
    P. Kubisa, K Neeld, J Starr, and O. VogI, Polymers, 1980., 1, 1433Google Scholar
  329. 329.
    J.. Furukawa, T. Saegusa, T. Tsuruta, H. Fujii, A Kawasaki, and T. Tatano, Makromol Chem., 1960, 33, 32Google Scholar
  330. 330.
    J. Funikawa, T. Saeguaa, H. Fujii, A Kawasaki, and T. Tatano, J. Polymer Sci., 1969, 6, 546Google Scholar
  331. 331.
    K. Weissermel and W. Schneider, Makromol. Chem., 1962, 1, 39CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  332. 332.
    O. Vogl, J. Polymer Sci.,, 1960, 46, 261Google Scholar
  333. 333.
    W. Kern, Chem. Z, 1964, 88, 623Google Scholar
  334. 334.
    E. Kunzel, A. Gieffer, and W. Kern, Mokromol Chem., 1966, 96, 17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  335. 335.
    Z. Machacek, J Mejzlick, and J. Pac, Vysokomol. Soed., 1961, 3(9), 1421Google Scholar
  336. 336.
    J. Mejzlick, J. Mencikova, and Z. Machacek, Vysokomol. Soed.., 1962, 4, 769,776Google Scholar
  337. 337.
    K Vesely and J. Mejzlick, Vysokomol. Soed, 1963, 5(9), 1415Google Scholar
  338. 338.
    N. Mathes and K Jaacks, Makromol. Chem., 1970. 135, 49Google Scholar
  339. 339.
    C.E. Schweitzer, R.N. MacDonald, and J.O.. Punderson, J. Appl Polymer Sci., 1959, 1, 158Google Scholar
  340. 340.
    A Henglein, W. Sshnabel, and R.C. Schulz, Mokromol. Chem., 1959, 31, 131Google Scholar
  341. 341.
    O. Vogl, J.Polymer Sci., 1960, 46, 161Google Scholar
  342. 342.
    J. Furukawa, T. Saegusa, H. Fujii, A Kawasaki, H. Imai, and Y. Fujii, Makromol. Chem., 1959, 37, 149Google Scholar
  343. 343.
    G. Natta, G.. Mazzanti, P. Corradini, and J.W. Bassi, Makromol. Chem., 1959, 37, 156CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  344. 344.
    J. Furukawa, T. Saeguaa, and H. Fujii, Makromol. Chem., 1961, 44-46, 398CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  345. 345.
    O. VogI and W.M.D. Bryant, J. Polymer Sc:., 1964 , A-1,2, 921 Google Scholar
  346. 346.
    H. Tani, Fortschr. Hochpolymer. Forsch., 1973, 11, 57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  347. 347.
    H. Tani, T. Araki, and Y. Yasuda, J. Polymer Sci.,Polymer Letters, 1966, 4, 727Google Scholar
  348. 348.
    H. Yasuda and H. Tani, Macromolecules, 1973, 6, 17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  349. 349.
    A Novak and E. Whaley, Can. J. Chem., 1959, 37, 1710, 1718Google Scholar
  350. 350.
    R.C. Schulz, H. Fauth, and W. Kern, Makromol. Chem., 1956, 21, 227CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  351. 351.
    R.C. Schulz, H. Cherdron, and W. Kern, Makromol. Chem., 1957,24,141, (1957)Google Scholar
  352. 352.
    A. Henglein, W. Schnabel and R.C. Schultz, Makromol. Chem. 1959, 31, 131CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  353. 353.
    G. Odian, ‘Principles of Polymerization’, IV ed. Wiley, New York 2004 Google Scholar
  354. 354.
    R.C. Schulz and W. Passrnann, Makromol. Chem., 1963, 60, 139CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  355. 355.
    R.C. Schulz, G.Wagner and W. Ken, J. Polymer Sci, 1967, C,16, 989Google Scholar
  356. 356.
    R.C. Schulz, S. Suzuki, H. Cherdron, and W. Kern, Makromol. Chem., 1962, 53, 145CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  357. 357.
    C. Aso and S. Tagami, Macromolecules, 1969, 2, 414CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  358. 358.
    Y. Katahama and S. lshida, Makromol. Chem., 1968, 119, 64Google Scholar
  359. 359.
    K Kobayashi and H. Sumimoto, J. Polymer Chem., Polymer Letters, 1972, 10, 703Google Scholar
  360. 360.
    V.V. Amerik, B.A Krentsel, and M.V. Shiskina, Vysokomol. Soyed, 1965, 7(10), 1713Google Scholar
  361. 361.
    G.P. Pregaglia and M. Benaghi, Stereochemistry of Macromolecules, AD. Ketiey, ed.,Dekker, New York, 1967Google Scholar
  362. 362.
    C. Aso, S. Tagarni, and T. Kunitake, J. Polymer Sci., 1969, A-1,7, 497Google Scholar
  363. 363.
    C. Aso and S. Tagami, Macromolecules, 1969, 2, 414CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  364. 364.
    J. Furukawa and T. Saegusa, Polymerization of Aldehydes and Oxides, Wiley- Interscience, New York 1963.Google Scholar
  365. 365.
    V.E. Shashoua, W. Sweeny, and RF. Tietz, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1960., 82, 866Google Scholar
  366. 366.
    Y. Iwakura, K Uno, and N. Kobayashi, J. Polymer Sci., 1968, A-1,6, 793Google Scholar
  367. 367.
    G.C. East and J. Furukawa, Polymer, 1979, 20, 659CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  368. 368.
    G. Natta, J. Di Pietro, and M. Cambini, Makromol Chem., 1962, 56, 200CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  369. 369.
    H.C. Beachell and C.P. NgocSon, J. Polymer Sci., PolymerLetters, 1963, 1, 25Google Scholar
  370. 370.
    D.C Pepper in Friedel-Craft and Related Reactions, VoLII, G.A Olah, ed., Interscience, New York 1964Google Scholar
  371. 371.
    J.F. Dunphy and C.S. Marvel, J. Polymer Sci.,, 1960, 47, 1Google Scholar
  372. 372.
    R.B. Cundall, The Chemistry of Cationic Polymerization,. P.H Plesch, ed. Macmillan Co., New York, 1963Google Scholar
  373. 373.
    C.G. Overberger, L.H. Arnold, and J.J. Taylor, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1951, 73, 5541CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  374. 374.
    C.G. Overberger, R.J. Ehrig and D.H, Tanner,. Am. Chem. Soc., 1954. 76, 772Google Scholar
  375. 375.
    C.G.. Overberger, D.H. Tanner, and E.M. Pierce, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1958, 80, 4566CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  376. 376.
    C.G.. Overberger and V.G. Kamath, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1959. 81, 2910CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  377. 377.
    K.F. O’Driscoll, T. Yonezawa, and aH.Higashirnura, J. Macromol. Sci.-Chem., 1966, 1, 17Google Scholar
  378. 378.
    H. Yuki, K Kosai, S. Murahashi, and J. Hotta, J. Polymer Sci., PolymerLetters, 1964, 3, 1121Google Scholar
  379. 379.
    K.F. O’Driscoll, R.J. Boudreau, and AV. Tobolsky, J. Polymer Sci.,, 1958, 115Google Scholar
  380. 380.
    K.F. O’Driscoll and AV. Tobolsky, J. Polymer Sci.,, 1958, 31, 123; ibid 1959, 32, 363Google Scholar
  381. 381.
    AV. Tobolsky and D.B. Hartley, J. Polymer Sci., 1963, A-1,1, 15Google Scholar
  382. 382.
    H. Yuki, Y. Okarnoto, K Ohta, and K Hatada, J. Polymer Sci., Polymer Chem. Ed., 1975, 13, 116Google Scholar
  383. 383.
    A. Zhao, H. Tanaka, N.Miyamoto, S. Kaizumi, and T. Hashimoto, Macromolecules, 2009 (ACS Web publication 10.1021/ma8017519)Google Scholar
  384. 384.
    C.A Lukach and H.M. Sperlin, Copolymerization, G.E. Kain, ed., Wiley-Interscience, New York, 1964;. H.F. Mark and N. Ogata, J. Polymer Sci., 1963, A-1,1, 3439Google Scholar
  385. 385.
    D. Guironnet and S. Mecking, Am. Chem,. Soc. Polymer Preprints, 2008, 49 (1), 450Google Scholar
  386. 386.
    J. Furukawa and O. VogI, Ionic Polymerization, Dekker, New York, 1976Google Scholar
  387. 387.
    Y.P. Castille and V. Stannett, J. Polymer Sci., 1966, A-1,4, 2063Google Scholar
  388. 388.
    J. Furukawa, T. Saegusa, T. Tsunita, S. Ohta, and G.. Wasai, Makromol. Chem., 1962, 52, 230CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  389. 389.
    HO. Colornb, F.E. Bailey, Jr, and R.D. Lunterg,.J. Polymer Sci., Polymer Letters, 1978, 16, 507Google Scholar
  390. 390.
    T. Saeguaa, J.Macromol. Sci., 1972, A,6,, 997Google Scholar
  391. 391.
    AH.E. Muller, Makromol. Chem., Macromol. Symp., 1990, 32, 87; W. Schubert and F.Bandermann, Makromol. Chem.,1989, 190, 2721; W. Schubert, H.D. Sitz and F. Bandermann, Makromol. Chem., 1989, 190, 2193; D.Y. Sogab, W.R Hertler, L.B Dicker, P.A Depra, and J.R Butera, Malcromol. Chem., Macromol. Symp., 1990, 32, 75Google Scholar
  392. 392.
    R.P. Quirk and J. Ren, Macromolecules, 1992, 25, 6612CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  393. 393.
    W.V. Farman and D.Y. Sogah, Am. Chem. Soc. Polymer Preprints, 1986, 27, 167Google Scholar
  394. 394.
    R.P. Quirk and G.P. Bidinger, Polym. Bull., 1989, 22, 6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  395. 395.
    M.T. Reetz, R Osterek, K.E. Piejko, D. Arlt, and D. Bomer, Ang. Chem., Int Ed., 1986, 25, 1108Google Scholar
  396. 396.
    W.T. Herter, Macromolecules, 1987, 20, 297Google Scholar
  397. 397.
    C. Pugh and V. Percec, Polym. Bull., 1985, 14, 109CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  398. 398.
    W. Mormann, W. Juergen, H. Pasch, and K. Rode, Macromolecules, 1998 , 1, 249 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  399. 399.
    D.Y. Sogah and O.W. Webster, Macromolecules, 1986, 19, 1775CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  400. 400.
    G.Livinenko and A.H.E. Muller, Macromolecules, 1997, 30, 1253CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  401. 401.
    M.B. Scholten, J.I. Hedrick, and R.W. Waymouth, Am. Chem. Soc. Polymer Preprints, 2007, 48(2),167Google Scholar
  402. 402.
    T. Saegusa, S. Kobayshi, andl J.Furukawa, Macromolecules, 1977, 10, 73Google Scholar
  403. 403.
    F.A. Bovey, High Resolution NMR of Macromolecules, Acad. Press, New York, 1972Google Scholar
  404. 404.
    Y. Doi, Makromol. Chem., Rapid Commun. 1982, 3, 635Google Scholar
  405. 405.
    H.N. Cheng, J. Cham. Inf.Comput. Sci. 1987, 27, 8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  406. 406.
    H. Sawada, Thermodynamics of Polymerization, Dekker, New York, 1976Google Scholar
  407. 407.
    K.F. O’Driscoll, J. Polymer Sci., 1962, 57, 721Google Scholar
  408. 408.
    H. Sawada. Thermodynamics of polymerization, Dekker, New York, 1976, K.J. Ivin and J. Leonard, Eu. Polymer J., 1970, 6, 331; A. Vrancken, J. Smid, and M. Swarc, Trans. Faraday Soc., 1962, 56, 2036Google Scholar
  409. 409.
    P.J. Flory, Principles of Polymer Chemistry,, Cornell Univ. Press, Ithaca New York, 1953Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. Ravve
    • 1
  1. 1.NilesUSA

Personalised recommendations