Societal Models

  • Frederick Betz
Part of the Innovation, Technology, and Knowledge Management book series (ITKM, volume 11)


We have seen how reasoning in individuals operates through realistic or idealistic judgments about society – what is and what ought to be in society. This reasoning occurs in individuals and also within groups. In individuals, reasoning is focused by ideas. Within groups, reasoning is focused by ideology. Ideologies provide a shared view of how a world should be – normative view. But how a world really works is different – an empirical view. In social science, an empirical description of a society is called a “societal model.” We next look at how ideology and societal models interact. For this, we review the history of Joseph Stalin’s rule of the Soviet Union, after Stalin succeeded Lenin.


Communist Party Topological Graph Collective Farm Command Economy Societal System 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Antonov-Ovseenko, Anton. 1983. The Time of Stalin: Portrait of a Tyranny. Harpercollins, 1983 (ISBN 0060390271)Google Scholar
  2. Bullock, Alan, 1992. Hitler and Stalin: Parallel Lives. New York: Alfred A. Knoff.Google Scholar
  3. Clark, Ronald W. 1989. Lenin: The Man Behind the Mask, London: Faber and FaberGoogle Scholar
  4. Gorin, Vadim, 1983. Lenin: A Biography. Progress PublishersGoogle Scholar
  5. Kopeley, Lev,1977, the Education of a True Believer, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  6. Medvedev, Roy and Zhores Medvedev 2003. The Unknown Stalin: His Life, Death, and Legacy. London: I.B. Tauris, 2003 (ISBN 1-86064-768-5)Google Scholar
  7. Parsons, Talcott. 1937. The Structure of Social ActionGoogle Scholar
  8. Radzinsky, Edvard. 1996. Stalin: The First In-Depth Biography Based on Explosive New Documents from Russia's Secret Archives. Doubleday. ISBN 0-385-47397-4Google Scholar
  9. Read, Christopher, 2005. Lenin, Abingdon: Routledge (2005),Google Scholar
  10. Trotsky, Leon. 1937,The Revolution Betrayed, (trans. By Max Eastman) (http://Chapter 2, p. 2)Google Scholar
  11. Ulam, Adam Bruno. 1989. Stalin: The Man and His Era. Boston: Beacon Press (ISBN 0-8070-7005-X)Google Scholar
  12. Weber, Max. 1947. From Max Weber: Essays in Sociology ISBN 0-19-500462-0Google Scholar
  13. Weber,Max. 1921. The Theory of Social and Economic Organization. (Translated by Talcott Parsons together with Alexander Morell Henderson in 1947.)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Engineering and Technology ManagementPortland State UniversityPortlandUSA

Personalised recommendations