Emerging and Reemerging Foodborne Pathogens
Emerging and reemerging foodborne pathogens emerge and adapt to infect humans by what is called the “species jump.” Most pathogens have been exposed to similar evolutionary forces; however, each pathogen may have evolved in its own unique way. Several mechanisms of DNA transfer have been discovered in bacteria that allow these organisms to maintain a plastic genome. Therefore, newly acquired DNA material can provide bacteria with the opportunities to expand into new environments, and bacterial foodborne pathogens are not exceptions. The appearance of foodborne diseases has been associated with factors that include changes in microorganisms and in the human population and lifestyle; the globalization of the food supply; the inadvertent introduction of pathogens into new geographic areas; and exposure to unfamiliar foodborne hazards while traveling abroad. In addition, the variability within human hosts and the recognition of people at risk for foodborne pathogens may play a role in how some bacteria acquire new opportunities to infect humans. This chapter will review some of these factors, starting with the factors related to the agents themselves.
KeywordsCorn Hepatitis Attenuation Shipping Recombination
- Anonymous. 1995. CDC. Reptile-associated salmonellosis – selected states, 1994–1995. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 44: 347–350.Google Scholar
- Anonymous. 2002. Foodborne diseases, emerging. Fact sheet no.124. [Online] http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs124/en/. Accessed 5 Dec 2010.
- Black, J.G. 1996. Microbiology: Principles and applications, 3rd ed, 1–25. Upper Saddle River: Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
- Converse, P.J., P.C. Karakousis, L.G. Klinkenberg, A.K. Kesavan, L.H. Ly, S.S. Allen, J.H. Grosset, S.K. Jain, G. Lamichhane, Y.C. Manabe, D.N. McMurray, E.L. Nuermberger, and W.R. Bishai. 2009. Role of the dosR-dosS two-component regulatory system in Mycobacterium tuberculosis virulence in three animal models. Infection and Immunity 77: 1230–1237.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Gogarten, J.P., W.F. Doolittle, and J.G. Lawrence. 2002. Prokaryotic evolution in light of gene transfer. Molecular Biology and Evolution 19: 2226–2238.Google Scholar
- Maurelli, A.T., R.E. Fernandez, C.A. Bloch, C.K. Rode, and A. Fasano. 1998. “Black holes” and bacterial pathogenicity: a large genomic deletion that enhances the virulence of Shigella spp. and enteroinvasive Escherichia coli. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 95: 3943–3948.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Porter, R. 1997. Public medicine. In: The Greatest benefit to mankind: a medical history of humanity, 412–414. New York: W.W. Norton.Google Scholar
- Rothman, D.J., S. Marcus, and S.A. Kiceluk. 1995a. On the extension of the germ theory to the etiology of certain common diseases. In: Medicine and western civilization. 253–257. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press.Google Scholar
- Rothman, D.J., S. Marcus, and S.A. Kiceluk. 1995b. On the antiseptic principle in the practice of surgery. In: Medicine and western civilization. 247–252. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press.Google Scholar
- Rothman, D.J., S. Marcus, and S.A. Kiceluk. 1995c. The etiology of tuberculosis. In: Medicine and western civilization. 319–329. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press.Google Scholar
- Sinclair, U. 1906. The Jungle. Prepared and Published by E-BooksDirectory.com.Google Scholar
- Smith, J.L., and P.M. Fratamico. 2005. Emerging foodborne pathogens. In Foodborne pathogens: Microbiology and molecular biology, ed. P.M. Fratamico, A.K. Bhunia, and J.L. Smith. Norwich: Caister Academic.Google Scholar