Survey-Based Location Systems

  • Camillo Gentile
  • Nayef Alsindi
  • Ronald Raulefs
  • Carole Teolis


Location fingerprinting systems can be differentiated for the most part by the following two characteristics: (1) the feature selected to fingerprint the sites; and (2) the mapping algorithm to determine the mobile’s location. In this chapter, we introduce several fingerprinting techniques. Given its prevalence, we concentrate on the RSS feature in the first part of the chapter. The same techniques, however, apply to other features as well. In the first section, an analytical model of a generic fingerprinting system is presented. The model describes how the salient parameters common to most systems affect their performance. The subsequent section showcases a number of methods to compute the similarity metric for memoryless systems—that is—systems which estimate location based on readings taken at a single time instant. Section 4.3 introduces systems with memory and shows how maintaining some historic path data can enhance location precision significantly. In the remainder of the chapter, we introduce some non-RSS features. Section 4.4 investigates the use of the channel impulse response as an alternative radio frequency signature. Conversely, Sect. 4.5 reports on non-RF features altogether—features which are available from devices such as smartphones, namely sound, motion, and color.


Fingerprint  Signature  Training Phase  On-Line Phase  RSS Mapping  Bayesian Inference  Neural Network  Support Vector Machine  Nearest Neighbor  Markov Process  Markov Localization  


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Camillo Gentile
    • 1
  • Nayef Alsindi
    • 2
  • Ronald Raulefs
    • 3
  • Carole Teolis
    • 4
  1. 1.National Institute of Standards and TechnologyGaithersburgUSA
  2. 2.Etisalat BT Innovation Center (EBTIC)Khalifa University of Science, Technology and Research (KUSTAR)Abu DhabiUnited Arab Emirates (UAE)
  3. 3.German Aerospace CenterWesslingGermany
  4. 4.TRX SystemsGreenbeltUSA

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