Operational and Environmental Issues Relating to Industrial Cooling Water Systems: An Overview

  • Vayalam P. Venugopalan
  • Sanjeevi Rajagopal
  • Henk A. Jenner


Water is acknowledged to be one of the most essential commodities for almost all kinds of industrial activity. Among the various industrial uses of water, its use as a heat removal fluid is of foremost importance. Thermoelectric generation, which is but one of the several industries that use water, accounts for more than 50% of all such use. The industrial use of water, especially in rapidly developing countries, is expected to grow further and aggravate an already precarious situation concerning availability of and demand for water. Accelerated growth in the power generation industry alone will account for a major share of this demand. A typical thermal power plant of 2,000 MWe capacity, on an average, needs cooling water at the rate of 65 m3/s; the requirement would be about 50% more in the case of a nuclear power plant (Ecological effects of thermal discharges. Elsevier Applied Science, London. 1990, pp. 28–103). Most of this water is used for low-energy steam condensation.


Cooling Water System Receive Water Body Chlorine Dioxide Condenser Tube Intake Pipe 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



This project was partly funded by the European Commission in the Community’s Sixth Framework Programme (INCO project, Contract number: PL510658, TBT Impacts) and Faculty of Science, Radboud University Nijmegen, The Netherlands. It is contribution number 477 of the Centre for Wetland Ecology (CWE).


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Vayalam P. Venugopalan
    • 1
  • Sanjeevi Rajagopal
    • 2
  • Henk A. Jenner
    • 3
  1. 1.Biofouling and Biofilm Processes Section, Water and Steam Chemistry DivisionBARC FacilitiesKalpakkamIndia
  2. 2.Department of Animal Ecology and Ecophysiology, Institute for Water and Wetland ResearchRadboud University NijmegenNijmegenThe Netherlands
  3. 3.Aquator BVWageningenThe Netherlands

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