Emerging and Reemerging Foodborne Pathogens
Emerging and reemerging foodborne pathogens emerge and adapt to infect humans by what is called the “species jump.” Most pathogens have been exposed to similar evolutionary forces; however, each pathogen may have evolved in its own unique way. Several mechanisms of DNA transfer have been discovered in bacteria that allow these organisms to maintain a plastic genome. Therefore, newly acquired DNA material can provide bacteria with the opportunities to expand into new environments, and bacterial foodborne pathogens are not exceptions. The appearance of foodborne diseases has been associated with factors that include changes in microorganisms and in the human population and lifestyle; the globalization of the food supply; the inadvertent introduction of pathogens into new geographic areas; and exposure to unfamiliar foodborne hazards while traveling abroad. In addition, the variability within human hosts and the recognition of people at risk for foodborne pathogens may play a role in how some bacteria acquire new opportunities to infect humans. This chapter will review some of these factors, starting with the factors related to the agents themselves.
KeywordsListeria Monocytogenes Foodborne Pathogen Yersinia Enterocolitica Foodborne Disease Commercial Broiler
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