Pulmonary Gas Exchange

  • Vinod K. BhutaniEmail author
  1. I.
    1. A.

      Pulmonary circulation plays a critical gas exchange function of the lung.

    2. B.

      Processes governing pulmonary vascular development, especially with regard to the origin, differentiation, and maturation of the various cell types within the pulmonary vascular wall. Include factors which control development and also provide insight into the genetic diversity of pulmonary vascular wall cells.

    3. C.

      These findings begin to provide explanations for the tremendous functional heterogeneity of the pulmonary vascular cells under both normal and pathophysiologic conditions. In the future, we will need to focus more attention on understanding from where and when endothelial and smooth muscle cells arise in the course of pulmonary arterial, bronchial, and pulmonary venous development.

    4. D.

      We will need to identify the environmental signals and signaling molecules that contribute to the terminal differentiation of specific vascular cells at the local level, and which confer unique...


Alveolar Ventilation Carbon Dioxide Elimination Maternal Physiology Inspire Carbon Dioxide Alveolar Oxygen Tension 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PediatricsStanford University, Lucile Packard Children’s HospitalPalo AltoUSA

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