The Subtypes and the Positive and Negative Diagnostic Symptoms of Schizophrenia Are Explained by Psychotic Mood Disorders

  • C. Raymond Lake


The three core subtypes of schizophrenia, originally called dementia praecox, are hebephrenic, now called disorganized, catatonic, and paranoid (Tables 3.4, 6.3, 12.1). All date from the nineteenth century. Morel (1851) differentiated dementia praecox from manic-depressive insanity based on severity and chronicity. Hecker (1871) described hebephrenia, and Kahlbaum (1874) wrote about catatonia (Doran et al. 1986). Kraepelin in the 1880s added the paranoid subtype and grouped the three as comprising dementia praecox. Bleuler (1911) defined schizophrenia as “… The Group of Schizophrenias” meaning that his ­disease was made up of subtypes and did not exist as an entity separate from the subtypes. Bleuler (1911, p. 10) added a fourth subtype, simple schizophrenia, but this subtype was dropped upon the publication of the DSM-III in 1980. The three core subtypes, disorganized, catatonic, and paranoid, have survived intact from the nineteenth century and apparently until 2013 when the DSM-5 is due to be ­published. Two other less specific subtypes, residual and undifferentiated, were added at least by 1968 with the publication of the DSM-II and, like the core three subtypes, have been retained through the current DSM-IV-TR.


Mood Disorder Negative Symptom Positive Symptom Paranoid Schizophrenia Psychotic Depression 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department Psychiatry and Behavioral SciencesUniversity of Kansas, School of MedicineKansas CityUSA

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