Skip to main content

Environmental performance of organic farming

Part of the Food Engineering Series book series (FSES)

Abstract

As a typical cradle-to-cradle approach, organic farming suits the notion of a green technology. However, a generally valid quantification of the environmental performance of organic agriculture is difficult because there is a high variability between countries, regions, farm types, and products. Furthermore, different assessment methods lead to partly contradicting conclusions on the environmental impacts of organic farming. This chapter gives an overview on the environmental impacts of organic agriculture compared with those of conventional agriculture based on state-of-the-art literature and discusses methodological implications for the comparison of environmental impacts of farming systems. According to most of the reviewed literature organic farming performs better in terms of biodiversity, soil fertility and air quality, mitigating resource depletion, climate change mitigation, and groundwater pollution as compared with conventional agriculture. However, there are single environmental indicators in some of the above-mentioned fields, against which organic agriculture performs equally or even worse (N2O emissions and CH4 emissions per unit of product produced), depending on the assumptions and methodology of the study. Finally, this paper highlights nine common methodological problems of quantifying environmental impacts of farming systems that have been identified in the reviewed literature and suggests solutions for improvement.

Keywords

  • Life Cycle Assessment
  • Organic Farming
  • Farming System
  • Impact Category
  • Conventional Farming

These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Buying options

Chapter
USD   29.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • DOI: 10.1007/978-1-4614-1587-9_8
  • Chapter length: 28 pages
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
eBook
USD   149.00
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • ISBN: 978-1-4614-1587-9
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
Softcover Book
USD   199.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
Hardcover Book
USD   219.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
Fig. 8.1
Fig. 8.2
Fig. 8.3
Fig. 8.4
Fig. 8.5
Fig. 8.6

Notes

  1. 1.

    Council Regulation (EC) No. 834/2007 of 28 June 2007 on organic production and labelling of organic products, repealing Regulation (EEC) No. 2092/91, O.J. L 189/21 2007. This regulation was amended by Council Regulation (EC) No. 967/2008 of 29 September 2008, O.J. L 264/1 (2008).

  2. 2.

    Commission Regulation (EC) No. 889/2008 of 5 September 2008 laying down detailed rules for the implementation of Council Regulation (EC) No. 834/2007 on organic production and labelling of organic products O.J. L 250/1, which was amended by Commission Regulation (EC) No. 1254/2008 of 15 December 2008, amending Regulation (EC) 889/2008 laying down detailed rules for implementation of Council Regulation (EC) No. 834/2007, O.J. L 337/80.

  3. 3.

    Ordinance on Organic Farming. Verordnung des EVD vom 22. September 1997 über die biologische Landwirtschaft (SR 910.181).

  4. 4.

    Council Regulation (EEC) No. 2092/91 of 24 June 1991 on organic production of agricultural products and indications referring there to on agricultural products and foodstuffs.

References

  • Aeschenbacher, S., and R. Badertscher. 2008. Umweltziele Landwirtschaft – hergeleitet aus bestehenden rechtlichen Grundlagen. Bern: Umweltwissen. Federal Office for the Environment (BAFU), Federal Office for Agriculture (BLW).

    Google Scholar 

  • Auerswald, K., M. Keinz, and P. Fiener. 2003. Soil erosion potential of organic versus conventional farming evaluated by USLE modelling of cropping statistics for agricultural districts in Bavaria. Soil Use and Management 19: 305–311.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Badgley, C., J. Moghtader, E. Quinterio, E. Zakem, M.J. Chappell, K. Avilés-Vázquez, A. Samulon, and I. Perfecto. 2006. Organic agriculture and the global food supply. Renewable Agriculture and Food Systems 22(2): 86–108.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Bengtsson, J., J. Ahnström, and A.C. Weibull. 2005. The effects of organic agriculture on biodiversity and abundance: A meta-analysis. Journal of Applied Ecology 42: 261–269.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Boutin, C., A. Baril, and P.A. Martin. 2008. Plant diversity in crop fields and woody hedgerows of organic and conventional farms in contrasting landscapes. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 123(1–3): 185–193.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Burton, R.J.F., C. Kuczera, and G. Schwarz, 2008. ‘Exploring Farmers’ Cultural Resistance to Voluntary Agri-environmental Schemes’. Sociologia Ruralis 48: 1, pp. 16–37.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Butler, G., J.H. Nielsen, T. Slots, C. Seal, M.D. Eyre, R. Sanderson, and C. Leifert. 2008. Fatty acid and fat-soluble antioxidant concentrations in milk from high- and low-input conventional and organic systems: Seasonal variation. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 88(8): 1431–1441.

    CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Cederberg, C., and M. Stadig. 2003. System expansion and allocation in life cycle assessment of milk and beef production. The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment 6: 350–356.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Chirinda, N., M.S. Carter, K.R. Albert, P. Ambus, J.E. Olesen, J.R. Porter, and S.O. Petersen. 2010. ‘Emissions of nitrous oxide from arable organic and conventional cropping systems on two soil types’. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 136, pp. 199–208.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Christie, M., N. Hanley, J. Warren, K. Murphy, R. Wright, and T. Hyde. 2006. Valuing the diversity of biodiversity. Ecological Economics 58: 304–317.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Condron, L.M., K.C. Cameron, H.J. Di, T.J. Clough, E.A. Forbes, R.G. McLaren, and R.G. Silva. 2000. A comparison of soil and environmental quality under organic and conventional farming systems in New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Agricultural Research 43: 443–466.

    CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Delbecq, A.L., A.H. Van de Ven, and D.H. Gustafson. 1975. Group techniques for program planning: A guide to nominal group and Delphi processes, Longman higher education. Glenview: Scott, Foresman.

    Google Scholar 

  • Edwards, C.A., R. Lal, P. Madden, R.H. Miller, and G. House. 1990. Research on integrated arable farming and organic mixed farming in the Netherlands. In Sustainable agricultural systems, ed. C.A. Edwards, United States. Agency for International Development, et al. Ankeny: Soil and Water Conservation Society.

    Google Scholar 

  • Eltun, R. 1995. Comparisons of nitrogen leaching in ecological and conventional cropping systems. Biological Agriculture and Horticulture 11: 103–114.

    Google Scholar 

  • Flessa, H., R. Ruser, P. Dörsch, T. Kamp, M.A. Jimenez, J.C. Munch, and F. Beese, 2002. ‘Integrated evaluation of greenhouse gas emissions from two farming systems in southern Germany. Special consideration of N2O emissions’. Agriculture Ecosystems and Environment 91, pp. 175–199.

    Google Scholar 

  • Frischknecht, R., H.-J. Althaus, G. Doka, R. Dones, T. Heck, S. Hellweg, R. Hischier, N. Jungbluth, T. Nemecek, G. Reblitzer, and M. Spielmann. 2007. Overview and methodology, Final report ecoinvent v2.0, vol. 1. Duebendorf: Swiss Centre for Life Cycle Inventories.

    Google Scholar 

  • Fuller, R.J., L.R. Norton, R.E. Feber, P.J. Johnson, D.E. Chamberlain, A.C. Joys, F. Mathews, R.C. Stuart, M.C. Townsend, W.J. Manley, M.S. Wolfe, D.W. Macdonald, and L.G. Firbank. 2005. Benefits of organic farming to biodiversity vary among taxa. Biology Letters 1: 431–434.

    CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Gattinger, A., A. Müller, M. Häni, B. Oehen, and U. Niggli, 2010. Klimaleistungen des Biolandbaus - Fakten und Hintergründe Frick.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Gibson, R.H., S. Pearce, R.J. Morris, W.O.C. Symondson, and J. Memmott. 2007. Plant diversity and land use under organic and conventional agriculture: A whole-farm approach. Journal of Applied Ecology 44(4): 792–803.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Goulding, K.W.T. 2000. Nitrate leaching from arable and horticultural land. Soil Use and Management 16: 145–151.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Grönroos, J., J. Seppälä, P. Voutilainen, P. Seuri, and K. Koikkalainen. 2006. Energy use in conventional and organic milk and rye bread production in Finland. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment 117(2–3): 109–118.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Gruber, W. 1992. Die schweizerische Agrarpolitik vor einer ökologischen Neuorientierung? Freiburg: Universitätsverlag Freiburg.

    Google Scholar 

  • Haas, G., F. Wetterich, and U. Köpke. 2001. Comparing intensive, extensified and organic grassland farming in southern Germany by process life cycle assessment. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 83: 43–53.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Halberg, N. 2008. Energy use and green house gas emission in organic agriculture. Paper presented at the international conference organic agriculture and climate change, Enita of Clermont, France 17–18 April 2008.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hansen, S., M.A. Bleken and B.K. Sitaula. 2008. Effect of soil compaction and fertilization practise on N2O emission and CH4 oxidation (Presentation). International Symposium “Organic Farming and Climate Change” 17 and 18 April 2008 at Clermont-Ferrand ENITA/France (http://www.abiodoc.com/fileadmin/uploads/Colloque/Diaporama/TH05/18_Hansen.pdf).

    Google Scholar 

  • Heijungs, R., J.B. Guinée, G. Huppes, R.M. Lankreijer, H.A.U. de Haes, and A.W. Sleeswijk. 1992. Environmental life cycle assessment of products. Leiden: Centre of Environmental Science.

    Google Scholar 

  • Herzog, F., and W. Richner. 2005. Evaluation der ökomassnahmen—bereich stickstoff und phosphor, Schriftenreihe der FAL, vol. 57. Reckenholz: Agroscope FAL Reckenholz.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hoeppner, J.W., M.H. Entz, B.G. McConkey, R.P. Zentner, and C.N. Nagy. 2005. Energy use and efficiency in two Canadian organic and conventional crop production systems. Renewable Agriculture and Food Systems 21(1): 60–67.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Hole, D.G., A.J. Perkins, J.D. Wilson, I.H. Alexander, P.V. Grice, and A.D. Evans. 2005. Does organic farming benefit biodiversity? Biological Conservation 122: 113–130.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Hospido, A., J. Davis, J. Berlin, and U. Sonesson. 2010. A review of methodological issues affecting LCA of novel food products. International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment 15: 44–52.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Huber, B., O. Schmid, and G. Napo-Bitanem. 2010. Standards and regulations. The world of organic agriculture—Statistics and emerging trends, IFOAM, Bonn; FiBL, Frick; ITC, Geneva. 72–79.

    Google Scholar 

  • IFOAM. 2009. International federation of organic agriculture movements (ifoam). http://www.ifoam.org/index.html. Accessed 5 Dec 2009.

  • IPCC. 2007. Climate change 2007—Synthesis report. Cambridge: Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC).

    Google Scholar 

  • Jeanneret, P., D. Baumgartner, R. Freiermuth, and G. Gaillard. 2006. Méthode d’évaluation de l’impact des activités sur la biodiversité. Zürich-Reckenholz: Agroscope Reckenholz Tänikon (ART).

    Google Scholar 

  • Jeffreys, I. 2002. A multi-objective decision-support system (modss) with stakeholders and experts in the hodgson creek catchment. In A whole-farm and regional agroforestry decision-support system. A report for the rirdc/land & water Australia/FWPRDC joint venture agroforestry program, eds. Harrison S., and J. Herbohn. Rural Industries Research and Development Corporation (RIRDC).

    Google Scholar 

  • Kirchmann, H., and L. Bergström. 2001. Do organic farming practices reduce nitrate leaching? Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis 32(7): 997–1028.

    CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Knop, E., D. Kleijn, F. Herzog, and B. Schmid. 2006. Effectiveness of the swiss agri-environment scheme in promoting biodiversity. Journal of Applied Ecology 43: 120–127.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Köpke, U. 2003. Conservation agriculture with and without use of agrochemicals. Paper presented at the II. World congress on conservation agriculture “Producing in Harmony with Nature,” Foz do Iguassu, Brazil, August 11–15, 2003.

    Google Scholar 

  • Köpke, U., E.R. Keller, and G. Kahnt. 1997. Ökologischer landbau. In Handbuch des pflanzenbaus 1. Grundlagen der landwirtschaftlichen pflanzenproduktion, vol. Kapitel 9, ed. K.-U. Heyland, H. Hanus, E.R. Keller, et al. Stuttgart: Verlag Eugen Ulmer.

    Google Scholar 

  • Krystallis, A., and G. Chryssohoidis. 2005. Consumers’ willingness to pay for organic food: Factors that affect it and variation per organic product type. British Food Journal 107(5): 320–343.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Küstermann, B., M. Kainz and K.-J. Hülsbergen. 2008. Modeling carbon cycles and estimation of greenhouse gas emissions from organic and conventional farming systems. Renewable Agriculture and Food Systems 23(1): 38–52.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Lal, R. 2004. Soil carbon sequestration impacts on global climate change and food security. Science 304(5677): 1623–1627.

    CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Lampkin, N.H. 1990. Organic farming. Ipswich: Farming Press Books.

    Google Scholar 

  • Lampkin, N.H. 2007. Organic farming’s contribution to climate change and agricultural sustainability. Paper presented at the Welsh organic producers conference, 18th Oct 2007.

    Google Scholar 

  • Lynch, D. 2008. Greenhouse gas emissions from cropping in Atlantic Canada (Presentation). International Symposium “Organic Farming and Climate Change”, 17 and 18 April 2008 at Clermont-Ferrand ENITA/France (http://www.abiodoc.com/fileadmin/uploads/Colloque/Diaporama/TH05/21_Lynch.pdf).

  • Mäder, P., A. Fließbach, D. Dubios, L. Gunst, P. Fried, and U. Niggli. 2002. Soil fertility and biodiversity in organic farming. Science 296: 1694–1697.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Meadows, D.H., D.I. Meadows, J. Randers, and W.W. Beherns III. 1972. The limits to growth—A report to the club of Rome. New York: Universe Books.

    Google Scholar 

  • Morris, C., A. Hopkins, and M. Winter. 2001. Comparison of the social, economic and environmental effects of organic, ICM and conventional farming—Final report to the countryside agency. Cheltenham, IGER: CCRU.

    Google Scholar 

  • Nemecek, T., O. Huguenin-Elie, D. Dubois, and G. Gaillard. 2005. Ökobilanzierung von anbausystemen im schweizerischen acker- und futterbau, FAL Schriftenreihe, vol. 58. Reckenholz: Eidgenössische Forschungsanstalt für Agrarökologie und Landbau (FAL).

    Google Scholar 

  • Niggli, U. 2007. The evolution of organic practice. In Organic farming: An international history, ed. W. Lockeretz. Oxfordshire, Cambridge: CAB International.

    Google Scholar 

  • Niggli, U., A. Fließbach, M. Stolze, J. Sanders, C. Schader, G. Wyss, O. Balmer, L. Pfiffner, and E. Wyss. 2008. Gesellschaftliche leistungen der biologischen landwirtschaft. Frick: Forschungsinstitut für Biologischen Landbau (FiBL).

    Google Scholar 

  • Niggli, U., A. Fliessbach, P. Hepperly, and N. Scialabba. 2009. Low greenhouse gas agriculture: Mitigation and adaptation potential of sustainable farming systems. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO).

    Google Scholar 

  • Norton, L., P. Johnson, A. Joys, R. Stuart, D. Chamberlain, R. Feber, L. Firbank, W. Manley, M. Wolfe, and B. Hart. 2009. Consequences of organic and non-organic farming practices for field, farm and landscape complexity. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 129(1–3): 221–227.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • OECD. 2001. Multifunctionality—Towards an analytical framework. Paris: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD).

    Google Scholar 

  • OECD. 2004. Workshop on evaluating agri-environmental policies. Paris: Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD).

    Google Scholar 

  • Olesen, J.E., K. Schelde, A. Weiske, M.R. Weisbjerg, W.A.H. Asman, and J. Djurhuus. 2006. Modelling greenhouse gas emissions from european conventional and organic dairy farms. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment 112(2–3): 207–220.

    CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Osterburg, B., and T. Runge. 2007. Maßnahmen zur reduzierung von stickstoffeinträgen in gewässer—eine wasserschutzorientierte landwirtschaft zur umsetzung der wasserrahmenrichtline, vol. 307. Braunschweig: Bundesforschungsanstalt für Landwirtschaft (FAL), Landbauforschung Völkenrode—FAL Agricultural Research.

    Google Scholar 

  • Pacini, C., A. Wossink, G. Giesen, C. Vazzana, and R. Huirne. 2003. Evaluation of sustainability of organic, integrated and conventional farming systems: A farm and field-scale analysis. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment 95(1): 273–288.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Petersen, S.O., K. Regina, A. Pöllinger, E. Rigler, L. Valli, S. Yamulki, M. Esala, and C. Fabbri, E. Syväsalo and F.P. Vinther. 2006. Nitrous oxide emissions from organic and conventional crop rotations in five European countries. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 112: 200–206.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Pfiffner, L., and H. Luka. 2007. Earthworm populations in two low-input cereal farming systems. Applied Soil Ecology 37: 184–191.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Pimentel, D., and M.H. Pimentel. 2005. Sustainability of meat-based and plant-based diets and the environment. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 78: 660–663.

    Google Scholar 

  • Pimentel, D., C. Harvey, P. Resosudarmo, K. Sinclair, D. Kurz, M. McNair, S. Christ, L. Shpritz, L. Fitton, R. Saffouri, and R. Blair. 1995. Environmental and economic costs of soil erosion and conservation benefits. Science 267: 1117–1123.

    CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Pimentel, D., P. Hepperly, J. Hanson, D. Douds, and R. Seidel. 2005. Environmental, energetic, and economic comparisons of organic and conventional farming systems. Bioscience 55(7): 573–582.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Reap, J., F. Roman, S. Diuncan, and B. Bras. 2008a. A survey of unresolved problems in life cycle assessment—Part 1: Goal and scope and inventory analysis. The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment 13: 290–300.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Reap, J., F. Roman, S. Diuncan, and B. Bras. 2008b. A survey of unresolved problems in life cycle assessment—Part 2: Impact assessment and interpretation. The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment 13: 374–388.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Sanders, J., N.H. Lampkin, P. Midmore, and M. Stolze. 2005. A policy impact model for organic farming in Switzerland. In ISOFAR: Proceedings of the conference “Researching Sustainable Systems”, Adelaide 2005, ed. U. Köpke, U. Niggli, D. Neuhoff, P. Cornish, W. Lockeretz, and H. Willer. Bonn: International Society of Organic Agriculture Research (ISOFAR).

    Google Scholar 

  • Schader, C. 2009. Cost-effectiveness of organic farming for achieving environmental policy targets in Switzerland. Frick: Aberystwyth University, Wales. Research Institute of Organic Farming (FiBL).

    Google Scholar 

  • Schader, C., and M. Stolze. 2010. Nachhaltigkeitsbewertung der knospe-landwirtschaft—ergebnisse eines expertenworkshops. Frick: Research Institute of Organic Agriculture (FiBL).

    Google Scholar 

  • Schader, C., T. Nemecek, G. Gaillard, J. Sanders, and M. Stolze. 2008a. Using LCA data for agri-environmental policy analysis at sector level. Paper presented at the 6th international conference on life cycle assessment in the agri-food sector 2008—Towards a sustainable management of the food chain, Zurich, Switzerland, 12–14 Nov 2008.

    Google Scholar 

  • Schader, C., L. Pfiffner, C. Schlatter, and M. Stolze. 2008b. Umsetzung von ökomassnahmen auf bio- und öln-betrieben. Agrarforschung 15(10): 506–511.

    Google Scholar 

  • Schader, C., J. Sanders, T. Nemecek, N.H. Lampkin, and M. Stolze. 2008c. A modelling approach for evaluating agri-environmental policies at sector level. Yearbook of Socioeconomics in Agriculture 1: 93–132.

    Google Scholar 

  • Schader, C., L. Pfiffner, C. Schlatter, and M. Stolze. 2009. Umsetzung von Agrarumweltmassnahmen auf bio- und konventionellen Betrieben der Schweiz. In: Mayer, J., Alföldi, T., Leiber, F., et al. eds. Werte—Wege—Wirkungen: Biolandbau im Spannungsfeld zwischen Ernährungssicherung, Markt und Klimawandel. Beiträge zur 10. Wissenschaftstagung Ökologischer Landbau, 11–13 Feb 2009, Zürich, 2009. Forschungsanstalt Agroscope Reckenholz-Tänikon (ART), Forschungsinstitut für biologischen Landbau (FiBL), ETH Zürich, Stiftung Ökologie & Landbau, 446–449.

    Google Scholar 

  • Schmidt, J. 2008. System delimitation in agricultural consequential LCA. The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment 13: 350–364.

    CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Sehy, U. 2004. N2O-Freisetzungen aus Ackerböden: PhD Thesis. Technical University Munich.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Shepherd, M.A., R. Harrison, and J. Webb. 2002. Managing soil organic matter implications for soil structure on organic farms. Soil Use and Management 18: 284–292.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Shepherd, M., B. Pearce, B. Cormack, L. Philipps, S. Cuttle, A. Bhogal, P. Costigan, and R. Unwin. 2003. An assessment of the environmental impacts of organic farming. London: DEFRA, ADAS, Elm Farm, IGER.

    Google Scholar 

  • Siegrist, S., D. Schaub, L. Pfiffner, and P. Mäder. 1998. Does organic agriculture reduce soil erodibility? The results of a long-term field study on loess in Switzerland. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment 69: 253–265.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Smith, P., D. Martino, Z. Cai, H. Gwary, H. Janzen, P. Kumar, B. McCarl, S. Ogle, F. O’Mara, C. Rice, B. Scholes, and O. Sirotenko. 2007. Agriculture, Climate Change 2007: Mitigation. Cambridge: Contribution of Working Group III to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Steiner R.S. 2006. Landnutzungen prägen die Landschaft—konventionelle, bio-organische und bio-dynamische Anbaumethoden im Vergleich in ihrer Wirkung auf die Agrarlandschaft im Kanton Zürich.

    Google Scholar 

  • Stern, N. 2007. The economics of climate change—The Stern review. London: Cambridge University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Stockdale, E.A., N.H. Lampkin, M. Hovi, R. Keatinge, E.K.M. Lennartsson, D.W. Macdonald, S. Padel, F.H. Tattersall, M.S. Wolfe, and C.A. Watson. 2001. Agronomic and environmental implications for organic farming systems. Advances in Agronomy 70: 261–327.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Stolze, M., A. Piorr, A.M. Häring, and S. Dabbert. 2000. Environmental impacts of organic farming in Europe, Organic farming in Europe: Economics and policy, vol. 6. Stuttgart-Hohenheim: Universität Stuttgart-Hohenheim.

    Google Scholar 

  • Stopes, C., E.I. Lord, L. Philipps, and L. Woodward. 2002. Nitrate leaching from organic farms and conventional farms following best practice. Soil Use and Management 18: 301–308.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Stotten, F. 2008. Akzeptanzanalyse von naturschutzmaßnahmen im rahmen der schweizerischen agrarpolitik. Aachen: RWTH Aachen.

    Google Scholar 

  • TEEB (2010). The Economics of Ecosystem and Biodiversity: Ecological and economic foundations. In Kumar, P. (ed.), London and Washington: Earthscan.

    Google Scholar 

  • Thomassen, M.A., R. Dalgaard, R. Heijungs, and I. de Boer. 2008a. Attributional and consequential lca of milk production. The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment 13(339–349).

    Google Scholar 

  • Thomassen, M.A., K.J. van Calker, M.C.J. Smits, G.L. Iepema, and I.J.M. de Boer. 2008b. Life cycle assessment of conventional and organic milk production in the Netherlands. Agricultural Systems 96: 85–107.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • UNECE. 1999. Gothenburg protocol to abate acidification, eutrophication and ground-level ozone. Gothenburg: United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE).

    Google Scholar 

  • Vogt, G. 2007. The origins of organic farming. In Organic farming: An international history, ed. W. Lockeretz. Oxfordshire, Cambridge: CAB International.

    Google Scholar 

  • Willer, H. and L. Kilcher. 2009. The World of organic Agriculture, Statistics and Emerging Trends 2009: IFOAM, Bonn; FiBL, Frick; ITC, Geneva.

    Google Scholar 

  • Woese, K., D. Lange, C. Boess, and K.W. Bögl. 1997. A comparison of organically and conventionally grown foods—Results of a review of the relevant literature. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 74: 281–293.

    CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Younie, D. and C. A. Watson. 1992. Soil Nitrate–N Levels in organically and intensively managed grassland systems. Aspects of Applied Biology, 30: 235–238.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ziesemer, J. 2007. Energy use in organic food systems. Rome: Natural Resources Management and Environmental Department, Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations (FAO).

    Google Scholar 

  • Zittel, W., and J. Schindler. 2007. Crude oil: The supply outlook. Berlin: Energy Watch Group.

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Christian Schader .

Editor information

Editors and Affiliations

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

Copyright information

© 2012 Her Majesty the Queen, in Right of Canada

About this chapter

Cite this chapter

Schader, C., Stolze, M., Gattinger, A. (2012). Environmental performance of organic farming. In: Boye, J., Arcand, Y. (eds) Green Technologies in Food Production and Processing. Food Engineering Series. Springer, Boston, MA. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-1587-9_8

Download citation