Designing Society

  • Frederick Betz
Part of the Innovation, Technology, and Knowledge Management book series (ITKM, volume 11)


We have been examining how history can validate or invalidate social theory. Marx, Lenin, and Stalin were certain they were right – that Marxist theory and communist ideology would be historically determinant and good for humanity. But historically, it turned out not so, neither determinate nor good for people. When no longer repressed by terror, the humanity in Europe (who had suffered under communist dictatorships) finally rejected communism. But was this merely a historical phenomenon of European society or was it more universal in global society?


Communist Party Qing Dynasty Chinese Communist Party Topological Graph Perceptual Space 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Engineering and Technology ManagementPortland State UniversityPortlandUSA

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