Respiratory Gas Conditioning and Humidification

  • Andreas SchulzeEmail author
  1. I.
    1. A.
      Inadequate humidification and warming of respiratory gas may lead to adverse effects within minutes to hours in infants with an artificial airway through various mechanisms.
      1. 1.

        Impaired mucociliary clearance with subsequent retention of inspissated secretions, inhaled particles, and microorganisms. Associated risks are airway clogging, atelectasis, and air leak syndromes.

      2. 2.

        Inflammatory and necrotic injury to the bronchial epithelium.

      3. 3.

        Heat loss.

    2. B.
      Humidifier malfunction may also impose risks.
      1. 1.

        Flushing of contaminated condensate into the airways with subsequent pneumonia.

      2. 2.

        Thermal injury to airways.

      3. 3.


      4. 4.

        Airway occlusion [“artificial noses,” also called heat and moisture exchangers (HMEs)].

  1. II.
    Physiology: structure and function of the airway lining
    1. A.
      Three layers cover the luminal surface of most of the upper respiratory tract and the entire tracheobronchial tree as far as the respiratory bronchioles. These layers...


Core Body Temperature Nosocomial Pneumonia Full Saturation Ventilator Circuit Heated Humidifier 
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Suggested Reading

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of NeonatologyDr. von Hauner Children’s HospitalMunichGermany
  2. 2.Department of PediatricsKlinikum Grosshadern, Ludwig Maximilian UniversityMunichGermany

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