Toward a Highly Available Modern Grid
The concept of fault-coverage and how it affects the availability of a dynamic grid is explained through a two-area power system represented by an aggregated swing model. Fault-coverage is intended to serve as a criterion for decisions in redundancy management to benefit system availability upon occurrence of a disturbance due to loss of equipment. The criterion allows the incorporation of formal measures of uncertainties associated with real-time fault diagnosis, as well as formal control performance measures. Also investigated is the effect of the availability of a modern grid’s supporting structure on the availability of the grid, with focus on a network of measurement units. The focus stems from the recognition of a greater need for real-time diagnosis and control in a modern power grid. A redundancy architecture design problem is formulated based on a Markov model of a measurement network, and a solution is presented that minimizes the number of phasor measurement unit (PMU) restorations and the usage of communication links to a PMU while maintaining a prescribed data availability at any PMU. A 3-bus/3-PMU network is used as an example to explain the formulation and the solution of the redundancy architecture design problem.
The first author gratefully acknowledges the enormous values of the insights provided by Dr. Joe H. Chow of RPI, Dr. Aranya Chakrabortty of NCSU, and Dr. Xiaohong Guan of XJTU in separate sessions of discussion on these topics with her, as well as the financial support from the XJTU during her two-month visit last year, where she started to explore this area.
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