Advertisement

Management/Utilization of Wastewater Treatment Sludges

  • Pratima Bajpai
Chapter

Abstract

Pulp and paper mill industries are always associated with disposal problem of highly contaminated sludge or biosolids. In countries with large-scale pulp and paper production, the huge amount of waste generated has prompted the government and industries to find new use of these biosolids. Paper mill sludges have a net environmental advantage over sewage sludges in that they are nearly pathogen-free; handling and use pose lower health risks. Landfilling, land application, composting, land spreading to improve soil fertility, production of ethanol and animal feed, pelletization of sludge, manufacture of building and ceramic materials and lightweight aggregate (LWA), landfill cover barrier are among the waste management options studied. The challenge to find efficient methods for firing sludge still exists today and is becoming increasingly important as pulp and paper mill strive to be competitive. So far, incineration has been the primary alternative to landfill. However, incineration is associated with environmental pollution problems. The emission of gaseous NO x and SO2 is the major precursor of acid rain. The residue ash contains various toxic metals which need to be landfilled and hence results in ground water contamination. The plastics and glue found in the sludge are the sources of chlorinated compounds such as HCl, dioxins, and furans which are major threat to the environment. Landfilling is becoming less of a viable option as environmental problems and restrictive legislation are making landfills a buried liability. Also, landfill operating cost has increased. Sites and permits for new landfills have become more difficult to obtain in many countries. Incineration and the production of steam and power with sludge will continue to be an option for the foreseeable future. Improvements in sludge drying techniques and boiler configuration are making sludge more of an asset than a liability for heat production. Incineration in beehive burners will soon be eliminated as these burners are being phased out. Land application is gaining momentum in the pulp and paper industry as well as with municipal waste treatment systems. Trials are quickly developing into permanent land spreading programs for forestry application, land reclamation and agricultural application but research is demonstrating that the hurdles of environmental legislation and disposal costs could be overcome. There has been interest in the use of sludge for production of light-weight aggregate and granules to carry agricultural chemicals, in pelletization of sludge for use as a fuel, production of ethanol and single cell protein, use in cement kiln feedstock and as hydraulic barrier material in landfill capping systems. The interest in these particular waste management opportunities probably relates mostly to their potential for using significant amounts of sludge. With the exception of ethanol and light-weight aggregate production from sludge, full-scale operations have successfully demonstrated each of these alternatives.

Keywords

Paper Mill Land Application Screw Press Primary Sludge Secondary Sludge 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. AghaMohammadi B, Durai-Swamy K (1995) A disposal alternative for sludge waste from recycled paper and cardboard. In: Joyce TW (ed) Environmental issues and technology in the pulp and paper industry – a Tappi Press anthology of published papers 1991–1994. Tappi Press, Atlanta, pp 445–458Google Scholar
  2. AghaMohammadi B, Shekarchi S, Durai-Swamy K, Steedman W, Dauber R (1995) Testing of a sludge gasification plant at Inland Containers Ontario (California) Mill. In: Joyce TW (ed) Environmental issues and technology in the pulp and paper industry – a Tappi Press anthology of published papers 1991–1994. Tappi Press, Atlanta, pp 431–443Google Scholar
  3. Alterthum F, Ingram LO (1989) Ethanol production from glucose, lactose, and xylose by recombinant E. coil. Appl Environ Microbiol 55(8):1943–1948Google Scholar
  4. Anon (2004) Paper mill sludge converted to glass aggregate. Recy Pap News 14(7):2–3Google Scholar
  5. Anon (2005) Turning sludge into animal bedding. Pap Technol 46(9):7Google Scholar
  6. Atwell JS (1981) Disposal of boiler ash. Tappi J 64(8):67–70Google Scholar
  7. Bajpai P, Bajpai PK, Kondo R (1999) Biotechnology for environmental protection in pulp and paper industry. Springer-Verlag, Germany, pp 209–238CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Banerjee S (2009) Sludge dewatering with cyclodextrins: a new cost-effective approach. In: Thirteenth international water technology conference, IWTC, Hurghada, Egypt, 13, 2009Google Scholar
  9. Battaglia A, Calace N, Nardi E, Petronio BM, Pietroletti M (2003) Paper mill sludge-soil mixture: kinetic and thermodynamic tests of cadmium and lead sorption capability. Microchem J 75: 97–102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Benitez J, Rodriguez A, Suarez A (1993) Optimization technique for sewage sludge conditioning with polymer and skeleton builders. Water Sci Technol 28(10):2067–2073Google Scholar
  11. Bezigian T (1995) Alternative solutions to landfilling paper mill packaging waste. In: Joyce TW (ed) Environmental issues and technology in the pulp and paper industry – a Tappi Press anthology of published papers 1991–1994. Tappi Press, Atlanta, pp 459–473Google Scholar
  12. Braman JR (1993) Forest fertilization with sludge in Malaspina College research forest. Operations report on Malaspina project 1992, Feb 1993, pp 1–46Google Scholar
  13. Busbin SJ (1995) Fuel specifications – sludge. In: Joyce TW (ed) Environmental issues and technology in the pulp and paper industry – a Tappi Press anthology of published Papers 1991–1994. Tappi Press, Atlanta, pp 349–355Google Scholar
  14. David PK (1995) Converting paper, paper mill sludge and other industrial wastes into pellet fuel. In: Joyce TW (ed) Environmental issues and technology in the pulp and paper industry – a Tappi Press anthology of published papers 1991–1994. Tappi Press, Atlanta, pp 365–367Google Scholar
  15. Davis DA, Gounder PK, Shelor FM (1995) Combined cycle-fluidized bed combustion of sludges and other pulp and paper mill wastes to useful energy. In: Joyce TW (ed) Environmental issues and technology in the pulp and paper industry – a Tappi Press anthology of published papers 1991–1994. Tappi Press, Atlanta, pp 379–384Google Scholar
  16. FioRito WA (1995) Destructive distillation – paper mill sludge management alternative. In: Joyce TW (ed) Environmental issues and technology in the pulp and paper industry – a Tappi Press anthology of published papers 1991–1994. Tappi Press, Atlanta, pp 425–429Google Scholar
  17. Fitzpatrick J, Seiler GS (1995) Fluid bed incineration of paper mill sludge. In: Joyce TW (ed) Environmental issues and technology in the pulp and paper industry – a Tappi Press anthology of published papers 1991–1994. Tappi Press, Atlanta, pp 369–378Google Scholar
  18. Gagnon D, Haney HE (2005) Oxycair solution: new and unique technology for pulp and paper secondary sludge management. In: 91st annual meeting pulp and paper technical association of Canada, Montreal, Canada, 8–10 Feb 2005, Book A, pp A123–A126Google Scholar
  19. Gavrilescu D (2004) Solid waste generation in kraft pulp mills. Environ Eng Manage J 3: 399–404Google Scholar
  20. Geng X, Deng J, Zhang SY (2006) Effects of hot-pressing parameters and wax content on the properties of fiberboard made from paper mill sludge. Wood Fiber Sci 38(4):736–741Google Scholar
  21. Goldstein IS, Easter JM (1992) An improved process for converting cellulose to ethanol. Tappi J 75(8):135–140Google Scholar
  22. Guiot SR, Frigon J-C (2006) Anaerobic digestion as a sustainable solution for biosolids management in the pulp and paper sector. In: 92nd annual meeting of the pulp and paper technical association of Canada, Montreal, QC, Canada, 7–9 Feb 2006, Book A, pp A261–A264Google Scholar
  23. Hammond D, Empie HJ (2007) Gasification of mixtures of black liquor and secondary sludge. Tappi J 6(3):9–15Google Scholar
  24. Hoffman R, Coghill R, Sykes J (1995) Solid waste management at ANM, Albury – from waste problems to resource opportunity. Appita 48(1):12–14Google Scholar
  25. Holt WH (1983) Solid waste landfills at paper mills. Tappi J 66(9):51–54Google Scholar
  26. Huang CP, Chang MC (1997) Conditioning of sludge and selection of polymers for the purpose. Ind Pollut Abatement 64:88–111Google Scholar
  27. Ingram LO, Conway T (1988) Expression of different levels of ethanologenic enzymes from Zymomonas mobilis in recombinant strains of E. coli. Appl Environ Microbiol 54(2):397–404Google Scholar
  28. Kenny R, Coghill R, Almost S, Easton C (1995) CPPA international sludge dewatering survey. In: Proceedings of the 1995 Tappi environmental conference, Atlanta, GA, April 1995.Google Scholar
  29. Kenny R, Almost S, Coghill R, Easton C, Osterberg F (1997) CPPA/international review of pulp and paper activated sludge dewatering practices. Pulp Pap Canada 98(8):T277–T281Google Scholar
  30. King B, McBurney B, Barnes TW, Cantrell M (1994) Operating experience with stoker firing TMP clarifier sludge with wood waste. In: Joyce TW (ed) Environmental issues and technology in the pulp and paper industry – a Tappi Press anthology of published papers 1991–1994. Tappi Press, Atlanta, pp 393–403Google Scholar
  31. Kozinski JA, Zheng G, Saade R, DiLalla S (1997) On the clean and efficient thermal treatment of deinking solid residues. Can J Chem Eng 75(1):113–120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Kraft DL, Orender HC (1993) Considerations for using sludge as a fuel. Tappi J 76(3):175–183Google Scholar
  33. Krigstin S, Sain M (2005) Characterization and potential utilization of recycled paper mill sludge. In: Paper presented at the PAPTAC 91st annual meeting 2005, Montreal QuebecGoogle Scholar
  34. Krogmann U, Boyles LS, Martel CJ, McComas KA (1997) Biosolids and sludge management. Water Environ Res 69(4):534–550CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. La Fond JF, Lantz D, Ritter LG (1995) Combustion of clarifier underflow solids in a hog fuel boiler with a new high energy air system. In: Joyce TW (ed) Environmental issues and technology in the pulp and paper industry – a Tappi Press anthology of published papers 1991–1994. Tappi Press, Atlanta, pp 385–392Google Scholar
  36. Latva-Somppi J, Tran HM, Barham D (1994) Characterization of deinking sludge and its ashed residue. Pulp Pap Canada 95(10):31–35Google Scholar
  37. Ledbetter RH (1976) Design considerations for pulp and paper mill sludge landfills. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency EPA-600/3-76-11, December 1976Google Scholar
  38. Lee YY, McCaskey TA (1983) Hemicellulose hydrolysis and fermentation of resulting pentoses to ethanol. Tappi J 66(5):102–107Google Scholar
  39. Macyk T (1993) Research relative to land application of BCTMP mill waste in Alberta. Preprints 1993 Pacific Paper Expo 1993, pp 91–95Google Scholar
  40. McGovern JN, Berbee JG, Bockheim TG, Baker AJ (1983) Characteristics of combined effluent treatment sludges from several types of pulp and paper mills. Tappi J 66(3):115–118Google Scholar
  41. McKeown JJ (1979) Sludge dewatering and disposal. A review of practices in the U.S. paper industry. Tappi J 62(8):97–100Google Scholar
  42. Mertz HA, Jayne TG (1984) Start up and operating experience with Zimpro high pressure wet oxidation system for sludge treatment and clay reclamation. In: Proceedings of the Tappi environmental conference, Savannah, GA, 9–11 April 1984Google Scholar
  43. Millet MA, Baker AJ, Satter LD, McGovern JN, Dinius DA (1973) Pulp and papermaking residues as feedstuffs for ruminants. J Anim Sci 37(2):599–607Google Scholar
  44. Miner RA (1981) A review of sludge burning practices in combination fuel-fired boilers. National Council of the Paper Industry for Air and Stream Improvement, New York, Nov 1981. Technical Bulletin No. 360Google Scholar
  45. Miner RA, Marshall DW (1976). Sludge dewatering practice in the pulp and paper industry. Technical Bulletin no. 286, National Council of the Paper Industry for Air and Steam Improvement, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  46. Mladenov M, Pelovski Y (2010) Utilization of wastes from pulp and paper industry. J Univ Chem Technol Met 45(1):33–38Google Scholar
  47. Monte MC, Fuente E, Blanco A, Negro C (2009) Waste management from pulp and paper production in the European Union. Waste Manag 29(1):293–308CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. National Council of the Paper Industry for Air and Stream Improvement (NCASI) (1992) Chemical composition of pulp and paper industry landfill leachates. Technical Bulletin No. 643, Sept 1992Google Scholar
  49. Nichols WE, Flanders LN (1995) An evaluation of pelletizing technology. In: Joyce TW (ed) Environmental issues and technology in the pulp and paper industry – a Tappi Press anthology of published papers 1991–1994. Tappi Press, Atlanta, pp 357–363Google Scholar
  50. Norli L, Smedsrud L (2006) Thune screw presses for sludge: the innovative screw press design for high dry contents. Twogether 22:24–27Google Scholar
  51. Ozturk Ι, Eroglu V, Basturk A (1992) Sludge utilization and reduction experiences in the pulp and paper industry. Water Sci Technol 26(9–11):2105–2108Google Scholar
  52. Perng YS, Wang IC, Yu ST, Gong HY, Dinh L, Kuo LS (2006) Application of nano-silica to paper mill sludge dewatering. Taiwan J For Sci 21(3):353–362Google Scholar
  53. Pickell J, Wunderlich R (1995) Sludge disposal: current practices and future options. Pulp Pap Canada 96(9):T300–T306Google Scholar
  54. Pridham NF, Cline RA (1988) Paper mill sludge disposal: completing the ecological cycle. Pulp Pap Canada 89(2):T73–T75Google Scholar
  55. Reilly MT, Krepps WE (1982) A case study-trials with a mobile unit demonstrate centrifugation of secondary sludge. Tappi J 65(3):83–85Google Scholar
  56. Rodden G (1993) The new Alchemy: turning waste into oils and chemicals. Can Chem News 45(8):45–48Google Scholar
  57. Rosenqvist GV (1978) The use of primary waste water treatment sludge in the manufacture of printing paper at Kymi Kymmene. Paperi Ja Puu 60(4a):205–217Google Scholar
  58. Russel C, Odendahl S (1996) Environmental considerations for landfill development in the pulp and paper industry. Pulp Pap Canada 97(1):T17–T22Google Scholar
  59. Sell NJ, McΙntosh TH (1988) Technical and economic feasibility of briquetting mill sludge for boiler fuel. Tappi J 71(3):135–139Google Scholar
  60. Sherman WR (1995) A review of the Maine “Appendix A” sludge research program. Tappi J 78(6):135–150Google Scholar
  61. Simpson GG, King LD, Corlile BL, Blickensderfer PS (1983) Paper mill sludges, coal flyash, and surplus lime mud as soil amendments in crop production. Tappi J 66(7):71–74Google Scholar
  62. Springer AM (1993) Solid waste management and disposal. In: Springer AM (ed) Industrial environmental control-pulp and paper industry, 2nd edn. Tappi Press, Atlanta, pp 458–493Google Scholar
  63. Springer AM, Dietrich-Velazquez HCM, Digiacomo D (1996) Feasibility study of sludge lysis and recycle in the activated-sludge process. Tappi J 79(5):162–170Google Scholar
  64. Stovall JH, Berry DA (1969) Pressing and incineration of kraft mill primary clarifier sludge. Tappi J 52(11):2093–2097Google Scholar
  65. Suriyanarayanan S, Mailappa AS, Jayakumar D, Nanthakumar K, Karthikeyan K, Balasubramanian S (2010) Studies on the characterization and possibilities of reutilization of solid wastes from a waste paper based paper industry. Global J Environ Res 4(1):18–22Google Scholar
  66. Taylor BR, Mcdonald MA, Kimmins JP, Hawkins BJ (1992) Combining pulp mill sludges with municipal sewage to produce slow-release forest fertilizers. Pacific Paper Expo, pp 63–65Google Scholar
  67. Thomas CO, Thomas RC, Hover KC (1987) Wastepaper fibers in cementitious composites. J Environ Eng 113(1):16–31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Toole NK, Kirkland JH (1984) Pilot studies of screw presses for dewatering primary sludges. In: Proceedings of the Tappi environmental conference, Savannah, Georgia, 9–11 April 1984Google Scholar
  69. Wardwell RE, Cooper SR, Charlie WA (1978) Disposal of paper mill sludge in landfills. Tappi J 61(12):72–76Google Scholar
  70. Weigand PS, Unwin JP (1994) Alternative management of pulp and paper industry solid wastes. Tappi J 77(4):91–97Google Scholar
  71. Wu CC, Chien SH, Chuang HH, Wen PC, Kang YW (1998) Investigation on the mechanisms of polymer conditioners for sludge. In: Proceedings of the 13th waste disposal technology symposium, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, 21–22 Nov 1998, pp 107–112Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Thapar Research and Development Center ColonyPatialaIndia

Personalised recommendations