Development of the Respiratory System
The neonatal respiratory system is a complex organ whose life-sustaining function on the initiation and maintenance of an ongoing dynamic interaction among multiple tissue types of diverse embryonic origins.
It has two functional areas: the conducting system and the gas exchange system.
Nasal passages, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, and bronchioles are generally supported by cartilage until the terminal bronchioles and prevent airway collapse during expiration.
The surrounding tissues include airway smooth muscle that regulates airway resistance, whereas the fibroelastic supportive tissue offers elasticity during both respiratory cycles.
The structural mucosal layers are lined by motile ciliary cells, mucus-producing goblet cells, and basal cells that provide for regeneration and healing.
The submucosal layers contain sero-mucous glands and Clara cells.
The gas exchange system comprises respiratory noncartilaginous bronchioles that...