An Instructional Design Approach to Effective Instructional Game Design and Assessment
CyGaMEs is a formalism for instructional game design that aligns an instructional game with targeted content. The CyGaMEs method derives from instructional design, cognitive science analogical reasoning, learning science, and game design theory. The author summarizes the theoretical foundations, introduces the method, describes the CyGaMEs assessment tools, and summarizes research that demonstrates how game-based technologies can be used to authentically assess knowledge growth as it occurs during game-based learning. The author argues that theoretically and empirically sound instructional design methods like CyGaMEs enhance the effectiveness of game-based learning and assessment.
KeywordsTarget Domain Instructional Technology Analogical Reasoning Game Design Source Domain
Debbie Denise Reese, Research and Evaluation, Center for Educational Technologies, Wheeling Jesuit University.
This research was supported in part by National Science Foundation grant DRL-0814512 awarded to the author and National Aeronautics and Space Association NCC5-451, NNX06AB09G-Basic, NNX06AB09G-Supplement #1, NNX06AB09G-Supplement #2, NNX08AJ71A-Basic and No. NAG-13782 awarded to the NASA-sponsored Classroom of the Future.
Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation or the National Aeronautics and Space Association.
Correspondence regarding this article should be sent to Debbie Denise Reese, Center for Educational Technologies, Wheeling Jesuit University, 316 Washington Ave, Wheeling, WV 26003. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
- Archald, D. A., & Newmann, F. M. (1988). Beyond standardized testing: Assessing authentic academic achievement in the secondary school. Reston: VA: National Association of Secondary School Principals. Retrieved from http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICDocs/data/ericdocs2sql/content_storage_01/0000019b/80/1e/2b/75.pdf.
- Borgman, C. L., Abelson, H., Johnson, R., Koedinger, K. R., Linn, M. C., Lynch, C. A. et al. (2008). Fostering learning in the networked world: The cyberlearning opportunity and challenge: A 21st century agenda for the National Science Foundation. Arlington, VA: National Science Foundation. Retrieved from http://www.nsf.gov/pubs/2008/nsf08204/nsf08204.pdf?govDel=USNSF_124 .Google Scholar
- Bransford, J. D. (2005). Benjamin Cluff Lecture. Provo, UT: David O. McKay School of Education, Brigham Young University. Retrieved from http://education.byu.edu/media/index.html?video=50.
- Csikszentmihalyi, M. (2008). Creativity, fulfillment, and flow. TED: Ideas worth spreading. Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fXIeFJCqsPs.
- Csikszentmihalyi, M., & Csikszentmihalyi, I. S. (Eds.). (1988). Optimal experience: Psychological studies of flow in consciousness. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
- Fullerton, T., Swain, C., & Hoffman, S. (2004). Game design workshop: Designing, prototyping, and playtesting games. San Francisco: CMP Books.Google Scholar
- Gagné, R. M., Briggs, L. J., & Wager, W. W. (1992). Principles of instructional design (4th ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth/Thomson Learning.Google Scholar
- Gee, J. P. (2003). What video games have to teach us about learning and literacy. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
- Gee, J. P. (2005b). What would a state of the art instructional video game look like? Innovate, 1(6). Retrieved from http://www.innovateonline.info/index.php?view=article%26id=80.
- Greeno, J. G. (1997). On claims that answer the wrong question. Educational Researcher, 26(1), 5–17.Google Scholar
- Greeno, J. G., Collins, A., & Resnick, L. B. (1996). Cognition and learning. In D. C. Berlinger & R. C. Calfee (Eds.), Handbook of educational psychology (pp. 15–46). New York: Macmillan.Google Scholar
- Hatano, G., & Inagaki, K. (1986). Two courses of expertise. In H. Stevenson, H. Azuma, & K. Hakuta (Eds.), Child development and education in Japan (pp. 262–272). New York: W. H. Freeman and Company.Google Scholar
- Hektner, J. M., Schmidt, J. A., & Csikszentmihalyi, M. (2007). Experience sampling method: Measuring the quality of everyday life. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
- Holyoak, K. J., & Thagard, P. (1995). Mental leaps: Analogy in creative thought. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
- Jenkins, H. (2002). Game theory. Technology Review. Retrieved from http://web.mit.edu/cms/People/henry3/publications.htm.
- Klopfer, E., Osterweil, S., & Salen, K. (2009). Moving learning games forward: Obstacles, opportunities, and openness. Boston, MA: The Education Arcade, MIT.Google Scholar
- Lakoff, G., & Johnson, M. (1980). Metaphors we live by. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
- Langhoff, S., Cowan-Sharp, J., Dodson, E., Damer, B., Ketner, B., & Reese, D. D. (2009). Workshop report: Virtual worlds and immersive environments. (NASA/CP–2009-214598). Moffett Field, CA: NASA Ames Research Center.Google Scholar
- National Research Council. (2001). Knowing what students know: The science and design of educational assessment. Committee on the Foundations of Assessment. J. Pelligrino, N. Chudowsky, R. Glaser (Eds.). Board on Testing and Assessment, Center for Education. Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.Google Scholar
- Newmann, F. M., King, M. B., & Carmichael, D. L. (2007). Authentic instruction and assesssment: Common standards or rigor and relevance in teaching academic subjects. Des Moines, IA: Iowa Department of Education. Retrieved from http://www.smallschoolsproject.org/PDFS/meetings/auth_instr_assess.pdf.
- Newmann, F. M., Ron, B., & Wiggins, G. (1998). An exchange of views on “semantics, psychometrics, and assessment reform: A close look at ‘authentic’ assessments”. Educational Researcher, 27(6), 19–22.Google Scholar
- Papert, S. (1980). Mindstorms: Children, computers, and powerful ideas. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
- Reese, D. D. (2006). Foundations of serious games design and assessment. (COTF/LVP/Sep-2006). Wheeling, WV: Center for Educational Technologies, Wheeling Jesuit University.Google Scholar
- Reese, D. D. (2007). First steps and beyond: Serious games as preparation for future learning. Journal of Educational Media and Hypermedia, 16(3), 283–300.Google Scholar
- Reese, D. D. (2009a). Replication supports Flowometer: Advancing cyberlearning through game-based assessment technologies. Paper presented at the 2009 international conference of the Association for Educational Communications and Technology, Louisville, KY.Google Scholar
- Reese, D. D. (2009b). Structure mapping theory as a formalism for instructional game design and assessment. In D. Gentner, K. Holyoak, & B. Kokinov (Eds.), New frontiers in analogy research: Proceedings of the 2nd international conference on analogy (Analogy ‘09) (pp. 394–403). Sofia, Bulgaria: New Bulgarian University Press.Google Scholar
- Reese, D. D., Diehl, V. A., & Lurquin, J. L. (2009). Metaphor enhanced instructional video game causes conceptual gains in lunar science knowledge. Poster presented at the Association for Psychological Science 21st Annual Convention, San Francisco, CA.Google Scholar
- Reese, D. D. (2010). Introducing flowometer: A CyGaMEs assessment suite tool. In R. V. Eck (Ed.), Gaming & cognition: Theories and perspectives from the learning sciences. (pp. 227–254). Hershey, PA: IGI Global.Google Scholar
- Reese, D. D., & Tabachnick, B. G. (2010). The moment of learning: Quantitative analysis of exemplar gameplay supports CyGaMEs approach to embedded assessment [structured abstract]. Paper to be presented at the Society for Research on Educational Effectiveness 2010 Annual Research Conference, Washington, DC. Retrieved from http://www.sree.org/conferences/2010/program/abstracts/191.pdf
- Schell, J. (2008). The art of game design: A book of lenses. New York: Elsevier.Google Scholar
- Smith, P. L., & Ragan, T. J. (2005). Instructional design (3rd ed.). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.Google Scholar