Teacher-Student Relationships and Engagement: Conceptualizing, Measuring, and Improving the Capacity of Classroom Interactions

  • Robert C. PiantaEmail author
  • Bridget K. Hamre
  • Joseph P. Allen


Classrooms are complex social systems, and student-teacher relationships and interactions are also complex, multicomponent systems. We posit that the nature and quality of relationship interactions between teachers and students are fundamental to understanding student engagement, can be assessed through standardized observation methods, and can be changed by providing teachers knowledge about developmental processes relevant for classroom interactions and personalized feedback/support about their interactive behaviors and cues. When these supports are provided to teachers’ interactions, student engagement increases. In this chapter, we focus on the theoretical and empirical links between interactions and engagement and present an approach to intervention designed to increase the quality of such interactions and, in turn, increase student engagement and, ultimately, learning and development. Recognizing general principles of development in complex systems, a theory of the classroom as a setting for development, and a theory of change specific to this social setting are the ultimate goals of this work. Engagement, in this context, is both an outcome in its own right and a mediator of impacts that teachers have on student outcomes through their interactions with children and youth. In light of this discussion, we offer suggestions or directions for further research in this area.


Student Engagement Classroom Setting Relational Support Classroom Interaction Classroom Climate 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Robert C. Pianta
    • 1
    Email author
  • Bridget K. Hamre
    • 2
  • Joseph P. Allen
    • 3
  1. 1.Curry School of EducationUniversity of VirginiaCharlottesvilleUSA
  2. 2.Center for Advanced Study of Teaching and LearningUniversity of VirginiaCharlottesvilleUSA
  3. 3.Department of PsychologyUniversity of VirginiaCharlottesvilleUSA

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