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Interpretation of Blood Gases

  • David J. DurandEmail author
Chapter
  1. I.
    Physiology of gas exchange
    1. A.
      Oxygenation. The movement of O 2 from the alveolus into the blood is dependent upon the matching of ventilation and perfusion. Ventilation/perfusion matching is abnormal if:
      1. 1.

        Pulmonary blood flows past unventilated alveoli, causing an intrapulmonary right-to-left shunt. In newborns, this is typically caused by atelectasis. The treatment for atelectasis is positive pressure, which opens previously unventilated alveoli and decreases intrapulmonary shunting.

         
      2. 2.

        Blood flows right-to-left through the foramen ovale or patent ductus arteriosus, causing an extrapulmonary right-to-left shunt. This sort of extrapulmonary shunt is typically caused by elevated pulmonary vascular resistance (pulmonary hypertension), and can be treated by decreasing pulmonary vascular resistance (e.g., with inhaled nitric oxide).

         
       
    2. B.
      Ventilation. Ventilation is the removal of CO 2 from the blood.
      1. 1.

        During spontaneous breathing or conventional mechanical ventilation, the...

Keywords

Lactic Acid Metabolic Acidosis Patent Ductus Arteriosus Respiratory Acidosis Base Deficit 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of Neonatology, Department of NeonatologyChildren’s Hospital & Research Center OaklandOaklandUSA

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