General Principles of Pediatric Trauma

  • David A. Spiegel
  • Bibek Banskota


Most childhood fractures can be adequately treated by nonoperative measures, especially given the remodeling potential in skeletally immature patients. Physeal fractures may be complicated by growth disturbance, resulting an angular deformity and limb length inequality. Treating fractures and/or dislocations that present in a delayed manner is challenging and the outcomes are inferior to when patients present for care immediately following injury.


Limb Length Growth Disturbance Limb Length Discrepancy Angular Deformity Physeal Fracture 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. 1.
    Lewis CP, Lavy CBD, Harrison WJ. Delay in skeletal maturity in Malawian children. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 2002;84-B(5):732–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Fresancho AR. Human adaptation and accommodation. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press; 1993. p. 370–2.Google Scholar

Suggested Reading

  1. Beaty JH, Kasser JR, editors. Rockwood and Wilkins’ fractures in children. 7th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott, Williams and Wilkins; 2009.Google Scholar
  2. Gasco J, de Pablos J. Bone remodeling in malunited fractures in children. Is it reliable? J Pediatr Ortho B. 1997;6:126–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Peterson HA. Physeal fractures: part 2. Two previously unclassified types. J Pediatr Orthop. 1994;14:431–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Wenger DR, Pring ME, editors. Rang’s children’s fractures. 3rd ed. Philadelphia: Lipincott Williams and Wilkins; 2005.Google Scholar
  5. Wilkins KE. Principles of fracture remodeling in children. Injury. 2005;36:SA3–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of Orthopaedic SurgeryChildren’s Hospital of Philadelphia, University of Pennsylvania School of MedicinePhiladelphiaUSA
  2. 2.Honorary Consultant in Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation, Hospital and Rehabilitation Centre for Disabled ChildrenJanagal, KavreNepal
  3. 3.Department of OrthopedicsHospital and Rehabilitation Center for Disabled Children (HRDC)Janagal, KavreNepal

Personalised recommendations