Academic Emotions and Student Engagement

  • Reinhard PekrunEmail author
  • Lisa Linnenbrink-Garcia


Emotions are ubiquitous in academic settings, and they profoundly affect students’ academic engagement and performance. In this chapter, we summarize the extant research on academic emotions and their linkages with students’ engagement. First, we outline relevant concepts of academic emotion, including mood as well as achievement, epistemic, topic, and social emotions. Second, we discuss the impact of these emotions on students’ cognitive, motivational, behavioral, cognitive-behavioral, and social-behavioral engagement and on their academic performance. Next, we examine the origins of students’ academic emotions in terms of individual and contextual variables. Finally, we highlight the complexity of students’ emotions, focusing on reciprocal causation as well as regulation and treatment of these emotions. In conclusion, we discuss directions for future research, with a special emphasis on the need for educational intervention research targeting emotions.


Positive Emotion Achievement Goal Goal Orientation Test Anxiety Mastery Goal 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Acee, T. W., Kim, H., Kim, H. J., Kim, J.-I., Chu, H. R., & Kim, M. (2010). Academic boredom in under- and over-challenging situations. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 35, 17–27.Google Scholar
  2. Ainley, M. (2007). Being and feeling interested: Transient state, mood, and disposition. In P. A. Schutz & R. Pekrun (Eds.), Emotion in education (pp. 147–163). San Diego, CA: Academic.Google Scholar
  3. Ainley, M., Corrigan, M., & Richardson, N. (2005). Students, tasks and emotions: Identifying the contribution of emotions to students’ reading of popular culture and popular science texts. Learning and Instruction, 15, 433–447.Google Scholar
  4. Appleton, J. J., Christenson, S. L., & Furlong, M. J. (2008). Student engagement with school: Critical conceptual and methodological issues of the construct. Psychology in the Schools, 45, 369–386.Google Scholar
  5. Ashby, F. G., Isen, A. M., & Turken, A. U. (1999). A neuro­psychological theory of positive affect and its influence on cognition. Psychological Review, 106, 529–550.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Aspinwall, L. (1998). Rethinking the role of positive affect in self-regulation. Motivation and Emotion, 22, 1–32.Google Scholar
  7. Astleitner, H. (2000). Designing emotionally sound instruction: The FEASP-approach. Instructional Science, 28, 169–198.Google Scholar
  8. Bäuml, K.-H., & Kuhbandner, C. (2007). Remembering can cause forgetting – but not in negative moods. Psychological Science, 18, 111–115.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Bless, H., Clore, G. L., Schwarz, N., Golisano, V., Rabe, C., & Wölk, M. (1996). Mood and the use of scripts: Does a happy mood really lead to mindlessness? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 71, 665–679.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Boekaerts, M. (1993). Anger in relation to school learning. Learning and Instruction, 3, 269–280.Google Scholar
  11. Bramesfeld, K. D., & Gasper, K. (2008). Happily putting the pieces together: A test of two explanations for the effects of mood on group-level information processing. British Journal of Social Psychology, 47, 285–309.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Broughton, S. H., Sinatra, G. M., & Nussbaum, M. (2011). “Pluto has been a planet my whole life!” Emotions, attitudes, and conceptual change in elementary students’ learning about Pluto’s reclassification. Manuscript submitted for publication.Google Scholar
  13. Carver, C. S., & Harmon-Jones, E. (2009). Anger is an approach-related affect: Evidence and implications. Psychological Bulletin, 135, 183–204.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Carver, C. S., Lawrence, J. W., & Scheier, M. F. (1996). A control-process perspective on the origins of affect. In L. L. Martin & A. Tesser (Eds.), Striving and feeling: Interactions among goals, affect, and self-regulation (pp. 11–52). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  15. Chan, C. K., McDermott, K. B., & Roediger, H. L. (2006). Retrieval-induced facilitation: Initially nontested material can benefit from prior testing. Journal of Experimental Psychology. General, 135, 533–571.Google Scholar
  16. Clore, G. L., & Huntsinger, J. R. (2007). How emotions inform judgment and regulate thought. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 11, 393–399.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Clore, G. L., & Huntsinger, J. R. (2009). How the object of affect guides its impact. Emotion Review, 1, 39–54.Google Scholar
  18. Cordova, D. I., & Lepper, M. R. (1996). Intrinsic motivation and the process of learning: Beneficial effects of contextualization, personalization, and choice. Journal of Educational Psychology, 88, 715–730.Google Scholar
  19. Craig, S. D., D’Mello, S., Witherspoon, A., & Graesser, A. (2008). Emote aloud during learning with AutoTutor: Applying the Facial Action Coding System to cognitive-affective states during learning. Cognition and Emotion, 22, 777–788.Google Scholar
  20. Crook, C. (2000). Motivation and the ecology of collaborative learning. In R. Joiner, K. Littleton, D. Faulkner, & D. Miell (Eds.), Rethinking collaborative learning (pp. 161–178). London: Free Association Books.Google Scholar
  21. Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1975). Beyond boredom and anxiety. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  22. Daniels, L. M., Stupnisky, R. H., Pekrun, R., Haynes, T. L., Perry, R. P., & Newall, N. E. (2009). A longitudinal analysis of achievement goals: From affective antecedents to emotional effects and achievement outcomes. Journal of Educational Psychology, 101, 948–963.Google Scholar
  23. Davidson, R. J., Pizzagalli, D., Nitschke, J. B., & Kalin, N. H. (2003). Parsing the subcomponents of emotion and disorders of emotion: Perspectives from affective neuroscience. In R. J. Davidson, K. R. Scherer, & H. H. Goldsmith (Eds.), Handbook of affective sciences (pp. 8–24). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  24. Davidson, R. J., Scherer, K. R., & Goldsmith, H. H. (Eds.). (2003). Handbook of affective sciences. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  25. Davis, H. A., DiStefano, C., & Schutz, P. A. (2008). Identifying patterns of appraising tests in first-year college students: Implications for anxiety and emotion regulation during test taking. Journal of Educational Psychology, 100, 942–960.Google Scholar
  26. Deci, E. C., & Ryan, R. M. (1987). The support of autonomy and the control of behavior. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 53, 1024–1037.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Denzin, N. K. (1984). A new conception of emotion and social interaction. In N. K. Denzin (Ed.), On understanding emotion (pp. 49–61). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  28. Do, S. L., & Schallert, D. L. (2004). Emotions and classroom talk: Toward a model of the role of affect in students’ experiences of classroom discussions. Journal of Educational Psychology, 96, 619–634.Google Scholar
  29. Dweck, C. S., & Leggett, E. L. (1988). A social-cognitive approach to motivation and personality. Psychological Review, 95, 256–273.Google Scholar
  30. Efklides, A., & Petkaki, C. (2005). Effects of mood on students’ metacognitive experiences. Learning and Instruction, 15, 415–431.Google Scholar
  31. Efklides, A., & Volet, S. (Eds.). (2005). Feelings and emotions in the learning process [Special issue]. Learning and Instruction, 15, 377–515.Google Scholar
  32. Elliot, A. J. (1999). Approach and avoidance motivation and achievement goals. Educational Psychologist, 34, 169–189.Google Scholar
  33. Elliot, A. J. (2005). A conceptual history of the achievement goal construct. In A. J. Elliot & C. S. Dweck (Eds.), Handbook of competence and motivation (pp. 52–72). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  34. Elliot, A. J., & McGregor, H. (1999). Test anxiety and the hierarchical model of approach and avoidance achievement motivation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 76, 628–644.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Elliot, A. J., & McGregor, H. A. (2001). A 2 × 2 achievement goal framework. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 80, 501–519.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Elliot, A. J., Murayama, K., & Pekrun, R. (2011). A 3 x 2 achievement goal model.Journal of Educational Psychology, 103, 632-648.Google Scholar
  37. Ellis, H. C., & Ashbrook, P. W. (1988). Resource allocation model of the effect of depressed mood states on memory. In K. Fiedler & J. Forgas (Eds.), Affect, cognition, and social behavior. Toronto, Canada: Hogrefe International.Google Scholar
  38. Eysenck, M. W. (1997). Anxiety and cognition. Hove, UK: Psychology Press.Google Scholar
  39. Feldman Barrett, L., & Russell, J. A. (1998). Independence and bipolarity in the structure of current affect. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74, 967–984.Google Scholar
  40. Fisher, C. D. (1993). Boredom at work: A neglected concept. Human Relations, 46, 395–417.Google Scholar
  41. Fredricks, J. A., Blumenfeld, P. C., & Paris, A. H. (2004). School engagement: Potential of the concept, state of the evidence. Review of Educational Research, 74, 59–109.Google Scholar
  42. Fredrickson, B. L. (2001). The role of positive emotions in positive psychology: The broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions. American Psychologist, 56, 218–226.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Frenzel, A. C., Goetz, T., Lüdtke, O., Pekrun, R., & Sutton, R. E. (2009). Emotional transmission in the classroom: Exploring the relationship between teacher and student enjoyment. Journal of Educational Psychology, 101, 705–716.Google Scholar
  44. Frenzel, A. C., Thrash, T. M., Pekrun, R., & Goetz, T. (2007). Achievement emotions in Germany and China: A cross-cultural validation of the Academic Emotions Questionnaire-Mathematics (AEQ-M). Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 38, 302–309.Google Scholar
  45. Glaeser-Zikuda, M., Fuss, S., Laukenmann, M., Metz, K., & Randler, C. (2005). Promoting students’ emotions and achievement – Instructional design and evaluation of the ECOLE-approach. Learning and Instruction, 15, 481–495.Google Scholar
  46. Goetz, T., Frenzel, A. C., Pekrun, R., Hall, N. C., & Lüdtke, O. (2007). Between- and within-domain relations of students’ academic emotions. Journal of Educational Psychology, 99, 715–733.Google Scholar
  47. Goetz, T., Frenzel, A. C., Stoeger, H., & Hall, N. C. (2010). Antecedents of everyday positive emotions: An experience sampling analysis. Motivation and Emotion, 34, 49–62.Google Scholar
  48. Hatfield, E., Cacioppo, J. T., & Rapson, R. L. (1994). Emotional contagion. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  49. Heckhausen, H. (1991). Motivation and action. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  50. Helmke, A. (1993). Die Entwicklung der Lernfreude vom Kindergarten bis zur 5. Klassenstufe [Development of enjoyment of learning from kindergarten to grade 5]. Zeitschrift für Pädagogische Psychologie, 7, 77–86.Google Scholar
  51. Hembree, R. (1988). Correlates, causes, effects, and treatment of test anxiety. Review of Educational Research, 58, 47–77.Google Scholar
  52. Immordino-Yang, M., McColl, A., Damasio, H., & Damasio, A. (2009). Neural correlates of admiration and compassion. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 106(19), 8021–8026.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Isen, A. M., Daubman, K. A., & Nowicki, G. P. (1987). Positive affect facilitates creative problem solving. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 52, 1122–1131.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Jarvenoja, H., & Jarvela, S. (2009). Emotion control in collaborative learning situations: Do students regulate emotions evoked by social challenges? British Journal of Educational Psychology, 79, 463–481.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Johnson, D. W., & Johnson, R. T. (1974). Instructional goal structure: Cooperative, competitive or individualistic. Review of Educational Research, 4, 213–240.Google Scholar
  56. Kaplan, A., & Maehr, M. L. (1999). Achievement goals and student well-being. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 24, 330–358.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Kleinginna, P. R., & Kleinginna, A. M. (1981). A categorized list of emotion definitions, with suggestions for a consensual definition. Motivation and Emotion, 5, 345–379.Google Scholar
  58. Lane, A. M., Whyte, G. P., Terry, P. C., & Nevill, A. M. (2005). Mood, self-set goals and examination performance: The moderating effect of depressed mood. Personality and Individual Differences, 39, 143–153.Google Scholar
  59. Lazarus, R. S., & Folkman, S. (1984). Stress, appraisal, and coping. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  60. Linnenbrink, E. A. (Ed.). (2006). Emotion research in education: Theoretical and methodological perspectives on the integration of affect, motivation, and ­cognition [Special issue]. Educational Psychology Review, 18(4), 315–341.Google Scholar
  61. Linnenbrink, E. A. (2007). The role of affect in student learning: A multi-dimensional approach to considering the interaction of affect, motivation, and engagement. In P. A. Schutz & R. Pekrun (Eds.), Emotion in education (pp. 107–124). San Diego, CA: Academic.Google Scholar
  62. Linnenbrink, E. A., & Pintrich, P. R. (2002a). The role of motivational beliefs in conceptual change. In M. Limon & L. Mason (Eds.), Reconsidering conceptual change: Issues in theory and practice (pp. 115–135). Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers.Google Scholar
  63. Linnenbrink, E. A., & Pintrich, P. R. (2002b). Achievement goal theory and affect: An asymmetrical bidirectional model. Educational Psychologist, 37, 69–78.Google Scholar
  64. Linnenbrink, E. A., & Pintrich, P. R. (2004). Role of affect in cognitive processing in academic contexts. In D. Dai & R. Sternberg (Eds.), Motivation, emotion, and cognition: Integrative perspectives on intellectual functioning and development (pp. 57–87). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  65. Linnenbrink, E. A., Ryan, A. M., & Pintrich, P. R. (1999). The role of goals and affect in working memory functioning. Learning and Individual Differences, 11, 213–230.Google Scholar
  66. Linnenbrink-Garcia, L., & Pekrun, R. (2011). Students’ emotions and academic engagement: Introduction to special issue. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 36(1), 1–3.Google Scholar
  67. Linnenbrink-Garcia, L., Rogat, T. M., & Koskey, K. L. (2011). Affect and engagement during small group instruction. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 36, 13–24.Google Scholar
  68. Loewenstein, G., & Lerner, J. S. (2003). The role of affect in decision making. In R. J. Davidson, K. R. Scherer, & H. Hill Goldsmith (Eds.), Handbook of affective sciences (pp. 619–642). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  69. Maehr, M. L., & Zusho, A. (2009). Achievement goal theory: The past, present, and future. In K. R. Wentzel & A. Wigfield (Eds.), Handbook of motivation at school (pp. 77–104). New York: Routledge/Taylor & Francis Group.Google Scholar
  70. Maroldo, G. K. (1986). Shyness, boredom, and grade point average among college students. Psychological Reports, 59, 395–398.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. McLeod, D. B., & Adams, V. M. (Eds.). (1989). Affect and mathematical problem solving: A new perspective. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  72. Meece, J. L., Wigfield, A., & Eccles, J. S. (1990). Predictors of math anxiety and its influence on young adolescents’ course enrollment intentions and performance in mathematics. Journal of Educational Psychology, 82, 60–70.Google Scholar
  73. Meinhardt, J., & Pekrun, R. (2003). Attentional resource allocation to emotional events: An ERP study. Cognition and Emotion, 17, 477–500.Google Scholar
  74. Mouratidis, A., Vansteenkiste, M., Lens, W., & Auweele, Y. V. (2009). Beyond positive and negative affect: Achievement goals and discrete emotions in the ­elementary physical education classroom. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 10, 336–343.Google Scholar
  75. Murayama, K., & Elliot, A. J. (2009). The joint influence of personal achievement goals and classroom goal structures on achievement-relevant outcomes. Journal of Educational Psychology, 101, 432–447.Google Scholar
  76. Nett, U. E., Goetz, T., & Hall, N. C. (2010). Coping with boredom in school: An experience sampling perspective. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 36, 49–59.Google Scholar
  77. Nicholls, J. G. (1984). Achievement motivation: Conceptions of ability, subjective experience, task choice, and performance. Psychological Review, 91, 328–346.Google Scholar
  78. Nummenmaa, M., & Nummenmaa, L. (2008). University students’ emotions, interest and activities in a web-based learning environment. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 78, 163–178.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Olafson, K. M., & Ferraro, F. R. (2001). Effects of emotional state on lexical decision performance. Brain and Cognition, 45, 15–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Parrott, W. G., & Spackman, M. P. (2000). Emotion and memory. In M. Lewis & J. M. Haviland-Jones (Eds.), Handbook of emotions (2nd ed., pp. 476–490). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  81. Pekrun, R. (1992a). The impact of emotions on learning and achievement: Towards a theory of cognitive/motivational mediators. Applied Psychology, 41, 359–376.Google Scholar
  82. Pekrun, R. (1992b). Expectancy-value theory of anxiety: Overview and implications. In D. G. Forgays, T. Sosnowski, & K. Wrzesniewski (Eds.), Anxiety: Recent developments in self-appraisal, psychophysiological and health research (pp. 23–41). Washington, DC: Hemisphere.Google Scholar
  83. Pekrun, R. (2006). The control-value theory of achievement emotions: Assumptions, corollaries, and implications for educational research and practice. Educational Psychology Review, 18, 315–341.Google Scholar
  84. Pekrun, R. (2009). Global and local perspectives on human affect: Implications of the control-value theory of achievement emotions. In M. Wosnitza, S. A. Karabenick, A. Efklides, & P. Nenniger (Eds.), Contemporary motivation research: From global to local perspectives (pp. 97–115). Cambridge, MA: Hogrefe.Google Scholar
  85. Pekrun, R., & Stephens, E. J. (in press). Academic emotions. In K. R. Harris, S. Graham, & T. Urdan (Eds.), APA educational psychology handbook (Vol. 2). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.Google Scholar
  86. Pekrun, R., Elliot, A. J., & Maier, M. A. (2006). Achievement goals and discrete achievement emotions: A theoretical model and prospective test. Journal of Educational Psychology, 98, 583–597.Google Scholar
  87. Pekrun, R., Elliot, A. J., & Maier, M. A. (2009). Achievement goals and achievement emotions: Testing a model of their joint relations with academic performance. Journal of Educational Psychology, 101, 115–135.Google Scholar
  88. Pekrun, R., Frenzel, A., Goetz, T., & Perry, R. P. (2007). The control-value theory of achievement emotions: An integrative approach to emotions in education. In P. A. Schutz & R. Pekrun (Eds.), Emotion in education (pp. 13–36). San Diego, CA: Academic.Google Scholar
  89. Pekrun, R., Goetz, T., Daniels, L. M., Stupnisky, R. H., & Perry, R. P. (2010). Boredom in achievement settings: Control-value antecedents and performance outcomes of a neglected emotion. Journal of Educational Psychology, 102, 531–549.Google Scholar
  90. Pekrun, R., Goetz, T., Perry, R. P., Kramer, K., & Hochstadt, M. (2004). Beyond test anxiety: Development and validation of the Test Emotions Questionnaire (TEQ). Anxiety, Stress, and Coping, 17, 287–316.Google Scholar
  91. Pekrun, R., Goetz, T., Titz, W., & Perry, R. P. (2002a). Academic emotions in students’ self-regulated learning and achievement: A program of qualitative and quantitative research. Educational Psychologist, 37, 91–106.Google Scholar
  92. Pekrun, R., Goetz, T., Titz, W., & Perry, R. P. (2002b). Positive emotions in education. In E. Frydenberg (Ed.), Beyond coping: Meeting goals, visions, and challenges (pp. 149–174). Oxford, UK: Elsevier.Google Scholar
  93. Pekrun, R., & Stephens, E. J. (2009). Goals, emotions, and emotion regulation: Perspectives of the control-value theory of achievement emotions. Human Development, 52, 357–365.Google Scholar
  94. Pintrich, P. R. (2000). The role of goal orientation in self-regulated learning. In M. Boekarts, P. R. Pintrich, & M. Zeidner (Eds.), Handbook of self-regulation: Theory, research and applications (pp. 451–502). San Diego, CA: Academic.Google Scholar
  95. Reisenzein, R. (2001). Appraisal processes conceptualized from a schema-theoretic perspective. In K. R. Scherer, A. Schorr, & T. Johnstone (Eds.), Appraisal processes in emotion (pp. 187–201). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  96. Roeser, R. W., Midgley, C., & Urdan, T. C. (1996). Perceptions of the school psychological environment and early adolescents’ psychological and behavioral functioning in school: The mediating role of goals and belonging. Journal of Educational Psychology, 88, 408–422.Google Scholar
  97. Rosenberg, E. L. (1998). Levels of analysis and the organization of affect. Review of General Psychology, 2, 247–270.Google Scholar
  98. Ruthig, J. C., Perry, R. P., Hall, N. C., & Hladkyj, S. (2004). Optimism and attributional retraining: Longitudinal effects on academic achievement, test anxiety, and voluntary course withdrawal in college students. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 34, 709–730.Google Scholar
  99. Sansone, C., Weir, C., Harpster, L., & Morgan, C. (1992). Once a boring task always a boring task? Interest as a self-regulatory mechanism. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 63, 379–390.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Schaller, M., & Cialdini, R. B. (1990). Happiness, sadness, and helping: A motivational integration. In R. Sorrentino & E. T. Higgins (Eds.), Handbook of motivation and cognition: Foundations of social behavior (Vol. 2, pp. 265–296). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  101. Scherer, K. R. (2000). Emotions as episodes of subsystems synchronization driven by nonlinear appraisal processes. In I. Granic & M. D. Lewis (Eds.), Emotion, development, and self-organization: Dynamic systems approaches to emotional development (pp. 70–99). New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  102. Scherer, K. R., Schorr, A., & Johnstone, T. (Eds.). (2001). Appraisal processes in emotion. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  103. Schunk, D. H., Pintrich, P. R., & Meece, J. L. (2008). Motivation in education: Theory, research, and applications (3rd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
  104. Schutz, P. A., Hong, J. Y., Cross, D. I., & Osbon, J. N. (2006). Reflections on investigating emotion in educational activity settings. Educational Psychology Review, 18, 343–360.Google Scholar
  105. Schutz, P. A., & Lanehart, S. L. (Eds.). (2002). Emotions in education [Special issue]. Educational Psychologist 37(2), 67-135.Google Scholar
  106. Schutz, P. A., & Pekrun, R. (Eds.). (2007). Emotion in education. San Diego, CA: Academic.Google Scholar
  107. Schwartz, N., & Clore, G. L. (1996). Feelings and phenomenal experiences. In E. T. Higgins & A. W. Kruglanski (Eds.), Social psychology: Handbook of basic principles (pp. 433–465). New York: The Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  108. Shaha, S. H. (1984). Matching-tests: Reduced anxiety and increased test effectiveness. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 44, 869–881.Google Scholar
  109. Sisk, D. A. (1988). The bored and disinterested gifted child: Going through school lockstep. Journal for the Education of the Gifted, 11, 5–18.Google Scholar
  110. Tsai, Y.-M., Kunter, M., Lüdtke, O., Trautwein, U., & Ryan, R. M. (2008). What makes lessons interesting? The role of situational and individual factors in three school subjects. Journal of Educational Psychology, 100, 460–472.Google Scholar
  111. Turner, J. C., Meyer, D. K., Midgley, C., & Patrick, H. (2003). Teacher discourse and sixth graders’ reported affect and achievement behaviors in two high-mastery/high-performance mathematics classrooms. The Elementary School Journal, 103, 357.Google Scholar
  112. Turner, J. E., & Schallert, D. L. (2001). Expectancy-value relationships of shame reactions and shame resiliency. Journal of Educational Psychology, 93, 320–329.Google Scholar
  113. Turner, J. E., & Waugh, R. M. (2007). A dynamical ­systems perspective regarding students’ learning processes: Shame reactions and emergent self-organizations. In P. A. Schutz & R. Pekrun (Eds.), Emotions in education (pp. 125–145). San Diego, CA: Academic.Google Scholar
  114. Tyson, D. F., Linnenbrink-Garcia, L., & Hill, N. E. (2009). Regulating debilitating emotions in the context of performance: Achievement goal orientations, achievement-elicited emotions, and socialization contexts. Human Development, 52, 329–356.Google Scholar
  115. Vuorela, M., & Nummenmaa, L. (2004). Experienced emotions, emotion regulation and student activity in a web-based learning environment. European Journal of Psychology of Education, 19, 423–436.Google Scholar
  116. Weiner, B. (1985). An attributional theory of achievement motivation and emotion. Psychological Review, 92, 548–573.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. Weiner, B. (2007). Examining emotional diversity in the classroom: An attribution theorist considers the moral emotions. In P. A. Schutz & R. Pekrun (Eds.), Emotion in education (pp. 73–88). San Diego, CA: Academic.Google Scholar
  118. Wigfield, A., & Eccles, J. S. (1990). Test anxiety in the school setting. In M. Lewis & S. M. Miller (Eds.), Handbook of developmental psychopathology: Perspectives in developmental psychology (pp. 237–250). New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  119. Wine, J. D. (1971). Test anxiety and the direction of attention. Psychological Bulletin, 76, 92–104.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. Wolters, C. A. (2003). Regulation of motivation: Evaluating an underemphasized aspect of self-regulated learning. Educational Psychologist, 38, 189–205.Google Scholar
  121. Wosnitza, M., & Volet, S. (2005). Origin, direction and impact of emotions in social online learning. Learning and Instruction, 15, 449–464.Google Scholar
  122. Zeidner, M. (1987). Essay versus multiple choice type classroom exams: The students’ perspective. The Journal of Educational Research, 80, 352–358.Google Scholar
  123. Zeidner, M. (1998). Test anxiety: The state of the art. New York: Plenum.Google Scholar
  124. Zeidner, M. (2007). Test anxiety in educational contexts: What I have learned so far. In P. A. Schutz & R. Pekrun (Eds.), Emotion in education (pp. 165–184). San Diego, CA: Academic.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUniversity of MunichMunichGermany
  2. 2.Department of Psychology and NeuroscienceDuke UniversityDurhamUSA

Personalised recommendations