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Regulatory Mutations Leading to Cleft Lip and Palate

  • Brian C. SchutteEmail author
  • Walid D. Fakhouri
  • Daniel Zemke
Chapter

Abstract

Cleft lip and palate is one of the most common craniofacial birth defects and one of the most common of all birth defects. Its high impact on the affected individual, their families, and society provides strong motivation to understand the causes. Initial genetic studies focused on coding regions of genes that are required for normal development of the lip and palate. However, many individuals with cleft lip and palate do not have mutations in these regions, requiring a broader search for mutations. Recent studies have included conserved noncoding sequences that may harbor regulatory elements. In this chapter, we focus on the discovery and characterization of two noncoding DNA variants in the vicinity of two genes that are associated with cleft lip and palate. First, the minor allele for the SNP rs642961 exemplifies the discovery and validation of a common DNA variant that alters the expression of IRF6, a gene that is required for development of both the lip and the palate. Second, a DNA variant in a sequence that is 1.5 Mb away from the SOX9 gene exemplifies the discovery and validation of a long-range enhancer element. This chapter also contains brief discussions of other examples of DNA variants that affect regulatory elements and contribute to an increased risk for cleft lip and palate. We also discuss approaches and resources available to the craniofacial genetics community to accelerate discovery of additional regulatory elements and DNA variants that affect their activity. We end with a discussion of the tantalizing questions that remain to be answered about the regulation of IRF6 expression and how that may account for missing heritability.

Keywords

Cleft lip Cleft palate IRF6 MCS9.7 TP63 FOXE1 PDGFC TBX22 SOX9 SATB2 

Abbreviations

ΔNp63

N-terminally deleted isoform of TP63

ChIP

Chromatin immunoprecipitation

ChIP-Seq

ChIP followed by sequencing

ChIP-Chip

ChIP followed by microarray analysis

ENCODE

Encyclopedia of DNA Elements

FOXE1

Forkhead box E1

GWAS

Genome-wide association studies

IRF6

Interferon regulatory factor 6

Kb

Kilobase

MAFB

v-maf musculoaponeurotic fibrosarcoma oncogene homolog B

MCS

Multispecies conserved sequences

MEE

Medial edge epithelium

MES

Medial edge seam

MyoD

Myogenic differentiation 1

OMIM

Online Mendelian inheritance of man

PDGFC

Platelet-derived growth factor C

SATB2

SATB homeobox 2

SNP

Single nucleotide polymorphism

SOX9

SRY (sex-determining region Y)-box 9

TBX22

T-box 22

TFAP2A

Transcription factor activator enhancer binding protein 2 alpha

TP63

Tumor protein p63

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Brian C. Schutte
    • 1
    Email author
  • Walid D. Fakhouri
    • 1
  • Daniel Zemke
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics and Department of Pediatrics and Human DevelopmentMichigan State UniversityEast LansingUSA

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