Advertisement

Changing Concepts in the 1970s and 1980s: The Overlap of Symptoms and Course Between Schizophrenia and Psychotic Mood Disorders

  • C. Raymond Lake
Chapter

Abstract

During these two decades, the number of publications that reported overlap and similarities in phenomenology between patients diagnosed with schizophrenia and psychotic mood disorders increased progressively. Also, by inference, these works questioned the Kraepelinian dichotomy and the validity of schizophrenia as a disease separate from psychotic mood disorders. There were at least 25 publications, one of which reviewed 166 other publications prior to 1978 (Pope and Lipinski 1978). However, this literature that documented the occurrence of hallucinations, delusions, disorganization, and chronicity in severe mood disordered patients appeared to have minimal, if any, impact upon academic psychiatry or the subsequent DSM’s attention to the redundant diagnostic criteria between schizophrenia and psychotic mood disorders. Psychoses and chronicity continued to be considered diagnostic of schizophrenia despite being common in psychotic mood disorders. The works of several of these authors are summarized in this chapter and in selected quotes that are given in Tables 1.1 and 10.1.

Keywords

Mood Disorder Academic Psychiatry Bipolar Patient Schizoaffective Disorder Psychotic Patient 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Abrams, R., & Taylor, M. A. (1976a). Mania and schizoaffective disorder, manic type: A comparison. American Journal of Psychiatry, 133, 1445–1447 (Chpt 8).Google Scholar
  2. Abrams, R., & Taylor, M. A. (1976b). Catatonia, a prospective clinical study. Archives of General Psychiatry, 33, 579–581.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Abrams, R., Taylor, M. A., & Gaztanaga, P. (1974). Manic-depressive illness and paranoid schizophrenia. Archives of General Psychiatry, 31, 640–642.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Astrup, C., Fossum, A., & Holmboe, R. (1959). A follow-up study of 270 patients with acute affective psychoses. Acta Psychiatr Neurol Scand., 34(suppl 135), 1–65.Google Scholar
  5. Beck, A. T. (1967). Depression: Causes and treatment. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. (Chap. 8).Google Scholar
  6. Belmaker, R. H. (2004). Bipolar disorder. The New England Journal of Medicine, 351, 476–486.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bentall, R. P., & Fernyhough, C. (2008). Social predictors of psychotic experiences: specificity and psychological mechanisms. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 34, 1012–1020.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bentall, R. P., Jackson, H. F., & Pilgrim, D. (1988). Abandoning the concept of ‘schizophrenia:’ some implications of validity arguments for psychological research into psychotic phenomena. The British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 27, 303–324.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Brockington, I. F. (1992). Schizophrenia: Yesterday’s concept. European Psychiatry, 7, 203–207. (Chap. 8).Google Scholar
  10. Brockington, I. F., & Leff, J. P. (1979). Schizoaffective psychosis: definition and incidence. Psychological Medicine, 9, 91–99. (Chaps. 2, 8).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Brockington, I. F., Kendell, R. E., Wainwright, S., Hillier, V. F., & Walker, J. (1979). The distinction between the affective psychoses and schizophrenia. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 135, 243–248. (Chaps. 2, 8).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Brockington, I. F., Wainwright, S., & Kendall, R. E. (1980a). Manic patients with schizophrenic or paranoid symptoms. Psychological Medicine, 10, 73–83.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Brockington, I. F., Kendall, R. E., & Wainwright, S. (1980b). Depressed patients with schizophrenic or paranoid symptoms. Psychological Medicine, 10, 665–675.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Cardno, A. G., Rysdijk, F. V., Sham, P. C., Murray, R. M., & McGuffin, P. (2002). A twin study of genetic relationships between psychotic symptoms. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 159, 539–545. (Chap. 9).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Carlson, G. A., & Goodwin, F. K. (1973). The stages of mania. A longitudinal analysis of the manic episode. Archives of General Psychiatry, 28, 221–228. (Chaps. 1, 8).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Carpenter, W. T., Strauss, J. S., & Muleh, S. (1973). Are there pathognomonic symptoms in schizophrenia? An empiric investigation of Schneider’s first-rank symptoms. Archives of General Psychiatry, 28, 847–852.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Carroll, B. T., Thomas, C., Jayanti, K., Hawkins, J. M., & Burbage, C. (2005). Treating persistent catatonia when benzodiazepines fail. Current Psychiatry, 4, 56–64. (Chap. 8).Google Scholar
  18. Craddock, N., & Owen, M. J. (2005). The beginning of the end for the Kraepelinian dichotomy. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 184, 384–386. (Chap. 9, 10).Google Scholar
  19. Crichton, P. (1996). First-rank symptoms or rand-and-file symptoms? The British Journal of Psychiatry, 169, 537–540. (Chap. 10).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Crow, T. J. (1986). The continuum of psychosis and its implication for the structure of the gene. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 149, 419–429.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Crow, T. J. (1990a). The continuum of psychoses and its genetic origins. The sixty-fifth Maudsley lecture. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 156, 788–797. (Chaps. 8, 9).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Crow, T. J. (1990b). Nature of the genetic contribution to psychotic illness: A continuum viewpoint. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 81, 401–408. (Chaps. 8, 9).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Crow, T. J. (2010). The continuum of psychosis – 1986–2010. Psychiatric Annals, 40, 115–119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Dieperink, M. E., & Sands, J. R. (1996). Bipolar mania with psychotic features: Diagnosis and treatment. Psychiatric Annals, 26, 633–637.Google Scholar
  25. Doran, A. R., Breier, A., & Roy, A. (1986). Differential diagnosis and diagnostic systems in Schizophrenia. Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 9, 17–33. (Chaps 2, 8).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Fink, M., & Taylor, M. A. (2006). Catatonia: Subtype or syndrome in DSM? The American Journal of Psychiatry, 163, 1875–1876. (Chaps 1, 8).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Fowler, R. C., McCabe, M. S., Cadoret, R. J., & Winokur, G. (1972). The validity of good prognosis schizophrenia. Archives of General Psychiatry, 26, 182–185.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Gonzalez-Pinto, A., van Os, J., Perez de Heredia, J. L., Mosquera, F., Aldama, A., Lalaguna, B., Gutierrez, M., & Mico, J. A. (2003). Age-dependence of Schneiderian psychotic symptoms in bipolar patients. Schizophrenia Research, 61, 157–162. (Chap. 8).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Goodwin, F. K. (1989). The biology of recurrence: New directions for the pharmacologic bridge. The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 50, 40–44. (Chaps. 8, 9, 10, 18).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Goodwin, F. K., & Jamison, K. R. (2007). Manic-depressive illness. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  31. Grossman, L. S., Harrow, M., & Sands, J. R. (1986). Features associated with thought disorder in manic patients at 2-4-year follow-up. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 143, 306–311. (Chap. 8).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Guze, S. B., Woodruff, R. A., & Clayton, P. J. (1975). The significance of psychotic affective disorders. Archives of General Psychiatry, 32, 1147–1150.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Hafner, H., Maurer, K., Trendier, G., an der Heiden, W., Schmidt, M., & Könnecke, R. (2005). Schizophrenia and depression: Challenging the paradigm of two separate diseases – A controlled study of schizophrenia, depression and healthy controls. Schizophrenia Research, 77, 11–24. (Chap. 10).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Harrow, M., Grossman, L. S., Silverstein, M. L., & Meltzer, H. Y. (1982). Thought pathology in manic and schizophrenic patients. Archives of General Psychiatry, 39, 665–671. (Chap. 8).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Harrow, M., MacDonald, A. W., III, Sands, J. R., & Silverstein, M. L. (1995). Vulnerability to Delusions over time in schizophrenia and affective disorders. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 21, 95–109. (Chap. 8).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Jager, M., Bottlender, R., Strauss, A., & Moller, H. J. (2004). Fifteen-year follow-up of ICD-10 schizoaffective disorders compared with schizophrenia and affective disorders. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 109, 30–37. (Chap. 8).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Kasanin, J. (1933). The acute schizoaffective psychoses. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 13, 97–126. (Chap. 2).Google Scholar
  38. Kendell, R. E., & Gourlay, J. (1970a). The clinical distinction between psychotic and neurotic depressions. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 117, 257–260. (Chap. 8).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Kendell, R. E., & Gourlay, J. (1970b). The clinical distinction between the affective psychoses and schizophrenia. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 117, 261–266. (Chap. 8).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Kendler, K. S. (1991). Mood-incongruent psychotic affective illness: A historical and empirical review. Archives of General Psychiatry, 48, 362–369. (Chap. 8).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Kendler, K. S., Karkowski, L. M., & Walsh, D. (1998). The structure of psychosis: Latent class analysis of probands from the Roscommon Family Study. Archives of General Psychiatry, 55, 492–499. (Chap. 8).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Ketter, T., Wang, P. W., Becker, O. V., Nowakowska, C., & Yang, Y. (2004). Psychotic bipolar disorders: Dimensionally similar to or categorically different from schizophrenia? Journal of Psychiatric Research, 38, 47–61. (Chaps. 8, 9).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Korn, M. L. (2004). Schizophrenia and Bipolar disorder: An evolving interface. Medscape Psychiatry & Mental Health, 9, 1–5. (Chaps. 8, 9).Google Scholar
  44. Kraepelin, E. (1920). Die Erscheinungsformen des Irreseins. (translated by H. Marshall as: Patterns of mental disorder. In: Hirsch SR, Shepherd M. eds: Themes and Variations in European Psychiatry. Briston, UK: Wright Publishing: 1974:7–30.). Zeit Gesam Neurol Psychiatrie, 62, 1–29. (Chap. 5).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Kraepelin, E. (1921/1976). Manic depressive insanity and paranoia. New York: Arno Press.Google Scholar
  46. Kruger, S., & Braunig, P. (2000). Catatonia in affective disorders: New findings and a review of the literature. CNS Spectrums, 5, 48–53. (Chap. 8).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Lake, C. R. (2008a). Hypothesis: Grandiosity and Guilt Cause Paranoia; Paranoid Schizophrenia is a Psychotic Mood Disorder; A Review. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 34, 1151–1162.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Lake, C. R. (2008b). Disorders of thought are severe mood disorders: the selective attention defect in mania challenges the Kraepelinian dichotomy – A review. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 34, 109–117.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Lake, C. R., & Hurwitz, N. (2006a). 2 Names, 1 Disease: Does schizophrenia = Psychotic bipolar disorder? Current Psychiatry, 5, 43–60. (Chap. 8).Google Scholar
  50. Lake, C. R., & Hurwitz, N. (2006b). Schizoaffective disorders are psychotic mood disorders; there are no schizoaffective disorders. Psychiatry Research, 143, 255–287. (Chaps 1, 8).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Lake, C. R., & Hurwitz, N. (2007a). The schizophrenias, the neuroses and the covered wagon. Neuropsychiatric Disorders and Treatment, 3, 133–143.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Lake, C. R., & Hurwitz, N. (2007b). Schizoaffective disorder merges schizophrenia and bipolar disorders as one disease – There is no schizoaffective disorder: an invited review. Current Opinion in Psychiatry, 20, 365–379.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Lipkin, K. M., Dyrud, J., & Meyer, G. (1970). The many faces of mania: Therapeutic trial of lithium carbonate. Archives of General Psychiatry, 22, 262–267.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Lundquist, G. (1945). Prognosis and course in manic-depressive psychosis. Acta Psychiatr Neurol Scand, 35(suppl), 196.Google Scholar
  55. Maier, W., Zobel, A., & Wagner, M. (2006). Schizophrenia and bipolar disorder: Differences and overlaps. Current Opinion in Psychiatry, 19, 165–170.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Mendlewicz, J., Fieve, R. R., Rainer, J. D., & Fleiss, J. L. (1972). Manic-depressive illness: A comparative study of patients with and without a family history. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 120, 523–530.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Moller, H. J. (2003). Bipolar disorder and schizophrenia: distinct illnesses or a continuum? The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 64, 23–27. (Chaps. 8, 9).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Moynihan, R., Heath, I., & Henry, D. (2002). Selling sickness: The pharmaceutical industry and disease mongering. British Medical Journal, 324, 886–891.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Murray, R. M., Sham, P., Van Os, J., Zanelli, J., Cannon, M., & McDonald, C. (2004). A developmental model for similarities and dissimilarities between schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Schizophrenia Research, 71, 405–416.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Ollerenshaw, D. P. (1973). The classification of the functional psychoses. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 122, 517–530.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Peralta, V., & Cuesta, M. J. (1999). Diagnostic significance of Schneider’s first-rank symptoms in schizophrenia. Comparative study between schizophrenia and non-schizophrenic psychotic disorders. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 174, 243–248. (Chap. 10).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Pope, H. G. (1983). Distinguishing bipolar disorder from schizophrenia in clinical practice: Guidelines and case reports. Hospital & Community Psychiatry, 34, 322–328. (Chaps. 1, 8).Google Scholar
  63. Pope, H. G., & Lipinski, J. F. (1978). Diagnosis in schizophrenia and manic-depressive illness, a reassessment of the specificity of “schizophrenic” symptoms in the light of current research. Archives of General Psychiatry, 35, 811–828.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Post, R. M. (1992). Transduction of psychosocial stress into the neurobiology of recurrent affective disorder. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 149, 999–1010. (Chap. 8).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Post, R. M. (2007). The case for polypharmacy in the treatment of bipolar disorder. Psychiatric Times, 24, 1–4.Google Scholar
  66. Post, R. M. (2010). Overlaps between schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Psychiatric Annals, 41, 106–112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Procci, W. R. (1976). Schizo-affective psychosis: Fact or fiction. Archives of General Psychiatry, 33, 1167–1178. (Chap. 8, 9).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Rennie, T. A. C. (1942). Prognosis in manic-depressive psychosis. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 98, 801–814.Google Scholar
  69. Shopsin, B., Kim, S. S., & Gershon, S. (1971). A controlled study of lithium vs chlorpromazine in acute schizophrenics. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 119, 435–440. (Chap. 15).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Smith, R. (2002). In search of “non-disease”. British Medical Journal, 324, 883–885.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Specht, G. (1905). Chronische manie and paranoia. Centralbl Nervenheilk Psychiatr, 28, 590–597.Google Scholar
  72. Swartz, C. M. (2002a, October). Schizophrenic schizophrenia. Psychiatric Times, pp. 47–51.Google Scholar
  73. Swartz, C. M. (2002b, November). Schizoaffective defective. Psychiatric Times, pp. 29–32.Google Scholar
  74. Swartz, C. M., & Shorter, E. (2007). Psychotic depression. New York: Cambridge University Press. (Chaps. 2, 8).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Szasz, T. S. (1976). Schizophrenia: The sacred symbol of psychiatry. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 129, 308–316. (Chap. 8).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Taylor, M. A. (1992). Are schizophrenia and affective disorder related? A selective review. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 49, 22–32. (Chap. 8).Google Scholar
  77. Taylor, M. A., & Amir, N. (1994). Are schizophrenia and affective disorder related?: The problem of schizoaffective disorder and the discrimination of the psychoses by signs and symptoms. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 35, 420–429. (Chaps. 1, 9).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Taylor, M. A., Gaztanaga, P., & Abrams, R. (1974). Manic-depressive illness and acute schizophrenia: A clinical, family history and treatment-response study. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 131, 678–682.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Tohen, M., Tsuang, M. T., & Goodwin, D. C. (1992). Prediction of outcome in mania by mood-congruent or mood-incongruent psychotic features. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 149, 1580–1584. (Chap. 8).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Tsuang, M. T., Dempsey, G. M., & Rauscher, F. (1976). A study of “atypical schizophrenia”: A comparison with schizophrenia and affective disorder by sex, age of admission, precipitant, outcome and family history. Archives of General Psychiatry, 33, 1157–1160. (Chap. 8).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Winokur, G. W., Clayton, P. J., & Reich, T. (1969). Manic-depressive illness. St. Louis: CV Mosby Co Publishers.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department Psychiatry and Behavioral SciencesUniversity of Kansas, School of MedicineKansas CityUSA

Personalised recommendations