Advertisement

Echocardiography

  • Jonathan WyllieEmail author
Chapter
  1. I.
    Background
    1. A.

      Until the advent of echocardiography, cardiac function in the ventilated baby was monitored by clinical assessment and invasive monitoring, which is limited by the size of the patient.

       
    2. B.

      Tissue perfusion is the most relevant parameter in assessing cardiovascular function. This depends upon peripheral vascular resistance and cardiac output. Previously, heart rate and blood pressure have been utilized as indicators of these parameters, but these have significant limitations.

       
    3. C.

      Echocardiography now offers a number of different modalities which can be used to assess cardiac function in the ventilated infant and provide more information upon which to base clinical decisions.

       
     
  2. II.
    Influences on newborn cardiovascular adaptation
    1. A.

      Preterm delivery

       
    2.  B.

      Surfactant deficiency

       
    3.  C.

      Ventilation

       
    4. D.

      Hypoxemia

       
    5.   E.

      Acidosis

       
     
  3. III.
    Effects of prematurity and respiratory disease on cardiovascular adaptation
    1. A.

      Delayed fall in pulmonary vascular resistance

       
    2.  B.

      Myocar...

Keywords

Patent Ductus Arteriosus Superior Vena Caval Pulmonary Pressure Persistent Pulmonary Hypertension Left Ventricular Output 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Suggested Reading

  1. Evans N, Kluckow M. Early determinants of right and left ventricular output in ventilated preterm infants. Arch Dis Child. 1996;74:F88–94.Google Scholar
  2. Gill AB, Weinding AM. Echocardiographic assessment of cardiac function in shocked very low birthweight infants. Arch Dis Child. 1993;68:17–21.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Hudson I, Houston A, Aitchison T, et al. Reproducibility of measurements of cardiac output in newborn infants by doppler ultrasound. Arch Dis Child. 1990;65:15–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Hunt R, Evans N, Reiger I, Kluckow M. Low superior vena cava flow and neurodevelopmental outcome at 3 years in very preterm infants. J Pediatr. 2004;145:588–92.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Kluckow M, Evans NJ. Low superior vena cava flow and intraventricular haemorrhage in preterm infants. Arch Dis Child. 2000;82:F188–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Kluckow M, Evans N. Early echocardiographic prediction of symptomatic patent ductus arteriosus in preterm infants undergoing mechanical ventilation. J Pediatr. 1995;127:774–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Skinner J, Alverson D, Hunter S, editors. Echocardiography for the neonatologist. London: Churchill Livingstone; 2000.Google Scholar
  8. Skinner JR, Boys RJ, Hunter S, Hey EN. Pulmonary and systemic arterial pressure in hyaline membrane disease. Arch Dis Child. 1992;67:366–73.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of NeonatalogyThe James Cook University HospitalMiddlesbroughUK

Personalised recommendations