Applications of Electrodermal Recording



The third part of this book is dedicated to various applications of EDA recording. The aim is to provide a theoretical framework for the use of the different EDA parameters described in Chap. 2 as psychophysiological indicators in the appropriate fields. Since there are thousands of articles reporting EDA results (Sect. 1.1.3), their comprehensive description would go far beyond the limits of the present book. Instead, the focus will be on giving more detailed information especially for studies which enlighten either methodological issues or provide support for interpretation of results in the light of psychophysiological theories related to EDA.


Electrodermal Recording Electrodermal Lability Furedy Boucsein Special Indicator Function 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Aberg, P., Geladi, P., Nicander, I., Hansson, J., Holmgren, U., & Ollmar, S. (2005). Non-invasive and microinvasive electrical impedance spectra of skin cancer – A comparison between two techniques. Skin Research and Technology, 11, 281–286.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Akiskal, H. S., & McKinney, W. T. (1975). Overview of recent research in depression. Archives of General Psychiatry, 32, 285–305.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Alexander, G. E., Crutcher, M. D., & DeLong, M. R. (1990). Basal ganglia-thalamocortical circuits: Parallel substrates for motor, oculomotor, “prefrontal” and “limbic” functions. Progress in Brain Research, 85, 119–146.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed. revised (DSM IV-R)). Washington, DC: APA.Google Scholar
  5. Andersson, S., & Finset, A. (1998). Heart rate and skin conductance reactivity to brief psychological stress in brain-injured patients. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 44, 645–656.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Andersson, S., & Finset, A. (1999). Electrodermal responsiveness and negative symptoms in brain injured patients. Journal of Psychophysiology, 13, 109–116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Andersson, S., Gundersen, P. M., & Finset, A. (1999). Emotional activation during therapeutic interaction in traumatic brain injury: Effect of apathy, self-awareness and implications for rehabilitation. Brain Injury, 13, 393–404.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Andresen, B. (1987). Differentielle Psychophysiologie valenzkonträrer Aktivierungsdimensionen. Frankfurt: Peter Lang.Google Scholar
  9. Annett, M. (1982). Handedness. In J. G. Beaumont (Ed.), Divided visual field studies of cerebral organization (pp. 195–215). New York: Academic.Google Scholar
  10. Arnett, P. A. (1997). Autonomic responsivity in psychopaths: A critical review and theoretical proposal. Clinical Psychology Review, 17, 903–936.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Arnett, P. A., & Newman, J. P. (2000). Gray’s three-arousal model: An empirical investigation. Personality and Individual Differences, 28, 1171–1189.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Ax, A. F. (1953). The physiological differentiation between fear and anger in humans. Psychosomatic Medicine, 15, 433–442.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Ax, A. F., & Bamford, J. L. (1970). The GSR recovery limb in chronic schizophrenics. Psychophysiology, 7, 145–147.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Backs, R. W., & Boucsein, W. (2009). Psychophysiology in digital human modeling. In V. G. Duffy (Ed.), Handbook of digital human modeling (pp. 16–1–16–14). Boca Raton: CRC.Google Scholar
  15. Bagshaw, M. H., Kimble, D. P., & Pribram, K. H. (1965). The GSR of monkeys during orienting and habituation and after ablation of the amygdala, hippocampus and inferotemporal cortex. Neuropsychologia, 3, 111–119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Baltissen, R., & Boucsein, W. (1986). Effects of a warning signal to aversive white noise stimulation: Does warning “short-circuit” habituation? Psychophysiology, 23, 224–231.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Baltissen, R., & Weimann, C. (1989). Orienting reaction reinstatement or preception? Effects of predictability on reactions to pink noise stimulation of different intensities. Psychophysiology, 26, S12.Google Scholar
  18. Bankart, C. P., & Elliot, R. (1974). Heart rate and skin conductance in anticipation of shocks with varying probability of occurrence. Psychophysiology, 11, 160–174.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Freixa i Baqué, E., Catteau, M.-C., Miossec, Y., & Roy, J.-C. (1984). Asymmetry of electrodermal activity: A review. Biological Psychology, 18, 219–239.Google Scholar
  20. Freixa i Baqué, E., Chevalier, B., Grubar, J. C., Lambert, C., Lancry, A., Leconte, P., Meriaux, H., & Spreux, F. (1983). Spontaneous electrodermal activity during sleep in man: An intranight study. Sleep, 6, 77–81.Google Scholar
  21. Freixa i Baqué, E., & de Bonis, M. (1983). Electrodermal asymmetry during human sleep. Biological Psychology, 17, 145–151.Google Scholar
  22. Barland, G. H. (1988). The polygraph in practice. In A. Gale (Ed.), The polygraph test: Lies, truth and science (pp. 73–95). London: Sage.Google Scholar
  23. Barland, G. H. (1999). American Polygraph Association Newsletter, 32, 16–17.Google Scholar
  24. Barland, G. H., & Raskin, D. C. (1973). Detection of deception. In W. F. Prokasy & D. C. Raskin (Eds.), Electrodermal activity in psychological research (pp. 417–477). New York: Academic.Google Scholar
  25. Barry, R. J. (1975). Low-intensity auditory stimulation and the GSR orienting response. Physiological Psychology, 3, 98–100.Google Scholar
  26. Barry, R. J. (1976). Failure to find the “local” EEG OR to low-level auditory stimulation. Physiological Psychology, 4, 171–174.Google Scholar
  27. Barry, R. J. (1982). Novelty and significance effects in the fractionation of phasic OR measures: A synthesis with traditional OR theory. Psychophysiology, 19, 28–35.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Barry, R. J. (1987). Preliminary process in orienting response elicitation. In P. K. Ackles, J. R. Jennings, & M. G. H. Coles (Eds.), Advances in Psychophysiology (Vol. 2, pp. 131–195). Greenwich, CT: Jai.Google Scholar
  29. Barry, R. J. (1990). Scoring criteria for response latency and habituation in electrodermal research: A study in the context of the orienting response. Psychophysiology, 27, 94–100.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Barry, R. J. (2004). Stimulus significance effects in habituation of the phasic and tonic orienting reflex. Integrative Physiological and Behavioral Science, 39, 166–179.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Barry, R. J., Clarke, A. R., Johnstone, S. J., & Rushby, J. A. (2008). Timing of caffeine’s impact on autonomic and central nervous system measures: Clarification of arousal effects. Biological Psychology, 77, 304–316.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Barry, R. J., & O’Gorman, J. G. (1987). Stimulus omission and the orienting response: Latency differences suggest different mechanisms. Biological Psychology, 25, 261–276.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Barry, R. J., & Sokolov, E. N. (1993). Habituation of phasic and tonic components of the orienting reflex. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 15, 39–42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Bartfai, A., Edman, G., Levander, S. E., Schalling, D., & Sedvall, G. (1984). Bilateral skin conductance activity, clinical symptoms and CSF monoamine metabolite levels in unmedicated schizophrenics, differing in rate of habituation. Biological Psychology, 18, 201–218.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Bauer, R. M. (1986). The cognitive psychophysiology of prosopagnosia. In H. Ellis, M. Jeeves, F. Newcombe, & A. Young (Eds.), Aspects of face processing (pp. 253–267). Dordrecht: Nijhoff.Google Scholar
  36. Beatty, J. (1983). Biofeedback in theory and practice. In A. Gale & J. A. Edwards (Eds.), Physiological correlates of human behaviour (Individual differences and psychopathology, Vol. 3, pp. 233–246). London: Academic.Google Scholar
  37. Beatty, J., & Legewie, H. (Eds.). (1977). Biofeedback and behavior. New York: Plenum.Google Scholar
  38. Beauchaine, T. P., Katkin, E. S., Strassberg, Z., & Snarr, J. (2001). Disinhibitory psychopathology in male adolescents: Discriminating conduct disorder from attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder through concurrent assessment of multiple autonomic states. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 110, 610–624.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Beaumont, J. G. (Ed.). (1982). Divided visual field studies of cerebral organization. New York: Academic.Google Scholar
  40. Bechara, A., & Damasio, H. (2002). Decision-making and addiction (part I): Impaired activation of somatic states in substance dependent individuals when pondering decisions with negative future consequences. Neuropsychologia, 40, 1675–1689.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Bechara, A., & Damasio, A. R. (2005). The somatic marker hypothesis: A neural theory of economic decision. Games and Economic Behavior, 52, 336–372.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Bechara, A., Damasio, A. R., Damasio, H., & Anderson, S. W. (1994). Insensitivity to future consequences following damage to human prefrontal cortex. Cognition, 50, 7–15.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Bechara, A., Damasio, H., Damasio, A. R., & Lee, G. P. (1999). Different contributions of the human amygdala and ventromedial prefrontal cortex to decision-making. The Journal of Neuroscience, 19, 5473–5481.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Bechara, A., Damasio, H., Tranel, D., & Damasio, A. R. (2005). The Iowa Gambling Task and the somatic marker hypothesis: Some questions and answers. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 9, 159–162.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Bechara, A., Dolan, S., Denburg, N., Hindes, A., Anderson, S. W., & Nathan, P. E. (2001). Decision making deficits, linked to a dysfunctional ventromedial prefrontal cortex, revealed in alcohol and stimulant abusers. Neuropsychologia, 39, 376–389.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Bechara, A., Dolan, S., & Hindes, A. (2002). Decision-making and addiction (part II): Myopia for the future or hypersensitivity to reward? Neuropsychologia, 40, 1690–1705.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Bechara, A., Tranel, D., & Damasio, H. (2000). Characterization of the decision-making deficit of patients with ventromedial prefrontal cortex lesion. Brain, 123, 2189–2202.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Bechara, A., Tranel, D., Damasio, H., & Damasio, A. R. (1996). Failure to respond automatically to anticipated future outcomes following damage to prefrontal cortex. Cerebral Cortex, 6, 215–225.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Ben-Shakhar, G. (1980). Habituation of the orienting response to complex sequences of stimuli. Psychophysiology, 17, 524–534.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Ben-Shakhar, G. (1994). The roles of stimulus novelty and significance in determining the electrodermal orienting response: Interactive vs. additive approaches. Psychophysiology, 31, 402–411.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Ben-Shakhar, G., Asher, T., Poznansky-Levy, A., Asherowitz, R., & Lieblich, I. (1989). Stimulus novelty and significance as determinants of electrodermal responsivity: The serial position effect. Psychophysiology, 26, 29–38.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Ben-Shakhar, G., & Dolev, K. (1996). Psychophysiological detection through the guilty knowledge technique: The effects of mental countermeasures. Journal of Applied Psychology, 81, 273–281.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Ben-Shakhar, G., & Elaad, E. (2003). The validity of psychophysiological detection of information with the Guilty Knowledge Test: A meta-analytic review. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88, 131–151.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Ben-Shakhar, G., & Furedy, J. J. (1990). Theories and applications in the detection of deception: A psychophysiological and international perspective. New York: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Ben-Shakhar, G., & Gati, I. (2003). The effects of serial position and frequency of presentation of common stimulus features on orienting response reinstatement. Psychophysiology, 40, 139–145.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Ben-Shakhar, G., Gati, I., & Salamon, N. (1995). Generalization of the orienting response to significant stimuli: The roles of common and distinctive stimulus components. Psychophysiology, 32, 36–42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Ben-Shakhar, G., & Lieblich, I. (1982). The dichotomization theory for differential autonomic responsivity reconsidered. Psychophysiology, 12, 277–281.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Ben-Shakhar, G., Lieblich, I., & Kugelmass, S. (1982). Interactive effects of stimulus probability and significance on the skin conductance response. Psychophysiology, 19, 112–114.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Berlyne, D. E. (1961). Conflict and the orientation reaction. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 62, 476–483.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Bernat, E., Patrick, C. J., Benning, S. D., & Tellegen, A. (2006). Effects of picture content and intensity on affective physiological response. Psychophysiology, 43, 93–103.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Bernstein, A. S. (1979). The orienting response as novelty and significance detector: Reply to O’Gorman. Psychophysiology, 16, 263–273.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Bernstein, A. S., Frith, C. D., Gruzelier, J. H., Patterson, T., Straube, E., Venables, P. H., et al. (1982). An analysis of the skin conductance orienting response in samples of American, British, and German schizophrenics. Biological Psychology, 14, 155–211.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Bernstein, A. S., Riedel, J. A., Graae, F., Seidman, D., Steele, H., Connolly, J., et al. (1988). Schizophrenia is associated with altered orienting activity; depression with electrodermal (cholinergic?) deficit and normal orienting response. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 97, 3–12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Bernstein, A. S., Schneider, S. J., Juni, S., Pope, A. T., & Starkey, P. (1980). The effect of stimulus significance on the electrodermal response in chronic schizophrenia. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 89, 93–97.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Bernstein, A. S., Taylor, K. W., Starkey, P., Juni, S., Lubowski, J., & Paley, H. (1981). Bilateral skin conductance, finger pulse volume, and EEG orienting response to tones of differing intensities in chronic schizophrenics and controls. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 169, 513–528.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Birgersson, U., Birgersson, E., Aberg, P., Nicander, I., & Ollmar, S. (2011). Non-invasive bioimpedance of intact skin: Mathematical modeling and experiments. Physiological Measurement, 32, 1–18.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Birk, L., Crider, A., Shapiro, D., & Tursky, B. (1966). Operant electrodermal conditioning under partial curarization. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 62, 165–166.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Birket-Smith, M., Hasle, N., & Jensen, H. H. (1993). Electrodermal activity in anxiety disorders. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 88, 350–355.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Bitterman, M. E., & Holtzman, W. H. (1952). Conditioning and extinction of the galvanic skin response as a function of anxiety. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 47, 615–623.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Bjornaes, H., Smith-Meyer, H., Valen, H., Kristiansen, K., & Ursin, H. (1977). Plasticity and reactivity in unconscious patients. Neuropsychologia, 15, 451–455.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Blackburn, R. (1983). Psychopathy, delinquency and crime. In A. Gale & J. A. Edwards (Eds.), Physiological correlates of human behaviour (Individual differences and psychopathology, Vol. 3, pp. 187–205). London: Academic.Google Scholar
  72. Blecker, C. R., Kirsch, P., Schaefer, F., & Vaitl, D. (2001). Skin conductance measurement during fMRT scans: A methodology study. Psychophysiology, 38, S27.Google Scholar
  73. Bob, P., Susta, M., Glaslova, K., Pavlat, J., & Raboch, J. (2007). Lateralized electrodermal dysfunction and complexity in patients with schizophrenia and depression. Neuroendocrinology Letters, 28, 11–15.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Böhmelt, A. H., Vanman, E. J., Dawson, M. E., & Boucsein, W. (1983). Modification of the acoustic startle eyeblink reflex with complex visual prestimuli: Late effects of attention. Journal of Psychophysiology, 9, 261–262.Google Scholar
  75. Bond, A. J., James, D. C., & Lader, M. H. (1974). Physiological and psychological measures in anxious patients. Psychological Medicine, 4, 364–373.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Borkovec, T. D. (1970). Autonomic reactivity to sensory stimulation in psychopathic, neurotic, and normal juvenile delinquents. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 35, 217–222.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Boucsein, W. (1973). Analyse einiger psychologischer Testverfahren zur Erfassung von Persönlichkeitsmerkmalen. Unpublished Report of the Psychological Institute, Düsseldorf.Google Scholar
  78. Boucsein, W. (1988). Elektrodermale Aktivität. Grundlagen, Methoden und Anwendungen. Berlin: Springer.Google Scholar
  79. Boucsein, W. (1992). Electrodermal Activity. New York: Plenum.Google Scholar
  80. Boucsein, W. (2000). The use of psychophysiology for evaluating stress-strain processes in human-computer interaction. In R. W. Backs & W. Boucsein (Eds.), Engineering psychology. Issues and applications (pp. 289–309). Mahwah, NY: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  81. Boucsein, W., & Backs, R. W. (2000). Engineering psychophysiology as a discipline: Historical and theoretical aspects. In R. W. Backs & W. Boucsein (Eds.), Engineering psychophysiology. Issues and applications (pp. 3–30). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  82. Boucsein, W., & Backs, R. W. (2009). The psychophysiology of emotion, arousal, and personality: Methods and models. In V. G. Duffy (Ed.), Handbook of digital human modeling (pp. 35–1–35–18). CRC: Boca Raton.Google Scholar
  83. Boucsein, W., Baltissen, R., & Euler, W. (1984). Dependence of skin conductance reactions and skin resistance reactions on previous level. Psychophysiology, 21, 212–218.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Boucsein, W., & Frye, M. (1974). Physiologische und psychische Wirkungen von Mißerfolgsstress unter Berücksichtigung des Merkmals Repression-Sensitization. Zeitschrift für Experimentelle und Angewandte Psychologie, 21, 339–366.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Boucsein, W., Greif, S., & Wittekamp, J. (1984). Systemresponsezeiten als Belastungsfaktor bei Bildschirm-Dialogtätigkeiten. Zeitschrift für Arbeitswissenschaft., 38(10 NF), 113–122.Google Scholar
  86. Boucsein, W., & Hoffmann, G. (1979). A direct comparison of the skin conductance and skin resistance methods. Psychophysiology, 16, 66–70.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Boucsein, W., & Ottmann, W. (1996). Psychophysiological stress effects from the combination of night-shift work and noise. Biological Psychology, 42, 301–322.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Boucsein, W., & Schaefer, F. (2008). Objective emotional assessment of industrial products. In J. Westerink, M. Ouwerkerk, T. Overbeek, F. Pasveer, & B. de Ruyter (Eds.), Probing Experience: From Assessment of User Emotions and Behaviour to Development of Products (pp. 69–76). Dordrecht: Springer.Google Scholar
  89. Boucsein, W., Schaefer, F., Kefel, M., Busch, P., & Eisfeld, W. (2002). Objective emotional assessment of tactile hair properties and their modulation by different product worlds. International Journal of Cosmetic Science, 24, 135–150.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Boucsein, W., Schaefer, F., Schwerdtfeger, A., Busch, P., & Eisfeld, W. (1999). Objective emotional assessment of foam. SÖFW-Journal, 125, 2–17.Google Scholar
  91. Boucsein, W., Schaefer, F., & Sommer, T. (2001). Electrodermal long-term monitoring in everyday life. In J. Fahrenberg & M. Myrtek (Eds.), Progress in ambulatory assessment (pp. 549–560). Göttingen: Hogrefe.Google Scholar
  92. Boucsein, W., & Thum, M. (1997). Design of work/rest schedules for computer work based on psychophysiological recovery measures. International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, 20, 51–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Boucsein, W., Valentin, A., & Furedy, J. J. (1993). Psychophysiological and behavioral differences as a function of age and Parkinson’s disease. The Journal of Integrative Behavioral Science, 28, 213–225.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Boucsein, W., & Wendt-Suhl, G. (1976). The effect of chlordiazepoxide on the anticipation of electric shocks. Psychopharmacology, 48, 303–306.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Boucsein, W., & Wendt-Suhl, G. (1980). An experimental investigation of elements involved in the anticipation of public speaking. Archiv für Psychologie, 133, 149–156.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Boucsein, W., & Wendt-Suhl, G. (1982). Experimentalpsychologische Untersuchung psychischer und psychophysiologischer Wirkungen von Cloxazolam und Diazepam unter angstinduzierenden und Normalbedingungen bei gesunden Probanden. Pharmacopsychiatria, 15, 48–56.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Bowman, C. H., & Turnbull, O. H. (2003). Real versus facsimili reinforcers on the Iowa Gambling Task. Brain and Cognition, 53, 207–210.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Boyd, G. M., & Maltzman, I. (1983). Bilateral asymmetry of skin conductance responses during auditory and visual tasks. Psychophysiology, 20, 196–203.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Bradley, M. T., & Ainsworth, D. (1984). Alcohol and the psychophysiological detection of deception. Psychophysiology, 21, 63–71.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Bradley, M. T., & Warfield, J. F. (1984). Innocence, information, and the guilty knowledge test in the detection of deception. Psychophysiology, 21, 683–689.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Bradshaw, J. L., & Nettleton, N. C. (1981). The nature of hemispheric specialization in man. The Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 4, 51–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Brand, G., Millot, J. L., Saffaux, M., & Morand-Villeneuve, N. (2002). Lateralization in human nasal chemoreception: Differences in bilateral electrodermal responses related to olfactory and trigeminal stimuli. Behavioural Brain Research, 133, 205–210.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Braune, S., Albus, M., Fröhler, M., Höhn, T., & Scheibe, G. (1994). Psychophysiological and biochemical changes in patients with panic attacks in a defined situational arousal. European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience, 244, 86–92.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Breen, N., Caine, D., & Coltheart, M. (2000). Models of face recognition and delusional misidentification: A critical review. Cognitive Neuropsychology, 17, 55–71.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Brekke, J. S., Raine, A., & Thomson, C. (1995). Cognitive and psychphysiological correlates of positive, negative and disorganized symptoms in the schizophrenia spectrum. Psychiatry Research, 57, 241–250.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Brenner, S. L., Beauchaine, T. P., & Sylvers, P. (2005). A comparison of psychophysiological and self-report measures of BAS and BIS activation. Psychophysiology, 42, 108–115.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Breska, A., Maoz, K., & Ben-Shakhar, G. (2011). Interstimulus intervals for skin conductance response measurement. Psychophysiology, 48, 437–440.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Broadbent, D. E. (1971). Decision and stress. London: Academic.Google Scholar
  109. Broughton, R. J., Poire, R., & Tassinari, C. A. (1965). The electrodermogram (Tarchanoff effect) during sleep. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 18, 691–708.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Bryden, M. P. (1965). Tachistoscopic recognition, handedness and cerebral dominance. Neuropsychologia, 3, 1–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Bryden, M. P. (1979). Evidence for sex related differences in cerebral organization. In M. A. Wittig & A. C. Peterson (Eds.), Sex-related differences in cognitive functioning (pp. 121–143). New York: Academic.Google Scholar
  112. Buck, R. (1977). Nonverbal communication of affect in preschool children: Relationships with personality and skin conductance. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 35, 225–236.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Buck, R. (1980). Nonverbal behavior and the theory of emotion: The facial feedback hypothesis. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 38, 811–824.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Buck, R., Miller, R. E., & Caul, W. F. (1974). Sex, personality, and physiological variables in the communication of affect via facial expression. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 30, 587–596.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Buck, R., Savin, V. J., Miller, R. E., & Caul, W. F. (1972). Communication of affect through facial expressions in humans. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 23, 362–371.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Bull, R. H. C., & Gale, A. (1973). The reliability of and interrelationships between various measures of electrodermal activity. Journal of Experimental Research in Personality, 6, 300–306.Google Scholar
  117. Bundy, R. S., & Fitzgerald, H. E. (1975). Stimulus specificity of electrodermal recovery time: An examination and reinterpretation of the evidence. Psychophysiology, 12, 406–411.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Burch, N. R., & Greiner, T. H. (1960). A bioelectric scale of human alertness: Concurrent recordings of the EEG and GSR. Psychiatric Research Reports of the American Psychological Association, 12, 183–193.Google Scholar
  119. Byrne, D. (1961). The repression-sensitization scale: Rationale, reliability, and validity. Journal of Personality, 29, 334–349.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Cacioppo, J. T., & Petty, R. E. (1986). Social processes. In M. G. H. Coles, E. Donchin, & S. W. Porges (Eds.), Psychophysiology: Systems, processes, and applications (pp. 646–679). Amsterdam: Elsevier.Google Scholar
  121. Caffyn, J. M. (1964). Psychological laboratory techniques in copy research. Journal of Advertising Research, 4, 45–50.Google Scholar
  122. Cahill, L., & McGaugh, J. L. (1998). Mechanisms of emotional arousal and lasting declarative memory. Trends in Neurosciences, 21, 294–299.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Cambrai, M., Clar, E. J., Grosshans, E., & Altermatt, C. (1979). Skin impedance and phoreographic index in psoriasis: Relationship with action kinetics of three treatments. Archives of Dermatological Research, 264, 197–211.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Campbell, M. C., Stout, J. C., & Finn, P. R. (2004). Reduced autonomic responsiveness to gambling task losses in Huntington’s disease. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 10, 239–245.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Campos, J. J., & Johnson, H. J. (1967). Affect, verbalization, and directional fractionation of autonomic responses. Psychophysiology, 3, 285–290.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Canavan, A. G. M., Passingham, R. E., Marsden, C. D., Quinn, N., Wyke, M., & Polkey, C. E. (1989). The performance on learning tasks of patients in the early stages of Parkinson’s disease. Neuropsychologica, 27, 141–156.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Cannon, T. D., Fuhrmann, M., Mednick, S. A., Machon, R. A., Parnas, J., & Schulsinger, F. (1988). Third ventricle enlargement and reduced electrodermal responsiveness. Psychophysiology, 25, 153–156.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Cannon, T. D., Mednick, S. A., & Parnas, J. (1989). Genetic and perinatal determinants of structural brain deficits in schizophrenia. Archives of General Psychiatry, 46, 883–889.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. Cannon, T. D., Mednick, S. A., & Parnas, J. (1990). Antecedents of predominantly negative – and predominantly positive-symptom schizophrenia in a high-risk population. Archives of General Psychiatry, 47, 622–632.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. Carbonnell, L., Vidal, F., Sequeira, H., & Caverni, J.-P. (2006). A reasoning bias revealed by electrodermal activity. Psychophysiology, 43, 387–393.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Carlsson, K., Petersson, K. M., Lundqvist, D., Karlsson, A., Ingvar, M., & Öhman, A. (2004). Fear and the amygdala: Manipulation of awareness generates differential cerebral responses to phobic and fear-relevant (but nonfeared) stimuli. Emotion, 4, 340–353.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Carney, R. M., Hong, B. A., Kulkarni, S., & Kapila, A. (1981). A comparison of EMG and SCL in normal and depressed subjects. The Pavlovian Journal of Biological Science, 16, 212–216.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. Carrillo, E., Moya-Albiol, L., González-Bono, E., Salvador, A., Ricarte, J., & Gómez-Amor, J. (2001). Gender differences in cardiovascular and electrodermal responses to public speaking task: The role of anxiety and mood states. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 42, 253–264.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Carstensen, L. L., Issacowitz, D. M., & Charles, S. T. (1999). Taking time seriously: A theory of socioemotional selectivity. The American Psychologist, 54, 165–181.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Carter, S., & Smith-Pasqualini, M. C. (2004). Stronger autonomic response accompanies better learning: A test of Damasio’s somatic marker hypothesis. Cognition & Emotion, 18, 901–911.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Champion, R. A., & Jones, J. E. (1961). Forward, backward, and pseudoconditioning of the GSR. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 62, 58–61.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Charles, S. T., Reynolds, C. A., & Gatz, M. (2001). Age-related differences and change in positive and negative affect over 23 years. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 80, 136–151.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Chassande, B., Charpentier, G., Budy, I., Willer, J. C., & Lille, F. (1996). Sympathetic skin responses and heart rate variability in diabetic patients with different grades of polyneuropathy. Revue Neurologique, 152, 623–629.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. Chattopadhyay, P. K. (1981). Bilateral skin resistance responses in anxiety. Indian Journal of Clinical Psychology, 8, 29–34.Google Scholar
  140. Chattopadhyay, P. K., & Biswas, P. K. (1983). Characteristics of galvanic skin response in anxious patients and normal subjects. Indian Journal of Clinical Psychology, 10, 159–164.Google Scholar
  141. Chattopadhyay, P. K., Bond, A. J., & Lader, M. H. (1975). Characteristics of galvanic skin response in anxiety states. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 12, 265–270.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Chattopadhyay, P. K., Cooke, E., Toone, B., & Lader, M. (1980). Habituation of physiological responses in anxiety. Biological Psychiatry, 15, 711–721.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. Chattopadhyay, P. K., Mazumdar, P., & Basu, A. K. (1982). Habituation of electrodermal responses in tension-headache sufferers and non-tension headache controls. Indian Journal of Psychiatry, 24, 61–65.Google Scholar
  144. Checkley, H. (1964). The mask of sanity. St. Louis: Mosby.Google Scholar
  145. Chiu, Y.-C., Lin, C.-H., Huang, J.-T., Lin, S., Lee, P.-L., & Hsieh, J.-C. (2008). Immediate gain is long-term loss: Are there foresighted decision makers in the Iowa Gambling Task? Behavioral and Brain Functions, 4, 4–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Christie, M. J., & Venables, P. H. (1971). Basal palmar skin potential and the electrocardiogram T-wave. Psychophysiology, 8, 779–786.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Claridge, G. S. (1967). Personality and arousal. Oxford: Pergamon.Google Scholar
  148. Cleveland, D. E. (1961). Driver tension and rural intersection illumination. Traffic Engineering, 32, 11–16.Google Scholar
  149. Coan, J. A., & Allen, J. J. B. (2003). Frontal EEG asymmetry and the behavioural activation and inhibition systems. Psychophysiology, 40, 106–114.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Coan, J. A., & Allen, J. J. B. (2004). Frontal EEG asymmetry as a moderator and mediator of emotion. Biological Psychology, 67, 7–49.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Coan, J. A., Allen, J. J. B., & Harmon-Jones, E. (2001). Voluntary facial expression and hemispheric asymmetry over the frontal cortex. Psychophysiology, 38, 912–925.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Colbert, A. P., Hammerschlag, R., Aickin, M., & McNames, J. (2004). Reliability of the Prognos electrodermal device for measurement of electric skin resistance at acupuncture points. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 10, 610–616.Google Scholar
  153. Colby, C. Z., Lanzetta, J. T., & Kleck, R. E. (1977). Effects of the expression of pain on autonomic and pain tolerance responses to subject-controlled pain. Psychophysiology, 14, 537–540.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Coles, M. G. H., & Gale, A. (1971). Physiological reactivity as a predictor of performance in a vigilance task. Psychophysiology, 8, 594–599.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Coles, M. G. H., Gale, A., & Kline, P. (1971). Personality and habituation of the orienting reaction: Tonic and response measures of electrodermal activity. Psychophysiology, 8, 54–63.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Colombetti, G. (2008). The somatic marker hypotheses, and what the Iowa Gambling Task does and does not show. The British Journal for the Philosophy of Sciences, 59, 51–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Correa, E. J., & Adams, H. E. (1981). The validity of the pre-employment polygraph examination and the effects of motivation. Polygraph, 10, 143–155.Google Scholar
  158. Corteen, R. S. (1969). Skin conductance changes and word recall. British Journal of Psychology, 60, 81–84.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Corteen, R. S., & Dunn, D. (1974). Shock-associated words in a nonattended message: A test for momentary awareness. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 102, 1143–1144.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Corteen, R. S., & Wood, B. (1972). Autonomic responses to shock-associated words in an unattended channel. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 94, 308–313.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. Crider, A. (1993). Electrodermal response lability-stability: Individual difference correlates. In J.-C. Roy, W. Boucsein, D. C. Fowles, & J. H. Gruzelier (Eds.), Progress in electrodermal research (pp. 173–186). London: Plenum.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. Crider, A. (2008). Personality and electrodermal response lability: An interpretation. Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback, 33, 141–148.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. Crider, A., & Augenbraun, C. B. (1975). Auditory vigilance correlates of electrodermal response habituation speed. Psychophysiology, 12, 36–40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. Crider, A., & Lunn, R. (1971). Electrodermal lability as a personality dimension. Journal of Experimental Research in Personality, 5, 145–150.Google Scholar
  165. Critchley, H. D., Elliott, R., Mathias, C. J., & Dolan, R. J. (2000). Neural activity relating to generation and representation of galvanic skin conductance responses: A functional magnetic resonance imaging study. The Journal of Neuroscience, 20, 3033–3040.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. Critchley, H. D., Melmed, R. N., Featherstone, E., Mathias, C. J., & Dolan, R. J. (2001). Brain activity during biofeedback relaxation. A functional neuroimaging investigation. Brain, 124, 1003–1012.Google Scholar
  167. Critchley, H. D., Melmed, R. N., Featherstone, E., Mathias, C. J., & Dolan, R. J. (2002). Volitional control of autonomic arousal: A functional magnetic resonance study. NeuroImage, 16, 909–919.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. Crone, E. A., Somsen, R. J., van Beek, B., & van der Molen, M. W. (2004). Heart rate and skin conductance analysis of antecedents and consequences of decision-making. Psychophysiology, 41, 531–540.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. Crowell, S. E., Beauchaine, T. P., Gatzke-Kopp, L., Sylvers, P., Mead, H., & Chipman-Chacon, J. (2006). Autonomic correlates of attention-deficit/hyperactivity and oppositional defiant disorder in preschool children. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 115, 174–178.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. Crowne, D. P., & Marlowe, D. (1960). A new scale of social desirability independent of psychopathology. Journal of Consulting Psychology, 24, 349–354.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. Cruz, M. H., & Larsen, R. J. (1995). Personality correlates of individual differences in electrodermal lability. Social Behavior and Personality, 23, 93–104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. Curt, A., Weinhardt, C., & Dietz, V. (1996). Significance of sympathetic skin response in the assessment of autonomic failure in patients with spinal cord injury. Journal of the Autonomic Nervous System, 61, 175–180.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. Cuthbert, B. N., Bradley, M. M., & Lang, P. J. (1996). Probing picture perception: Activation and emotion. Psychophysiology, 33, 103–111.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. Damasio, A. R. (1994). Descartes Error: Emotion, reason and the human brain. New York: Avon.Google Scholar
  175. Damasio, A. R., Tranel, D., & Damasio, H. (1990). Individuals with sociopathic behavior caused by frontal damage fail to respond autonomically to social stimuli. Behavioural Brain Research, 41, 81–94.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. Damasio, A. R., Tranel, D., & Damasio, H. (1991). Somatic markers and the guidance of behavior: Theory and preliminary testing. In H. S. Levin, H. M. Eisenberg, & A. L. Benton (Eds.), Frontal lobe function and dysfunction (pp. 217–229). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  177. Darrow, C. W. (1933). The functional significance of the galvanic skin reflex and perspiration on the backs and palms of the hands. Psychological Bulletin, 30, 712.Google Scholar
  178. Darrow, C. W. (1937a). Neural mechanisms controlling the palmar galvanic skin reflex and palmar sweating. Archives of Neurology and Psychiatry, 37, 641–663.Google Scholar
  179. Davidson, R. J. (1993). Cerebral asymmetry and emotion: Conceptual and methodological conundrums. Cognition and Emotion, 7, 115–138.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. Davidson, R. A., Fedio, P., Smith, B. S., Aureille, E., & Martin, A. (1992). Lateralized mediation of arousal and habituation: Differential bilateral electrodermal activity in unilateral temporal lobectomy patients. Neuropsychologia, 30, 1053–1063.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. Davidson, R. A., & Smith, B. D. (1991). Caffeine and novelty: Effects on electrodermal activity and performance. Physiology and Behavior, 49, 1169–1175.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. Davies, D. R. (1983). Attention, arousal and effort. In A. Gale & J. A. Edwards (Eds.), Physiological correlates of human behaviour (Attention and performance, Vol. 2, pp. 9–34). London: Academic.Google Scholar
  183. Davis, M. (2000). The role of the amygdala in conditioned and unconditioned fear and anxiety. In J. P. Aggleton (Ed.), The amygdala: A functional analysis (2nd ed., pp. 213–287). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  184. Davis, J. F., Malmo, R. B., & Shagass, C. (1954). Electromyographic reaction to strong auditory stimulation in psychiatric patients. Canadian Journal of Psychology, 8, 177–186.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. Dawson, M. E. (1980). Physiological detection of deception: Measurement of responses to questions and answers during countermeasure maneuvers. Psychophysiology, 17, 8–17.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. Dawson, M. E. (1990). Psychophysiology at the interface of clinical science, cognitive science, and neuroscience. Psychophysiology, 27, 243–255.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. Dawson, M. E., Catania, J. J., Schell, A. M., & Grings, W. W. (1979). Autonomic classical conditioning as a function of awareness of stimulus contingencies. Biological Psychology, 9, 23–40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. Dawson, M. E., Filion, D. L., & Schell, A. M. (1989). Is elicitation of the autonomic orienting response associated with allocation of processing resources? Psychophysiology, 26, 560–572.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. Dawson, M. E., & Furedy, J. J. (1976). The role of awareness in human differential autonomic classical conditioning: The necessary gate hypothesis. Psychophysiology, 13, 50–53.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  190. Dawson, M. E., & Nuechterlein, K. H. (1984). Psychophysiological dysfunctions in the developmental course of schizophrenic disorders. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 10, 204–232.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  191. Dawson, M. E., Nuechterlein, K. H., & Adams, R. M. (1989). Schizophrenic disorders. In G. Turpin (Ed.), Handbook of clinical psychophysiology (pp. 393–418). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  192. Dawson, M. E., Nuechterlein, K. H., Schell, A. M., Gitlin, M., & Ventura, J. (1994). Autonomic abnormalities in schizophrenia. Archives of General Psychology, 51, 813–824.Google Scholar
  193. Dawson, M. E., & Schell, A. M. (1982). Electrodermal responses to attended and nonattended significant stimuli during dichotic listening. Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance, 8, 315–324.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. Dawson, M. E., & Schell, A. M. (1985). Information processing and human autonomic classical conditioning. In P. K. Ackles, J. R. Jennings, & M. G. H. Coles (Eds.), Advances in psychophysiology (Vol. 1, pp. 89–165). Greenwich, CT: Jai.Google Scholar
  195. Dawson, M. E., & Schell, A. M. (1987). Human autonomic and skeletal classical conditioning: The role of conscious cognitive factors. In G. Davey (Ed.), Cognitive processes and Pavlovian conditioning in humans (pp. 27–55). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  196. Dawson, M. E., & Schell, A. M. (2002). What does electrodermal activity tell us about prognosis in the schizophrenia spectrum? Schizophrenia Research, 54, 87–93.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  197. Dawson, M. E., Schell, A. M., Beers, J. R., & Kelly, A. (1982). Allocation of cognitive processing capacity during human autonomic classical conditioning. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 111, 272–295.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  198. Dawson, M. E., Schell, A. M., & Catania, J. J. (1977). Autonomic correlates of depression and clinical improvement following electroconvulsive shock therapy. Psychophysiology, 14, 569–578.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  199. Dawson, M. E., Schell, A. M., & Filion, D. L. (1990). The electrodermal system. In I. T. Cacioppo & L. G. Tassinary (Eds.), Principles of psychophysiology (pp. 295–324). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  200. De Bonis, M., & Freixa i Baqué, E. (1980). Stress, verbal cognitive activity and bilateral electrodermal responses. Neuropsychobiology, 6, 249–259.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  201. De Pascalis, V., Valerio, E., Santoro, M., & Cacace, I. (2007). Neuroticism-anxiety, impulsive-sensation seeking and autonomic responses to somatosensory stimuli. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 63, 16–24.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  202. De Seze, J., Stojkovic, T., Gauvrit, J.-Y., Devos, S., Ayachi, M., Cassim, F., et al. (2001). Autonomic dysfunction in multiple sclerosis: Cervical spinal cord atrophy correlates. Journal of Neurology, 248, 297–303.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  203. Dean, R. S. (1981). Lateral preference patterns as a discriminator of learning difficulties. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 49, 227–235.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  204. DeLong, M. R., Georgopoulos, A. P., & Crutcher, M. D. (1983). Cortico-basal ganglia relations and coding of motor performance. Experimental Brain Research, Supplement, 7, 30–40.Google Scholar
  205. DeLong, M. R., & Wichmann, T. (2007). Circuits and circuit disorders of the basal ganglia. Archives of Neurology, 64, 20–24.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  206. Dembroski, T. M., MacDougall, J. M., & Shields, J. L. (1977). Physiologic reactions to social challenge in persons evidencing the type A coronary-prone behavior pattern. Journal of Human Stress, 3, 2–10.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  207. Dembroski, T. M., MacDougall, J. M., Shields, J. L., Petitto, J., & Lushene, R. (1978). Components of the type A coronary-prone behavior pattern and cardiovascular responses to psychomotor performance challenge. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 1, 159–176.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  208. Dembroski, T. M., Weiss, S. M., Shields, J. L., Haynes, S. G., & Feinleib, M. (Eds.). (1978). Coronary prone behavior. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  209. Denburg, N. L., Recknor, E. C., Bechara, A., & Tranel, D. (2006). Psychophysiological anticipation of positive outcomes promotes advantageous decision-making in normal older persons. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 61, 19–25.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  210. Dengerink, H. A., & Taylor, S. P. (1971). Multiple responses with differential properties in delayed galvanic skin response conditioning: A review. Psychophysiology, 8, 348–360.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  211. Denislic, M., & Meh, D. (1996). Sympathetic skin response in Parkinsonian patients. Electromyography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 36, 231–235.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  212. Depue, R. A., & Fowles, D. C. (1973). Electrodermal activity as an index of arousal in schizophrenics. Psychological Bulletin, 79, 233–238.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  213. Derogatis, L. R., Klerman, G. L., & Lipman, R. S. (1972). Anxiety states and depressive neuroses. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 155, 392–403.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  214. Dettmers, C., van Ahlen, H., Faust, H., Fatepour, D., & Tackmann, W. (1994). Evaluation of erectile dysfunction with the sympathetic skin response in comparison to bulbocavernosus reflex and somatosensory evoked potentials of the pudendal nerve. Electromyography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 34, 437–444.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  215. DiCara, L. V., & Miller, N. E. (1968). Instrumental learning of vasomotor responses by rats: Learning to respond differentially in the two ears. Science, 159, 1485–1486.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  216. Dimitriev, L., Belyakova, L., Bondarenko, T., & Nikolaev, G. (1968). Investigation of the orienting reaction and the defense reaction of schizophrenia in different stages of their illness. Zhurnal Nevropatologie Psikhiatrii, 68, 713–719.Google Scholar
  217. Dimond, S. J., & Beaumont, J. G. (1974). Experimental studies of hemisphere function in the human brain. In S. J. Dimond & J. G. Beaumont (Eds.), hemisphere function in the human brain (pp. 48–88). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  218. Dimond, S. J., Farrington, L., & Johnson, P. (1976). Differing emotional response from right and left hemispheres. Nature, 261, 690–692.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  219. Dindo, L., & Fowles, D. C. (2008). The skin conductance orienting response to semantic stimuli: Significance can be independent of arousal. Psychophysiology, 45, 111–118.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  220. Doerr, H. O., Follette, W., Scribner, B. H., & Eisdorfer, C. (1980). Electrodermal response dysfunction in patients on maintenance renal dialysis. Psychophysiology, 17, 83–86.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  221. Dolu, N., Süer, C., Özesmi, C., Kelestimur, F., & Esel, E. (1997). Electrodermal activity in nonmedicated hyperthyroid patients having no depressive symptoms. Biological Psychiatry, 42, 1024–1029.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  222. Donat, D. C., & McCullough, J. P. (1983). Psychophysiological discriminants of depression at rest and in response to stress. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 39, 315–320.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  223. Douglas, R. J., & Pribram, K. H. (1966). Learning and limbic lesions. Neuropsychologia, 4, 197–220.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  224. Dratcu, L., & Bond, A. (1998). Panic patients in the non-panic state: Physiological and cognitive dysfunction. European Psychiatry, 13, 18–25.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  225. Duffy, E. (1951). The concept of energy mobilization. Psychological Review, 58, 30–40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  226. Duffy, E. (1972). Activation. In N. S. Greenfield & R. A. Sternbach (Eds.), Handbook of psychophysiology (pp. 577–622). New York: Holt, Rinehart, & Winston.Google Scholar
  227. Dunn, B. D., Dalgleish, T., & Lawrence, A. D. (2006). The somatic marker hypothesis: A critical evaluation. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 30, 239–271.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  228. Dykman, R. A., Reese, W. G., Galbrecht, C. R., & Thomasson, P. J. (1959). Psychophysiological reactions to novel stimuli: Measurement, adaptation, and relationship of psychological and physiological variables in the normal human. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 79, 45–107.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  229. Edelberg, R. (1961). The relationship between the galvanic skin response, vasoconstriction, and tactile sensitivity. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 62, 187–195.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  230. Edelberg, R. (1970). The information content of the recovery limb of the electrodermal response. Psychophysiology, 6, 527–539.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  231. Edelberg, R. (1971). Electrical properties of skin. In H. R. Elden (Ed.), A treatise of the skin (Biophysical properties of the skin, Vol. 1, pp. 519–551). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  232. Edelberg, R. (1972a). Electrical activity of the skin: Its measurement and uses in psychophysiology. In N. S. Greenfield & R. A. Sternbach (Eds.), Handbook of psychophysiology (pp. 367–418). New York: Holt, Rinehart, & Winston.Google Scholar
  233. Edelberg, R. (1972b). Electrodermal recovery rate, goal-orientation, and aversion. Psychophysiology, 9, 512–520.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  234. Edelberg, R. (1973a). Mechanisms of electrodermal adaptations for locomotion, manipulation, or defense. In E. Stellar & J. M. Sprague (Eds.), Progress in physiological psychology (Vol. 5, pp. 155–209). New York: Academic.Google Scholar
  235. Edwards, J. A., & Siddle, D. A. T. (1976). Dishabituation of the electrodermal orienting response following decay of sensitization. Biological Psychology, 4, 19–28.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  236. Egyed, B., Eory, A., Veres, T., & Manninger, J. (1980). Measurement of electrical resistance after nerve injuries of the hand. The Hand, 12, 275–281.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  237. Eisfeld, W., Schaefer, F., Boucsein, W., & Stolz, C. (2005). Tracking intersensory properties of cosmetic products via psycho-physiological assessment. International Federation Societies of Cosmetic Chemists (IFSCC), 8, 25–30.Google Scholar
  238. Eisfeld, W., Wachter, R., Schaefer, F., & Boucsein, W. (2007). Objective emotional assessment of perceivable wellness effects. Cosmetics & Toiletries, 122, 63–72.Google Scholar
  239. Ekman, P., Friesen, W. V., & Ellsworth, P. C. (1972). Emotion in the human face: Guidelines for research and an integration of findings. New York: Plenum.Google Scholar
  240. Ekman, P., Friesen, W. V., & Simons, R. C. (1985). Is the startle reaction an emotion? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 49, 1416–1426.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  241. Ellingson, R. J. (1954). The incidence of EEG abnormality among patients with mental disorders of apparently nonorganic origin: A critical review. The American Journal of Psychology, 8, 263–275.Google Scholar
  242. Ellis, H. D., & de Pauw, K. W. (1994). The cognitive neuropsychiatric origins of the Capgras delusion. In A. S. David & J. C. Cutting (Eds.), The neuropsychology of schizophrenia (pp. 317–335). Hove: Psychology.Google Scholar
  243. Ellis, H. D., & Lewis, M. B. (2001). Capgras delusion: A window on face recognition. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 5, 149–156.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  244. Ellis, H. D., Lewis, M. B., Moselhy, H. F., & Young, A. W. (2000). Automatic without autonomic responses to familiar faces: Differential components of covert face recognition in a case of capgras delusion. Cognitive Neuropsychiatry, 5, 255–269.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  245. Ellis, H. D., & Young, A. W. (1990). Accounting for delusional misidentifications. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 157, 239–248.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  246. Ellis, H. D., Young, A. W., Quayle, A. H., & de Pauw, K. W. (1997). Reduced autonomic responses to faces in capgras delusion. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, 264, 1085–1092.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  247. Engel, B. T. (1972). Response specifity. In N. S. Greenfield & R. A. Sternbach (Eds.), Handbook of psychophysiology (pp. 571–576). New York: Holt, Rinehart, & Winston.Google Scholar
  248. Epstein, S. (1972). The nature of anxiety with emphasis upon its relationship to expectancy. In C. Spielberger (Ed.), Anxiety: Current trends in theory and research (Vol. 2, pp. 291–337). New York: Academic.Google Scholar
  249. Epstein, S., Boudreau, L., & Kling, S. (1975). Magnitude of the heart rate and electrodermal response as a function of stimulus input, motor output, and their interaction. Psychophysiology, 12, 15–24.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  250. Epstein, S., & Coleman, M. (1970). Drive theories of schizophrenia. Psychosomatic Medicine, 32, 113–140.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  251. Erdmann, G., & Baumann, S. (1996). Sind psychophysiologische Veränderungen im Paradigma “Öffentliches Sprechen” Ausdruck emotionaler Belastung? Zeitschrift für Experimentelle Psychologie, 63, 224–255.Google Scholar
  252. Erdmann, G., Janke, W., & Bisping, R. (1984). Wirkungen und Vergleich der Wirkungen von vier experimentellen Belastungssituationen. Zeitschrift für Experimentelle und Angewandte Psychologie, 31, 521–543.Google Scholar
  253. Erdmann, G., Janke, W., Köchers, S., & Terschlüsen, B. (1984). Comparison of the emotional effects of a beta-adrenergic blocking agent and a tranquilizer under different situational conditions. I. Anxiety-arousing situations. Neuropsychobiology, 12, 143–151.Google Scholar
  254. Erlenmeyer-Kimling, L. (1975). A prospective study of children at risk for schizophrenia: Methodological considerations and some preliminary findings. In R. D. Wirt, G. Winokur, & M. Roff (Eds.), Life history research in psychopathology (Vol. 4, pp. 23–46). Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.Google Scholar
  255. Erlenmeyer-Kimling, L., Cornblatt, B., & Fleiss, J. (1979). High-risk research in schizophrenia. Psychiatric Annals, 9, 79–99.Google Scholar
  256. Erlenmeyer-Kimling, L., Marcuse, Y., Cornblatt, B., Friedman, D., Rainer, J. D., & Rutschmann, J. (1984). The New York high-risk project. In N. F. Watt, E. J. Anthony, L. C. Wynne, & J. E. Rolf (Eds.), Children at risk for schizophrenia: A longitudinal perspective (pp. 169–189). London: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  257. Esen, F., Celebi, G., Ertekin, C., & Colakoglu, Z. (1997). Electrodermal activity in patients with Parkinson’s disease. Clinical Autonomic Research, 7, 35–40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  258. Euteneuer, F., Schaefer, F., Stuermer, R., Boucsein, W., Timmermann, L., Barbe, M. T., et al. (2009). Dissociation of decision-making under ambiguity and decision-making under risk in patients with Parkinson’s disease: A neuropsychological and psychophysiological study. Neuropsychologia, 47, 2882–2890.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  259. Eysenck, H. J. (1957). Drugs and personality: I. Theory and methodology. Journal of Mental Science, 103, 119–131.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  260. Eysenck, H. J. (1967). The biological basis of personality. Springfield: Thomas.Google Scholar
  261. Eysenck, M. W. (1982). Attention and arousal. Berlin: Springer.Google Scholar
  262. Eysenck, H. J. (1983). Psychophysiology and personality: Extraversion, neuroticism and psychoticism. In A. Gale & J. A. Edwards (Eds.), Physiological correlates of human behaviour (Individual differences and psychopathology, Vol. 3, pp. 13–30). London: Academic.Google Scholar
  263. Eysenck, H. J. (1994). Personality: Biological foundations. In P. A. Vernon (Ed.), The neuropsychology of individual differences (pp. 151–207). New York: Academic.Google Scholar
  264. Eysenck, H. J., & Eysenck, M. W. (1985). Personality and individual differences. New York: Plenum.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  265. Eysenck, S., & Zuckerman, M. (1978). The relationship between sensation-seeking and Eysenck’s dimensions of personality. British Journal of Psychology, 69, 483–487.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  266. Faber, S. (1983). Zur Auswertemethodik und Interpretation von Hautleitfähigkeitsmessungen bei arbeitswissenschaftlicher Beanspruchungsermittlung. Zeitschrift für Arbeitswissenschaft., 37(9 NF), 85–91.Google Scholar
  267. Fahrenberg, J. (1987). Concepts of activation and arousal in the theory of emotionality (neuroticism): A multivariate conceptualization. In J. Strelau & H. J. Eysenck (Eds.), Personality dimensions and arousal (pp. 99–120). New York: Plenum.Google Scholar
  268. Fahrenberg, J. (1988). Psychophysiological processes. In J. R. Nesselroade & R. B. Cattell (Eds.), Handbook of multivariate experimental psychology (pp. 867–914). New York: Plenum.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  269. Fahrenberg, J., Walschburger, P., Foerster, F., Myrtek, M., & Müller, W. (1983). An evaluation of trait, state, and reaction aspects of activation processes. Psychophysiology, 20, 188–195.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  270. Falkowski, J., & Steptoe, A. (1983). Biofeedback-assisted relaxation in the control of reactions to a challenging task and anxiety-provoking film. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 21, 161–167.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  271. Farhoumand, N., Harrison, J., Pare, C. M. B., Turner, P., & Wynn, S. (1979). The effect of high dose oxprenolol on stress-induced physical and psychophysiological variables. Psychopharmacology, 64, 365–369.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  272. Feij, J. A. (1984). The psychophysiological and neurochemical bases of sensation seeking. In H. Bonarius, G. van Heck, & N. Smid (Eds.), Personality psychology in Europe (pp. 317–326). Lisse: Swets & Zeitlinger.Google Scholar
  273. Ficková, E. (1983). Dynamics of psychophysiological activation in shift-work operators. Studia Psychologica, 25, 105–113.Google Scholar
  274. Filion, D. L., Dawson, M. E., & Schell, A. M. (1998). The psychological significance of human startle eyeblink modification: A review. Biological Psychiatry, 47, 1–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  275. Filion, D. L., Dawson, M. E., Schell, A. M., & Hazlett, E. A. (1991). The relationship between skin conductance orienting and the allocation of processing resources. Psychophysiology, 28, 410–424.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  276. Firth, H. (1973). Habituation during sleep. Psychophysiology, 10, 43–51.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  277. Fishbein, D., Eldreth, D., Matochik, J., Isenberg, I., Hyde, C., & London, E. (2005). Cognitive performance and autonomic reactivity in abstinent drug abusers and nonusers. Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology, 13, 25–40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  278. Flor, H., Knost, B., & Birbaumer, N. (1997). Processing of pain- and body-related verbal material in chronic pain patients: Central and peripheral correlates. Pain, 73, 413–421.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  279. Flor-Henry, P. (1993). Electrodermal amplitude asymmetry and orienting response-non-response in psychopathology. In J.-C. Roy, W. Boucsein, C. D. Fowles, & J. H. Gruzelier (Eds.), Progress in Electrodermal Research (pp. 289–296). New York: Plenum.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  280. Flykt, A., Esteves, F., & Öhman, A. (2007). Skin conductance response to masked conditioned stimuli: Phylogenetic/ontogenetic factors versus direction of threat? Biological Psychology, 74, 328–336.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  281. Folkins, C. H. (1970). Temporal factors and the cognitive mediators of stress reaction. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 14, 173–184.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  282. Foulds, I. S., & Barker, A. T. (1983). Human skin battery potentials and their possible role in wound healing. British Journal of Dermatology, 109, 515–522.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  283. Foulds, G. A., & Bedford, A. (1976). The relationship between anxiety-depression and the neuroses. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 128, 166–168.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  284. Fowler, C. J. (1993). Electrophysiologic evaluation of sexual dysfunction. In P. A. Low (Ed.), Clinical Autonomic Disorders (pp. 279–285). Boston: Little Brown.Google Scholar
  285. Fowler, R. L., & Kimmel, H. D. (1962). Operant conditioning of the GSR. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 63, 563–567.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  286. Fowles, D. C. (1980). The three arousal model: Implications of Gray’s two-factor learning theory for heart rate, electrodermal activity, and psychopathy. Psychophysiology, 17, 87–104.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  287. Fowles, D. C. (1986b). The psychophysiology of anxiety and hedonic affect: Motivational specificity. In B. F. Shaw, T. M. Segal, & T. M. Vallis (Eds.), Anxiety disorders (pp. 51–66). New York: Plenum.Google Scholar
  288. Fowles, D. C. (1988). Psychophysiology and psychopathology: A motivational approach. Psychophysiology, 25, 373–391.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  289. Fowles, D. C. (2000). Electrodermal hyporeactivity and antisocial behaviour: Does anxiety mediate the relationship? Journal of Affective Disorders, 61, 177–189.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  290. Fowles, D. C., Fisher, A. E., & Tranel, D. T. (1982). The heart beats to reward: The effect of monetary incentive on heart rate. Psychophysiology, 19, 506–513.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  291. Fowles, D. C., Kochanska, G., & Murray, K. (2000). Electrodermal activity and temperament in preschool children. Psychophysiology, 37, 777–787.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  292. Fowles, D. C., Roberts, R., & Nagel, K. E. (1977). The influence of introversion/extraversion on the skin conductance response to stress and stimulus intensity. Journal of Research in Personality, 11, 129–146.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  293. Franz, M., Olbrich, R., Croissant, B., Kirsch, P., Schmitz, N., & Schneider, C. (1999). Gefühl ohne Sprache oder Sprache ohne Gefühl? Weitere Hinweise auf die Validität der Entkopplungshypothese der Alexithymie. Nervenarzt, 70, 216–224.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  294. Fredrikson, M. (1981). Orienting and defensive reactions to phobic and conditioned fear stimuli in phobics and normals. Psychophysiology, 18, 456–465.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  295. Fredrikson, M., Annas, P., Georgiades, A., Hursti, T., & Tersman, Z. (1993). Internal consistency and temporal stability of classically conditioned skin conductance responses. Biological Psychology, 35, 153–163.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  296. Fredrikson, M., Dimberg, U., & Frisk-Holmberg, M. (1980). Arterial blood pressure and electrodermal activity in hypertensive and normotensive subjects during inner- and outer- directed attention. Acta Medica Scandinavica, 646, 73–76.Google Scholar
  297. Fredrikson, M., Dimberg, U., Frisk-Holmberg, M., & Ström, G. (1982). Haemodynamic and electrodermal correlates of psychogenic stimuli in hypertensive and normotensive subjects. Biological Psychology, 15, 63–73.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  298. Fredrikson, M., & Engel, B. T. (1985). Cardiovascular and electrodermal adjustments during a vigilance task in patients with borderline and established hypertension. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 29, 235–246.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  299. Frith, C. D., & Allen, H. A. (1983). The skin conductance orienting response as an index of attention. Biological Psychology, 17, 27–39.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  300. Frith, C. D., Stevens, M., Johnstone, E. C., & Crow, T. J. (1979). Skin conductance responsivity during acute episodes of schizophrenia as a predictor of symptomatic improvement. Psychological Medicine, 9, 101–106.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  301. Frith, C. D., Stevens, M., Johnstone, E. C., & Crow, T. J. (1982). Skin conductance habituation during acute episodes of schizophrenia: Qualitative differences from anxious and depressed patients. Psychological Medicine, 12, 575–583.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  302. Frith, C. D., Stevens, M., Johnstone, E. C., & Owens, D. G. C. (1984). The effects of chronic treatment with amitriptyline and diazepam on electrodermal activity in neurotic outpatients. Physiological Psychology, 12, 247–252.Google Scholar
  303. Fuentes, I., Merita, M. G., Miquel, M., & Rojo, J. (1993). Relationships between electrodermal activity and symtomatology in schizophrenia. Psychopathology, 26, 47–52.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  304. Fung, M. T., Raine, A., Loeber, R., Lynam, D. R., Steinhauer, S. R., Venables, P. H., et al. (2005). Reduced electrodermal activity in psychopathy-prone adolescents. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 114, 187–196.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  305. Furedy, J. J. (1967). Classical appetitive conditioning of the GSR with cool air as UCS, and the roles of UCS onset and offset as reinforcers of the CR. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 75, 73–80.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  306. Furedy, J. J. (1968). Human orienting reaction as a function of electrodermal-versus plethysmographic response modes and single versus alternating stimulus series. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 77, 70–78.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  307. Furedy, J. J. (1970). Test of the preparatory adaptive response interpretation of aversive classical autonomic conditioning. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 84, 301–307.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  308. Furedy, J. J. (1972). Electrodermal recovery time as a supra sensitive autonomic index of anticipated intensity of threatened shock. Psychophysiology, 9, 281–282.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  309. Furedy, J. J. (1975). An integrative progress report on informational control in humans: Some laboratory findings and methodological claims. Australian Journal of Psychology, 27, 61–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  310. Furedy, J. J. (1986). Lie detection as psychophysiological differentiation: Some fine lines. In M. G. H. Coles, E. Donchin, & S. W. Porges (Eds.), Psychophysiology: Systems, processes, and applications (pp. 683–701). Amsterdam: Elsevier.Google Scholar
  311. Furedy, J. J. (1987). Evaluating polygraphy from a psychophysiological perspective: A specific-effects analysis. The Pavlovian Journal of Biological Science, 22, 145–152.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  312. Furedy, J. J., Arabian, J. M., Thiels, E., & George, L. (1982). Direct and continuous measurement of relational learning in human Pavlovian conditioning. The Pavlovian Journal of Biological Science, 17, 69–79.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  313. Furedy, J. J., & Ben-Shakhar, G. (1991). The roles of deception, intention to deceive, and motivation to avoid detection in the psychophysiological detection of guilty knowledge. Psychophysiology, 28, 163–171.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  314. Furedy, J. J., Damke, B., & Boucsein, W. (2000). Revisiting the learning-without-awareness question in human Pavlovian autonomic conditioning: Focus on extinction in a dichotic listening paradigm. Integrative Physiological and Behavioral Science, 35, 17–34.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  315. Furedy, J. J., Davis, C., & Gurevich, M. (1988). Differentiation of deception as a psychological process: A psychophysiological approach. Psychophysiology, 25, 683–688.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  316. Furedy, J. J., Gigliotti, F., & Ben-Shakhar, G. (1994). Electrodermal differentiation of deception: The effect of choice vs. no choice of deceptive items. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 18, 13–22.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  317. Furedy, J. J., & Heslegrave, R. J. (1988). Validity of the lie detector: A psychphysiology perspective. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 15, 219–246.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  318. Furedy, J. J., & Klajner, F. (1972). Unconfounded autonomic indexes of the aversiveness of signaled and unsignaled shocks. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 92, 313–318.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  319. Furedy, J. J., & Klajner, F. (1974). On evaluating autonomic and verbal indices of negative preception. Psychophysiology, 11, 121–124.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  320. Furedy, J. J., Posner, R. T., & Vincent, A. (1991). Electrodermal differentiation of deception: Perceived accuracy and perceived memorial content manipulations. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 11, 91–97.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  321. Furedy, J. J., & Poulos, C. X. (1977). Short-interval classical SCR conditioning and the stimulus-sequence-change-elicited OR: The case of the empirical red herring. Psychophysiology, 14, 351–359.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  322. Furedy, J. J., Poulos, C. X., & Schiffman, K. (1975). Contingency theory and classical autonomic excitatory and inhibitory conditioning: Some problems of assessment and interpretation. Psychophysiology, 12, 98–105.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  323. Furedy, J. J., & Riley, D. M. (1987). Human Pavlovian autonomic conditioning and the cognitive paradigm. In G. Davey (Ed.), Cognitive processes and Pavlovian conditioning in humans (pp. 1–25). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  324. Furedy, J. J., & Schiffman, K. (1971). Test of the propriety of the traditional discriminative control procedure in Pavlovian electrodermal and plethysmographic conditioning. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 91, 161–164.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  325. Furedy, J. J., & Schiffman, K. (1973). Concurrent measurement of autonomic and cognitive processes in a test of the traditional discriminative control procedure for Pavlovian electrodermal conditioning. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 100, 210–217.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  326. Furedy, J. J., & Schiffmann, K. (1974). Interrelationships between human classical differential electrodermal conditioning, orienting reaction, responsivity, and awareness of stimulus contingencies. Psychophysiology, 11, 58–67.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  327. Furedy, J. J., & Scull, J. (1971). Orienting-reaction theory and an increase in the human GSR following stimulus change which is unpredictable but not contrary to prediction. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 88, 292–294.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  328. Gaebelein, J., Taylor, S. P., & Borden, R. (1974). Effects of an external cue on psychophysiological reactions to a noxious event. Psychophysiology, 11, 315–320.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  329. Gainotti, G. (1979). The relationship between emotions and cerebral dominance: A review of clinical and experimental evidence. In J. H. Gruzelier & P. Flor-Henry (Eds.), Hemisphere asymmetries of function in psychopathology (pp. 21–34). Amsterdam: Elsevier.Google Scholar
  330. Gale, A., & Edwards, J. A. (Eds.). (1983). Physiological correlates of human behaviour (Three volumes). London: Academic.Google Scholar
  331. Gale, A., & Edwards, J. A. (1986). Individual differences. In M. G. H. Coles, E. Donchin, & W. Porges (Eds.), Psychophysiology: Systems, processes, and applications (pp. 431–507). Amsterdam: Elsevier.Google Scholar
  332. Gao, Y., Raine, A., Dawson, M. E., Venables, P. H., & Mednick, S. A. (2007). Development of skin conductance orienting, habituation, and reorienting from ages 3 to 8 years: A longitudinal latent growth curve analysis. Psychophysiology, 44, 855–863.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  333. Gatchel, R. J., McKinney, M. E., & Koebernick, L. F. (1977). Learned helplessness, depression, and physiological responding. Psychophysiology, 14, 25–31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  334. Gati, I., & Ben-Shakhar, G. (1990). Novelty and significance in orientation and habituation: A feature-matching approach. Journal of Experimental Psychology. General, 119, 251–263.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  335. Geer, J. H., & Davison, G. C. (1970). Reduction of stress in humans through nonveridical perceived control of aversive stimulation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 16, 731–738.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  336. Geer, J. H., & Maisel, E. (1972). Evaluating the effects of the prediction-control confound. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 23, 314–319.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  337. Gellhorn, E. (1964). Motion and emotion: The role of proprioception in the physiology and pathology of the emotions. Psychological Review, 71, 457–472.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  338. Giedke, H., & Bolz, J. (1980). Pre- and postimperative negative variation (CNV and PINV) under different conditions of controllability in depressed patients and healthy controls. In H. H. Kornhuber & L. Deecke (Eds.), Motivation, motor and sensory processes of the brain. Electrical potentials, behavior and clinical use (pp. 579–582). Amsterdam: Elsevier.Google Scholar
  339. Giedke, H., & Coenen, T. (1986). Die medikamentöse Behandlung von Angstzuständen. In W. Janke & P. Netter (Eds.), Angst und Psychopharmaka (pp. 207–234). Stuttgart: Kohlhammer.Google Scholar
  340. Goldberg, L. R. (1992). The development of markers for the Big-Five factor structure. Psychological Assessment, 4, 26–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  341. Goldstein, I. B., & Shapiro, D. (1988). Cardiovascular responses to mental arithmetic and handgrip during different conditions of postural change. Psychophysiology, 25, 127–136.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  342. Gomez, R., & McLaren, S. (1997). The effects of reward and punishment on response disinhibition, moods, heart rate and skin conductance level during instrumental learning. Personality and Individual Differences, 23, 305–316.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  343. Gormezano, I., & Kehoe, E. J. (1975). Classical conditioning: Some methodological-conceptual issues. In W. K. Estes (Ed.), Handbook of learning and cognitive processes (Conditioning and behavior theory, Vol. 2, pp. 143–179). Hillsdale, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  344. Gougerot, M. L. (1947). Recherches sur l’impedance cutanée en courant alternatif de basse frequence au cours de differentes dermatoses. Annales et Bulletin de Dermatologie, 8, 101–111.Google Scholar
  345. Gough, H. (1969). Manual for the California psychological inventory. Palo Alto: Consulting Psychologists Press.Google Scholar
  346. Graham, F. K. (1973). Habituation and dishabituation of responses innervated by the autonomic nervous system. In H. V. S. Peeke & M. J. Herz (Eds.), Habituation (Behavioral studies, Vol. 1, pp. 163–218). New York: Academic.Google Scholar
  347. Graham, F. K. (1979). Distinguishing among orienting, defense, and startle reflexes. In H. D. Kimmel, E. H. van Olst, & J. F. Orlebeke (Eds.), The orienting reflex in humans (pp. 137–167). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  348. Gray, J. A. (1970). The psychophysiological basis of introversion-extraversion. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 8, 249–266.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  349. Gray, J. A. (1973). Causal theories of personality and how to test them. In J. R. Royce (Ed.), Multivariate analysis and psychological theory (pp. 409–463). New York: Academic.Google Scholar
  350. Gray, J. A. (1981). A critique of Eysenck’s theory of personality. In H. J. Eysenck (Ed.), A model for personality (pp. 246–276). New York: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  351. Gray, J. A. (1982). The neuropsychology of anxiety: An inquiry into the functions of the septo-hippocampal system. Oxford: Clarendon.Google Scholar
  352. Gray, J. A. (1987). A conceptual nervous system for avoidance behaviour. In J. A. Gray (Ed.), The psychology of fear and stress (pp. 241–331). Cambridge: University Press.Google Scholar
  353. Gray, J. A., & McNaughton, N. (2000). The neuropsychology of anxiety (2nd ed.). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  354. Gray, J. A., & Smith, P. T. (1969). An arousal-decision model for partial reinforcement and discrimination learning. In R. Gilbert & N. S. Sutherland (Eds.), Animal discrimination learning (pp. 243–272). New York: Academic.Google Scholar
  355. Greenwald, M. K., Cook, E. W., & Lang, P. J. (1989). Affective judgement and psychophysiological response: Dimensional covariation in the evaluation of pictorial stimuli. Journal of Psychophysiology, 3, 51–64.Google Scholar
  356. Grillon, C. (2002). Associative learning deficits increase symptoms of anxiety in humans. Biological Psychiatry, 51, 851–858.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  357. Grillon, C., & Davis, M. (1997). Fear-potentiated startle conditioning in humans: Explicit and contextual cue conditioning following paired vs. unpaired training. Psychophysiology, 34, 451–458.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  358. Grings, W. W. (1960). Preparatory set variables related to classical conditioning of autonomic responses. Psychological Review, 67, 243–252.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  359. Grings, W. W. (1969). Anticipatory and preparatory electrodermal behavior in paired stimulation situations. Psychopysiology, 5, 597–611.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  360. Grings, W. W., & Dawson, M. E. (1973). Complex variables in conditioning. In W. Prokasy & D. C. Raskin (Eds.), Electrodermal activity in psychological research (pp. 203–254). New York: Academic.Google Scholar
  361. Grings, W. W., & Dawson, M. E. (1978). Emotions and bodily responses: A psychophysiological approach. New York: Academic.Google Scholar
  362. Grings, W. W., Givens, M. C., & Carey, C. A. (1979). Contingency contrast effects in discrimination conditioning. Journal of Experimental Psychology. General, 108, 281–295.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  363. Grings, W. W., & Schell, A. M. (1969). Magnitude of electrodermal response to a standard stimulus as a function of intensity and proximity of a prior stimulus. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 67, 77–82.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  364. Groeppel-Klein, A. (2005). Arousal and consumer in-store behavior. Brain Research Bulletin, 67, 428–437.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  365. Groeppel-Klein, A., Domke, A., & Bartmann, B. (2006). Pretty woman or Erin Brokovich? Unconscious and conscious reactions to commercials and movies shaped by fairy tale archetypes – Results from two experimental studies. Advances in Consumer Research, 33, 163–174.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  366. Groeppel-Klein, A., Germelmann, C., & Woratschek, H. (2007). Arousal and consumer decision-making. Proceedings of the 36th European marketing academy conference. Reykjavik, Iceland.Google Scholar
  367. Gross, J. J. (1998). Antecedent- and response-focused emotion regulation: Divergent consequences for experience, expression, and physiology. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74, 224–237.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  368. Gross, J. J., Carstensen, L. L., Pasupathi, M., Tsai, J., Skorpen, C. G., & Hsu, A. Y. C. (1997). Emotion and aging: Experience, expression and control. Psychology and Aging, 12, 590–599.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  369. Gross, J. J., & Levenson, R. W. (1993). Emotional suppression: Physiology, self-report, and expressive behavior. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 64, 970–986.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  370. Gross, J. J., & Levenson, R. W. (1997). Hiding feelings: The acute effects of inhibiting negative and positive emotion. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 106, 95–103.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  371. Gross, C. G., & Sergent, J. (1992). Face recognition. Current Opinion in Neurobiology, 2, 156–161.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  372. Groves, P. M., & Thompson, R. F. (1970). Habituation: A dual-process theory. Psychological Review, 77, 419–450.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  373. Gruzelier, J. H. (1973). Bilateral asymmetry of skin conductance orienting activity and levels in schizophrenics. Biological Psychology, 1, 21–41.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  374. Gruzelier, J. H. (1976). Clinical attributes of schizophrenic skin conductance responders and nonresponders. Psychological Medicine, 6, 245–249.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  375. Gruzelier, J. H. (1979). Lateral asymmetries in electrodermal activity and psychosis. In J. H. Gruzelier & P. Flor-Henry (Eds.), Hemisphere asymmetries of function in psychopathology (pp. 701–713). Amsterdam: Elsevier.Google Scholar
  376. Gruzelier, J. H. (1983). Disparate syndromes in psychosis delineated by direction of electrodermal response lateral asymmetry. In P. Flor-Henry & J. Gruzelier (Eds.), Laterality and psychopathology (pp. 525–538). Amsterdam: Elsevier.Google Scholar
  377. Gruzelier, J. H. (1993). The laterality of electrodermal responses: A new perspective on individual differences in personality and psychopathology. In J.-C. Roy, W. Boucsein, C. D. Fowles, & J. H. Gruzelier (Eds.), Progress in Electrodermal Research (pp. 251–270). New York: Plenum.Google Scholar
  378. Gruzelier, J. H., & Connolly, J. F. (1979). Differential drug action on electrodermal orienting responses as distinct from nonspecific responses and electrodermal levels. In H. D. Kimmel, E. H. van Olst, & J. F. Orlebeke (Eds.), The orienting reflex in humans (pp. 701–713). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  379. Gruzelier, J. H., Eves, F., & Connolly, J. (1981a). Reciprocal hemispheric influences on response habituation in the electrodermal system. Physiological Psychology, 9, 313–317.Google Scholar
  380. Gruzelier, J. H., Eves, F., Connolly, J. F., & Hirsch, S. R. (1981c). Orienting, habituation, sensitization, and dishabituation in the electrodermal system of consecutive, drug-free admissions for schizophrenia. Biological Psychology, 12, 187–209.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  381. Gruzelier, J. H., & Hammond, N. V. (1976). Schizophrenia: A dominant hemisphere temporal-limbic disorder? Research Communications in Psychology, Psychiatry and Behavior, 1, 32–72.Google Scholar
  382. Gruzelier, J. H., & Hammond, N. V. (1977). The effect of chlorpromazine upon bilateral asymmetries in bioelectrical skin reactivity of schizophrenics. Studia Psychologica, 19, 40–51.Google Scholar
  383. Gruzelier, J. H., & Hammond, N. V. (1978). The effect of chlorpromazine upon psychophysiological, endocrine and information processing measures in schizophrenia. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 14, 167–182.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  384. Gruzelier, J. H., & Manchanda, R. (1982). The syndrome of schizophrenia: Relations between electrodermal response, lateral asymmetries and clinical ratings. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 141, 488–495.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  385. Gruzelier, J. H., Nixon, P. G. F., Liddiard, D., Pugh, S., & Baxter, R. (1986). Retarded habituation and lateral asymmetries in electrodermal activity in cardiovascular disorders. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 3, 219–226.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  386. Gruzelier, J., Sergeant, J., & Eves, F. (1988). The use of bilateral skin conductance measurement in elucidating stimulus versus response processing influences on the orienting reaction. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 6, 195–205.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  387. Gruzelier, J. H., & Venables, P. H. (1972). Skin conductance orienting activity in a heterogeneous sample of schizophrenics: Possible evidence of limbic dysfunction. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 155, 277–287.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  388. Gruzelier, J. H., & Venables, P. H. (1973). Skin conductance responses to tones with and without attentional significance in schizophrenic and nonschizophrenic psychiatric patients. Neuropsychologia, 11, 221–230.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  389. Gruzelier, J. H., & Venables, P. H. (1974). Bimodality and lateral asymmetry of skin conductance orienting activity in schizophrenics: Replication and evidence of lateral asymmetry in patients with depression and disorders of personality. Biological Psychiatry, 8, 55–73.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  390. Gudjonsson, G. H. (1981). Self-reported emotional disturbance and its relation to electrodermal reactivity; defensiveness and trait anxiety. Personality and Individual Differences, 2, 47–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  391. Gudjonsson, G. H. (1986). The validity of polygraph techniques in lie detection. In D. Papakostopoulos, S. Butler, & I. Martin (Eds.), Clinical and experimental neuropsychophysiology (pp. 448–465). Dover: Croom Helm.Google Scholar
  392. Guidotti, A., Baraldi, M., Schwartz, J. P., & Costa, E. (1979). Molecular mechanisms regulating the interaction between benzodiazepines and GABA receptors in the central nervous system. Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior, 10, 803–807.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  393. Guinjoan, S. M., Bernabó, J. L., & Cardinali, D. P. (1995). Cardiovascular test of autonomic function and sympathetic skin responses in patients with major depression. Journal of Neurology, Neuosurgery, and Psychiatry, 58, 299–302.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  394. Gutrecht, J. A., Suarez, G. A., & Denny, B. E. (1993). Sympathetic skin response in multiple sclerosis. Journal of the Neurological Sciences, 118, 88–91.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  395. Haapaniemi, T. H., Korpelainen, J. T., Tolonen, U., Suominen, K., Sotaniemi, K. A., & Myllylä, V. V. (2000). Suppressed sympathetic skin response in Parkinson disease. Clinical Autonomic Research, 10, 337–342.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  396. Haarmann, A., Boucsein, W., & Schaefer, F. (2009). Combining electrodermal responses and cardiovascular measures for probing adaptive automation during simulated flight. Applied Ergonomics, 40, 1026–1040.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  397. Hagemann, T., Levenson, R. W., & Gross, J. J. (2006). Expressive suppression during an acoustic startle. Psychophysiology, 43, 104–112.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  398. Haider, M. (1969). Elektrophysiologische Indikatoren der Aktiviertheit. In W. Schönpflug (Ed.), Methoden der Aktivierungsforschung (pp. 125–156). Bern: Huber.Google Scholar
  399. Haider, M. (1970). Neuropsychology of attention, expectation, and vigilance. In D. I. Mostofski (Ed.), Attention: Contemporary theory and analysis (pp. 419–432). New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts.Google Scholar
  400. Hamann, S., Monarch, E. S., & Goldstein, F. C. (2002). Impaired fear conditioning in Alzheimer’s disease. Neuropsychologia, 40, 1187–1195.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  401. Hanisch, L. J., Palmer, S. C., Donahue, A., & Coyne, J. C. (2007). Validation of sternal skin conductance for detection of hot flashes in prostate cancer survivors. Psychophysiology, 44, 189–193.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  402. Hare, R. D. (1975). Psychopathy. In P. H. Venables & M. J. Christie (Eds.), Research in psychophysiology (pp. 325–348). London: Wiley.Google Scholar
  403. Hare, R. D. (1978a). Psychopathy and electrodermal responses to nonsignal stimulation. Biological Psychology, 6, 237–246.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  404. Hare, R. D. (1978b). Electrodermal and cardiovascular correlates of psychopathy. In R. D. Hare & D. Schalling (Eds.), Psychopathic behaviour: Approaches to research (pp. 107–143). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  405. Harris, M. D. (1943). Habituatory response decrement in the intact organism. Psychological Bulletin, 40, 385–422.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  406. Hart, J. D. (1974). Physiological responses of anxious and normal subjects to simple signal and non-signal auditory stimuli. Psychophysiology, 11, 443–451.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  407. Hastrup, J. L. (1979). Effects of electrodermal lability and introversion on vigilance decrement. Psychophysiology, 16, 302–310.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  408. Hastrup, J. L., & Katkin, E. S. (1976). Electrodermal lability: An attempt to measure its psychological correlates. Psychophysiology, 13, 296–301.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  409. Hazlett, E. A., Dawson, M. E., Buchsbaum, M. S., & Nuechterlein, K. H. (1993). Reduced regional brain metabolism assessed by positron emission tomography in electrodermal nonresponder schizophrenics: A pilot study. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 102, 39–46.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  410. Healey, J. A., & Picard, R. W. (2005). Detecting stress during real-world driving tasks using physiological sensors. IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems, 156–166.Google Scholar
  411. Hécaen, H., & Sauguet, J. (1971). Cerebral dominance in left handed subjects. Cortex, 7, 19–48.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  412. Heimann, H. (1969). Typologische und statistische Erfassung depressiver Syndrome. In H. Hippius & H. Selbach (Eds.), Das depressive Syndrom: Internationales Symposium, Berlin 1968 (pp. 279–290). München: Urban & Schwarzenberg.Google Scholar
  413. Heimann, H. (1978). Changes of psychophysiological reactivity in affective disorders. Archiv für Psychiatrie und Nervenkrankheiten, 225, 223–231.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  414. Heimann, H. (1979). Auf dem Wege zu einer einheitlichen psychophysiologischen Theorie depressiver Syndrome. Praxis der Psychotherapie und Psychosomatik, 24, 281–297.Google Scholar
  415. Heimann, H. (1980). Psychophysiologische Aspekte in der Depressionsforschung. In H. Heimann & H. Giedke (Eds.), Neue Perspektiven in der Depressionsforschung (pp. 85–87). Bern: Huber.Google Scholar
  416. Heimer, L., Van Hoesen, G. W., Trimble, M., & Zahm, D. S. (2008). Anatomy of neuropsychiatry: The new anatomy of the basal forebrain and its implications for neuropsychiatric illness. London: Academic.Google Scholar
  417. Helander, M. (1974). Drivers’ physiological reactions and control operations as influenced by traffic events. Zeitschrift für Verkehrssicherheit, 20, 174–187.Google Scholar
  418. Helander, M. (1978). Applicability of drivers’ electrodermal response to the design of the traffic environment. Journal of Applied Psychology, 63, 481–488.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  419. Helmer, J. E., & Furedy, J. J. (1968). Operant conditioning of GSR amplitude. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 78, 463–467.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  420. Herpertz, S. C., Mueller, B., Qunaibi, M., Lichterfeld, C., Konrad, K., & Herpertz-Dahlmann, B. (2005). Response to emotional stimuli in boys with conduct disorder. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 162, 1100–1107.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  421. Hiroshige, Y., & Iwahara, S. (1978). Digital and cephalic vasomotor orienting responses to indifferent, signal, and verbal stimuli. Psychophysiology, 15, 226–232.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  422. Hirstein, W., & Ramachandran, V. S. (1997). Capgras syndrome: A novel probe for understanding the neural representation of the identity and familiarity of persons. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, 264, 437–444.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  423. Hodges, W. E. (1976). The psychophysiology of anxiety. In M. Zuckerman & C. D. Spielberger (Eds.), Emotions and anxiety: New concepts, methods, and applications (pp. 175–194). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  424. Hoefer, M., Allison, S. C., Schauer, G. G., Neuhaus, J. M., Hall, J., Dang, J. N., et al. (2008). Fear conditioning in Alzheimer’s disease. Brain, 131, 1646–1657.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  425. Holloway, F. A., & Parsons, O. A. (1969). Unilateral brain damage and bilateral skin conductance levels in humans. Psychophysiology, 6, 138–148.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  426. Holmes, D. S., Frost, D. O., Bennett, D. H., Nielsen, D. H., & Lutz, D. J. (1981). Effectiveness of skin resistance biofeedback for controlling arousal in non-stressful and stressful situations: Two experiments. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 25, 205–211.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  427. Holmes, D. S., McGilley, B. M., & Houston, B. K. (1984). Task-related arousal of type A and type B persons: Level of challenge and response specifity. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 46, 1322–1327.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  428. Hölzl, R., Wilhelm, H., Lutzenberger, W., & Schandry, R. (1975). Galvanic skin response: Some methodological considerations on measurement, habituation, and classical conditioning. Archiv für Psychologie (Archives of Psychology), 127, 1–22.Google Scholar
  429. Honts, C. R. (2004). The psychophysiological detection of deception. In P. Granhag & L. Strömwall (Eds.), Detection of deception in forensic contexts (pp. 103–123). London: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  430. Honts, C. R., & Amato, S. (2007). Automation of a screening polygraph test increases accuracy. Psychology, Crime and Law, 13, 187–199.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  431. Honts, C. R., Raskin, D. C., & Kircher, J. C. (1987). Effects of physical countermeasures and their electromyographic detection during polygraph tests for deception. Journal of Psychophysiology, 1, 241–247.Google Scholar
  432. Hori, T. (1982). Electrodermal and electro-oculographic activity in a hypnagogic state. Psychophysiology, 19, 668–672.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  433. Hot, P., Leconte, P., & Sequeira, H. (2005). Diurnal autonomic variations and emotional reactivity. Biological Psychology, 69, 261–270.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  434. Hot, P., Naveteur, J., Leconte, P., & Sequeira, H. (1999). Diurnal variations of tonic electrodermal activity. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 33, 223–230.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  435. Houston, B. K. (1983). Psychophysiological responsivity and the type A behavior pattern. Journal of Research in Personality, 17, 22–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  436. Hu, S., McChesney, K. A., Player, K. A., Bahl, A. M., Buchanan, J. B., & Scozzafava, J. E. (1999). Systematic investigation of physiological correlates of motion sickness induced by viewing an optokinetic rotating drum. Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, 70, 759–765.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  437. Huber, D., Henrich, G., & Gündel, H. (2005). Psychophysiological response patterns of migraine patients in two habituation tests. Headache, 45, 1375–1387.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  438. Huck, S. W., & McLean, R. A. (1975). Using repeated measures ANOVA to analyse the data from pretest-posttest design: A potentially confusing task. Psychological Bulletin, 82, 511–518.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  439. Hugdahl, K. (1984). Hemispheric asymmetry and bilateral electrodermal recordings: A review of the evidence. Psychophysiology, 21, 371–393.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  440. Hugdahl, K. (1988). Bilateral electrodermal asymmetry: Past hopes and future prospects. International Journal of Neuroscience, 39, 33–44.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  441. Hugdahl, K. (1995). Psychophysiology. The mind-body perspective. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  442. Hugdahl, K. (1998). Cortical control of human classical conditioning: Autonomic and positron emission tomography data. Psychophysiology, 35, 170–178.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  443. Hugdahl, K., Broman, J.-E., & Franzon, M. (1983). Effects of stimulus content and brain lateralization on the habituation of the electrodermal orienting reaction (OR). Biological Psychology, 17, 153–168.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  444. Hugdahl, K., & Öhman, A. (1980). Skin conductance conditioning to potentially phobic stimuli as a function of interstimulus interval and delay versus trace paradigm. Psychophysiology, 17, 348–355.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  445. Humphrey, G. (1933). The nature of learning. New York: Harcourt Brace.Google Scholar
  446. Iaboni, F., Douglas, V. I., & Ditto, B. (1997). Psychophysiological response of ADHD children to reward and extinction. Psychophysiology, 34, 116–123.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  447. Iacono, W. G. (1982). Bilateral electrodermal habituation-dishabituation and resting EEG in remitted schizophrenics. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 170, 91–101.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  448. Iacono, W. G. (1985). Psychophysiologic markers of psychophathology: A review. Canadian Psychology, 26, 96–112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  449. Iacono, W. G. (1991). Psychophysiological assessment of psychopathology. Psychological Assessment, 3, 309–320.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  450. Iacono, W. G. (2007). Detection of deception. In J. T. Cacioppo, L. G. Tassinary, & G. Berntson (Eds.), Handbook of psychophysiology (pp. 688–703). New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  451. Iacono, W. G., Boisvenu, G. A., & Fleming, J. A. (1984). Effects of diazepam and methylphenidate on the electrodermal detection of guilty knowledge. Journal of Applied Psychology, 69, 289–299.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  452. Iacono, W. G., Ficken, J. W., & Beiser, M. (1999). Electrodermal activation in first-episode psychotic patients in their first-degree relatives. Psychiatry Research, 88, 25–39.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  453. Iacono, W. G., & Lykken, D. T. (1979). The orienting response: Importance of instructions. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 5, 11–14.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  454. Iacono, W. G., Lykken, D. T., Haroian, K. P., Peloquin, L. J., Valentine, R. H., & Tuason, V. B. (1984). Electrodermal activity in euthymic patients with affective disorders: One-year retest stability and the effects of stimulus intensity and significance. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 93, 304–311.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  455. Iacono, W. G., Lykken, D. T., Peloquin, L. J., Lumry, A. E., Valentine, R. H., & Tuason, V. B. (1983). Electrodermal activity in euthymic unipolar and bipolar affective disorders: A possible marker for depression. Archives of General Psychiatry, 40, 557–565.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  456. Iacono, W. G., Roshi, D., & Lacoste, D. (1987). Electrodermal activity in patients with Huntington’s disease and their progeny. Psychophysiology, 24, 522–527.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  457. Iacono, W. G., & Tuason, V. B. (1983). Bilateral electrodermal asymmetry in euthymic patients with unipolar and bipolar affective disorders. Biological Psychiatry, 18, 303–315.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  458. Izard, C. E. (1971). Face of emotion. New York: Appleton.Google Scholar
  459. Jackson, J. C. (1974). Amplitude and habituation of the orienting reflex as a function of stimulus intensity. Psychophysiology, 11, 647–658.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  460. Jamner, L. D., & Tursky, B. (1987). Syndrome-specific descriptor profiling: A psychophysiological and psychophysical approach. Health Psychology, 6, 417–430.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  461. Janes, C. L. (1982). Electrodermal recovery and stimulus significance. Psychophysiology, 19, 129–135.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  462. Janes, C. L., Hesselbrock, V., & Stern, J. A. (1978). Parental psychopathology, age, and race as related to electrodermal activity of children. Psychophysiology, 15, 24–34.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  463. Janes, C. L., & Stern, J. A. (1976). Electrodermal response configuration as a function of rated psychopathology in children. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 162, 184–194.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  464. Janes, C. L., Strock, B. D., Weeks, D. G., & Worland, J. (1985). The effect of stimulus significance on skin conductance recovery. Psychophysiology, 22, 138–146.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  465. Janke, W., & Netter, P. (1986). Angstbeeinflussung durch Psychopharmaka: Methodische Ansätze und Grundprobleme. In W. Janke & P. Netter (Eds.), Angst und Psychopharmaka (pp. 43–71). Stuttgart: Kohlhammer.Google Scholar
  466. Janssen, S. A., Arntz, A., & Bouts, S. (1998). Anxiety and pain: Epinephrine-induced hyperalgesia and attentional influences. Pain, 76, 309–316.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  467. Jarrett, A. (Ed.). (1978). The physiology and pathophysiology of the skin (The sweat glands, skin permeation, lymphatics, and the nails, Vol. 5). New York: Academic.Google Scholar
  468. Jenkinson, P. M., Baker, S. R., Edelstyn, N. M. J., & Ellis, S. J. (2008). Does autonomic arousal distinguish good and bad decisions? Journal of Psychophysiology, 22, 141–149.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  469. Johns, M. W., Cornell, B. A., & Masterton, J. P. (1969). Monitoring sleep of hospital patients by measurement of electrical resistance of skin. Journal of Applied Psychology, 27, 898–901.Google Scholar
  470. Johnsen, B. H., Thayer, J. F., & Hugdahl, K. (1995). Affective judgment of the Ekman faces: A dimensional approach. Journal of Psychophysiology, 9, 193–202.Google Scholar
  471. Johnson, L. C. (1963). Some attributes of spontaneous autonomic activity. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 56, 415–422.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  472. Johnson, L. C., & Lubin, A. (1966). Spontaneous electrodermal activity during waking and sleeping. Psychophysiology, 3, 8–17.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  473. Johnson, L. C., & Lubin, A. (1967). The orienting reflex during waking and sleeping. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 22, 11–21.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  474. Johnson, H. J., & Schwartz, G. E. (1967). Suppression of GSR activity through operant reinforcement. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 75, 307–312.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  475. Johnson, L. C., Townsend, R. E., & Wilson, M. R. (1975). Habituation during sleeping and waking. Psychophysiology, 12, 574–584.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  476. Johnstone, E. C., Bourne, R. C., Crow, T. J., Frith, C. D., Gamble, S., Lofthouse, R., et al. (1981). The relationships between clinical response, psychophysiological variables and plasma levels of amitriptyline and diazepam in neurotic outpatients. Psychopharmacology, 72, 233–240.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  477. Jones, J. E. (1962). Contiguity and reinforcement in relation to CS-UCS intervals in classical aversive conditioning. Psychological Review, 69, 176–186.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  478. Jörg, J., & Boucsein, W. (1998). Die sympathische Hautreaktion (SSR). Klinische Neurophysiologie, 29, 186–197.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  479. Jörg, J., Jock, S., Boucsein, W., & Schäfer, F. (2004). Zur autonomen Dysregulation beim Freezing-Phänomen von Morbus-Parkinson-Patienten. Ein ambulatorisches Monitoring und Videorecording. Aktuelle Neurologie, 31, 338–346.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  480. Jovanovic, U. J. (1971). Normal sleep in man. Stuttgart: Hippokrates.Google Scholar
  481. Jutai, J. W., & Hare, R. D. (1983). Psychopathy and selective attention during performance of a complex perceptual-motor task. Psychophysiology, 20, 146–151.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  482. Kahabka, G., Oppelt, W., Rohmert, W., & Müller, D. (1986). Geforderter Pilot – Gestreßter Fluggast. Die Beanspruchung von Pilot und Passagier beim Motorflug. Aerokurier, 3, 274–276.Google Scholar
  483. Kahneman, D. (1973). Attention and effort. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  484. Katkin, E. S. (1965). Relationship between manifest anxiety and two indices of autonomic response to stress. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 2, 324–333.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  485. Katkin, E. S. (1975). Electrodermal lability: A psychophysiological analysis of individual differences in response to stress. In C. D. Spielberger & I. G. Sarason (Eds.), Stress and anxiety (Vol. 2, pp. 141–176). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  486. Katkin, E. S., & Deitz, S. R. (1973). Systematic desensitization. In W. F. Prokasy & D. C. Raskin (Eds.), Electrodermal activity in psychological research (pp. 347–376). New York: Academic.Google Scholar
  487. Katkin, E. S., & McCubbin, R. J. (1969). Habituation of the orienting response as a function of individual differences in anxiety and autonomic lability. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 74, 54–60.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  488. Katkin, E. S., & Murray, E. N. (1968). Instrumental conditioning of autonomically mediated behavior: Theoretical and methodological issues. Psychological Bulletin, 70, 52–68.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  489. Katsanis, J., & Iacono, W. G. (1992). Temporal lobe dysfunction and electrodermal nonresponding in schizophrenia. Biological Psychiatry, 31, 159–170.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  490. Katz, R. (1984). Unconfounded electrodermal measures in assessing the aversiveness of predictable and unpredictable shocks. Psychophysiology, 21, 452–458.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  491. Katz, R., & Wykes, T. (1985). The psychological difference between temporally predictable and unpredictable stressful events: Evidence for information control theories. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 48, 781–790.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  492. Kayser, J. (1995). Hemisphärenunterschiede, Emotion und bilaterale elektrodermale Aktivität. Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang.Google Scholar
  493. Keller, P. (1963). Arbeitsphysiologie der Hornschicht in Grundzügen. In E. Schwarz, H. W. Spier, & G. Stüttgen (Eds.), Handbuch der Haut – und Geschlechtskrankheiten (Normale und pathologische Physiologie der Haut I, Vol. 1/3, pp. 36–89). Berlin: Springer.Google Scholar
  494. Kendler, H. H. (1952). “What is learned?” – A theoretical blind alley. Psychological Review, 59, 269–277.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  495. Ketterer, M. W., & Smith, B. D. (1977). Bilateral electrodermal activity, lateralized cerebral processing and sex. Psychophysiology, 14, 513–516.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  496. Ketterer, M. W., & Smith, B. D. (1982). Lateralized cortical/cognitive processing and electrodermal activity: Effects of subject and stimulus characteristics. Psychophysiology, 19, 328–329.Google Scholar
  497. Kilpatrick, D. G. (1972). Differential responsiveness of two electrodermal indices to psychological stress and performance of a complex cognitive task. Psychophysiology, 9, 218–226.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  498. Kim, K. H., Bang, S. W., & Kim, S. R. (2004). Emotion recognition system using short-term monitoring of physiological signals. Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing, 42, 419–427.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  499. Kim, D. K. K., Shin, M. Y., Kim, C. E., Cho, H. S., & Kim, Y. S. (1993). Electrodermal responsiveness, clinical variables, and brain imaging in male chronic schizophrenics. Biological Psychiatry, 33, 786–793.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  500. Kimble, G. A. (1961). Hilgard and Marquis’ conditioning and learning. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts.Google Scholar
  501. Kimmel, H. D. (1966). Inhibition of the unconditioned response in classical conditioning. Psychological Review, 73, 232–240.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  502. Kimmel, H. D. (1967). Instrumental conditioning of autonomically mediated behavior. Psychological Bulletin, 67, 337–345.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  503. Kimmel, H. D. (1973). Instrumental conditioning. In W. F. Prokasy & D. C. Raskin (Eds.), Electrodermal activity in psychological research (pp. 255–282). New York: Academic.Google Scholar
  504. Kimmel, H. D., & Kimmel, E. (1965). Sex differences in adaptation of the GSR under repeated applications of a visual stimulus. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 70, 536–537.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  505. Kimmel, H. D., van Olst, E. H., & Orlebeke, J. F. (Eds.). (1979). The orienting reflex in humans. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  506. Kimura, D. (1969). Spatial localization in left and right visual field. Canadian Journal of Psychology, 23, 445–458.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  507. Kimura, D. (1973). The asymmetry of the human brain. Scientific American, 228, 70–78.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  508. Kircher, J. C., & Raskin, D. C. (1988). Human versus computerized evaluations of polygraph data in a laboratory setting. Journal of Applied Psychology, 73, 291–302.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  509. Kirsch, P., & Boucsein, W. (1997). Classical conditioning and information processing: Different mechanism for prepared and unprepared stimuli? Integrative Physiological and Behavioral Science, 32, 247–256.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  510. Kirsch, P., Boucsein, W., & Baltissen, R. (1993). Electrodermal activity as an indicator of information processing in a nonaversive differential classical conditioning paradigm. Integrative Physiological and Behavioral Science, 28, 154–157.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  511. Kiss, G. (1979). Messung der elektrischen Impedanz zur Bestimmung von durch Laugen bedingten Hautschädigungen. Dermatologische Monatsschrift, 165, 526–530.Google Scholar
  512. Kiss, G., Horvath, I., & Hajdu, B. (1975). Elektrische Meßmethode und Gerät zum Nachweis bösartiger Wucherungen der Haut. Dermatologische Monatsschrift, 161, 374–378.Google Scholar
  513. Klaschka, F. (1979). Arbeitsphysiologie der Hornschicht in Grundzügen. In E. Schwarz, H. W. Spier, & G. Stüttgen (Eds.), Handbuch der Haut – und Geschlechtskrankheiten (1/4A, Vol. Normale und pathologische Physiologie der Haut II, pp. 153–261). Berlin: Springer.Google Scholar
  514. Kleck, R. E., Vaughan, R. C., Cartwright-Smith, J., Vaughan, K. B., Colby, C. Z., & Lanzetta, J. T. (1976). Effects of being observed on expressive, subjective, and physiological responses to painful stimuli. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 34, 1211–1218.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  515. Kleeberg, J., Bruggimann, L., Annoni, J.-M., van Melle, G., Bogousslavsky, J., & Schluep, M. (2004). Altered decision-making in multiple sclerosis: A sign of impaired emotional reactivity? Annals of Neurology, 56, 787–795.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  516. Klein, R. G., Abikoff, H., Klass, E., Ganeles, D., Seese, L. M., & Pollack, S. (1997). Clinical efficacy of methylphenidate in conduct disorder with and without attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Archives of General Psychiatry, 54, 1073–1080.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  517. Klein, D. F., & Rabkin, J. (Eds.). (1981). Anxiety: New research and changing concepts. New York: Raven.Google Scholar
  518. Kleitman, N. (1963). Sleep and wakefulness. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  519. Knezevic, W., & Bajada, S. (1985). Peripheral autonomic surface potential: A quantitative technique for recording sympathetic conduction in man. Journal of the Neurological Sciences, 67, 239–251.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  520. Knygazev, G. G., Slobodskaya, H. R., & Wilson, G. D. (2002). Psychophysiological correlates of behavioural inhibition and activation. Personality and Individual Differences, 33, 647–660.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  521. Koehler, T., & Weber, D. (1992). Psychophysiological reactions of patients with atopic dermatitis. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 36, 391–394.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  522. Koelega, H. S. (1990). Vigilance performance: A review of electrodermal predictors. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 70, 1011–1029.Google Scholar
  523. Koella, W. P. (1986). Psycho – und neuropharmakologische Wirkungen und Wirkungsmechanismen von Anxiolytika vom Benzodiazepin – und Beta-Rezeptorenblocker-Typ. In W. Janke & P. Netter (Eds.), Angst und Psychopharmaka (pp. 73–90). Stuttgart: Kohlhammer.Google Scholar
  524. Koepke, J. E., & Pribram, K. H. (1966). Habituation of GSR as a function of stimulus duration and spontaneous activity. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 61, 442–448.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  525. Koglbauer, I., Kallus K. W., Braunstingl, R., & Boucsein, W. (2011). Recovery training in simulator improves performance and psychophysiological state of pilots during simulated and real VFR flight. The International Journal of Aviation Psychology, 21 (in press).Google Scholar
  526. Koller, M., Zidek, H., & Haider, M. (1986). Induced psychophysiological stress reactions in patients suffering from myocardial infarction and peptic ulcer. Activitas Nervosa Superior, 28, 123–128.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  527. Kopp, M. S. (1984). Electrodermal characteristics in psychosomatic patients groups. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 2, 73–85.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  528. Koriat, A., Averill, J. R., & Malmstrom, E. J. (1973). Individual differences in habituation: Some methodological and conceptual issues. Journal of Research in Personality, 7, 88–101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  529. Kornhuber, H. H., & Deecke, L. (1965). Hirnpotentialänderungen bei Willkürbewegungen und passiven Bewegungen des Menschen: Bereitschaftspotential und reafferente Potentiale. Pflügers Archiv für die gesamte Physiologie, 284, 1–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  530. Korpelainen, J. T., Tolonen, U., Sotaniemi, K. A., & Myllylä, V. V. (1993). Suppressed sympathetic skin response in brain infarction. Stroke, 24, 1389–1392.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  531. Kotses, H., Rapaport, I., & Glaus, K. D. (1978). Operant conditioning of skin resistance tonic levels. Biofeedback and Self-Regulation, 3, 43–50.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  532. Koumans, A. J. R., Tursky, B., & Solomon, P. (1968). Electrodermal levels and fluctuations during normal sleep. Psychophysiology, 5, 300–306.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  533. Krantz, D. S., Glass, D. C., & Snyder, M. L. (1974). Helplessness, stress level, and the coronary-prone behavior pattern. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 10, 284–300.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  534. Krapohl, D. J., Senter, S. M., & Stern, B. A. (2005). An exploration of methods for analysis of multiple-issue relevant/irrelevant screening data. Polygraph, 34, 47–61.Google Scholar
  535. Kreibig, S. D., Wilhelm, F. H., Roth, W. T., & Gross, J. J. (2007). Cardiovascular, electrodermal, and respiratory response patterns to fear- and sadness-inducing films. Psychophysiology, 44, 787–806.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  536. Kring, A. M., & Gordon, A. H. (1998). Sex differences in emotion: Expression, experience, and physiology. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74, 686–703.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  537. Kroeber-Riel, W. (1979). Activation research: Psychobiological approaches in consumer research. Journal of Consumer Research, 5, 240–250.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  538. Kroeber-Riel, W., & Weinberg, P. (2003). Konsumentenverhalten. München: Vahlen.Google Scholar
  539. Krupski, A., Raskin, D. C., & Bakan, P. (1971). Physiological and personality correlates of commission errors in an auditory vigilance task. Psychophysiology, 8, 304–311.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  540. Kugelmass, S., Faber, N., Ingraham, L. J., Frenkel, E., Nathan, M., Mirsky, A. F., et al. (1995). Reanalysis of SCOR and anxiety measures in the Israeli high-risk study. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 21, 205–217.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  541. Kugler, B. T., & Gruzelier, J. H. (1980). The influence of chlorpromazine and amylobarbitone on the recovery limb of the electrodermal response. Psychiatry Research, 2, 75–84.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  542. Kuhmann, W. (1989). Experimental investigation of stress-inducing properties of system response times. Ergonomics, 31, 271–280.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  543. Kuhmann, W., Boucsein, W., Schaefer, F., & Alexander, J. (1987). Experimental investigation of psychophysiological stress-reactions induced by different system response times in human-computer interaction. Ergonomics, 30, 933–943.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  544. Kuhmann, W., Schaefer, F., & Boucsein, W. (1990). Effekte von Wartezeiten innerhalb einfacher Aufgaben: Eine Analogie zu Wartezeiten in der Mensch-Computer-Interaktion. Zeitschrift für Experimentelle und Angewandte Psychologie, 37, 242–265.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  545. Kuno, Y. (1956). Human perspiration. Springfield: Thomas.Google Scholar
  546. Kushniruk, A., Rustenburg, J., & Ogilvie, R. (1985). Psychological correlates of electrodermal activity during REM sleep. Sleep, 8, 146–154.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  547. LaBar, K. S., & Phelps, E. A. (1998). Arousal-mediated memory consolidation: Role of the medial temporal lobe in humans. Psychological Science, 9, 490–493.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  548. LaBarbera, P. A., & Tucciarone, J. D. (1995). GSR reconsidered: A behavior-based approach to evaluating and improving the sales potency of advertising. Journal of Advertising Research, 35, 33–53.Google Scholar
  549. Lacey, J. I. (1967). Somatic response patterning and stress: Some revisions of activation theory. In M. H. Appley & R. Trumbull (Eds.), Psychological stress: Issues in research (pp. 14–37). New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts.Google Scholar
  550. Lacey, J. I., & Lacey, B. C. (1958). The relationship of resting autonomic activity to motor impulsivity. Research Publications – Association for Nervous and Mental Diseases, 36, 144–209.Google Scholar
  551. Lacey, J. I., & Lacey, B. C. (1970). Some autonomic-central nervous system interrelationships. In P. Black (Ed.), Physiological correlates of emotion (pp. 205–227). New York: Academic.Google Scholar
  552. Lacey, B. C., & Lacey, J. I. (1974). Studies of heart rate and other bodily processes in sensorimotor behavior. In P. A. Obrist, A. H. Black, J. Brener, & L. V. DiCara (Eds.), Cardiovascular psychophysiology (pp. 538–564). Chicago: Aldine-Atherton.Google Scholar
  553. Lacroix, J. M., & Comper, P. (1979). Lateralization in the electrodermal system as a function of cognitive/hemispheric manipulations. Psychophysiology, 16, 116–129.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  554. Lader, M. H. (1964). The effect of cyclobarbitone on the habituation of the psychogalvanic reflex. Brain, 87, 321–340.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  555. Lader, M. H. (1967). Palmar skin conductance measures in anxiety and phobic states. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 11, 271–281.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  556. Lader, M. H. (1975). The psychophysiology of mental illness. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  557. Lader, M. H. (1979). Anxiety reducing and sedation: A psychophysiological theory. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 7, 91–105.Google Scholar
  558. Lader, M. H., & Mathews, A. M. (1970). Physiological changes during spontaneous panic attacks. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 14, 377–382.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  559. Lader, M. H., & Petursson, H. (1983). Rational use of anxiolytic/sedative drugs. Drugs, 25, 514–528.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  560. Lader, M. H., & Wing, L. (1964). Habituation of the psycho-galvanic reflex in patients with anxiety states and in normal subjects. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry, 27, 210–218.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  561. Lader, M. H., & Wing, L. (1966). Physiological measures, sedative drugs, and morbid anxiety. London: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  562. Lader, M. H., & Wing, L. (1969). Physiological measures in agitated and retarded depressed patients. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 7, 89–100.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  563. Landis, C., & Hunt, W. A. (1939). The startle pattern. New York: Farrar & Rinehart.Google Scholar
  564. Lang, P. J. (1970). Stimulus control, response control and the desensitization of fear. In D. J. Lewis (Ed.), Learning approaches to therapeutic behavior change (pp. 148–173). Chicago: Aldine.Google Scholar
  565. Lang, P. J., Bradley, M. M., & Cuthbert, B. N. (1990). Emotion, attention, and the startle reflex. Psychological Review, 97, 377–395.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  566. Lang, P. J., Bradley, M. M., & Cuthbert, B. N. (1999). International Affective Picture System (IAPS): Digitized photographs, instruction manual and affective ratings. Technical Report A-6. Gainsville, FL: University of Florida.Google Scholar
  567. Langosch, W., Brodner, G., & Foerster, F. (1983). Psychophysiological testing of postinfarction patients: A study determining the cardiological importance of psychophysiological variables. In T. M. Dembroski, T. H. Schmidt, & G. Blümchen (Eds.), Biobehavioral bases of coronary heart disease (pp. 197–227). Basel: Karger.Google Scholar
  568. Lanzetta, J. T., Cartwright-Smith, J., & Kleck, R. E. (1976). Effects of nonverbal dissimulation on emotional experience and autonomic arousal. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 33, 354–370.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  569. Lapierre, Y. D. (1975). Clinical and physiological assessment of chlorazepate, diazepam and placebo in anxious neurotics. International Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 11, 315–322.Google Scholar
  570. Lapierre, Y. D., & Butter, H. J. (1980). Agitated and retarded depression: A clinical psychophysiological evaluation. Neuropsychology, 6, 217–223.Google Scholar
  571. Latzman, R. D., Knutson, J. F., & Fowles, D. C. (2006). Schedule-induced electrodermal responding in children. Psychophysiology, 43, 623–632.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  572. Lawler, K. (1980). Cardiovascular and electrodermal response patterns in heart rate reactive individuals during psychological stress. Psychophysiology, 17, 464–470.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  573. Lawler, J. C., Davis, M. J., & Griffith, E. C. (1960). Electrical characteristics of the skin: The impedance of the surface sheath and deep tissues. The Journal of Investigative Dermatology, 34, 301–308.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  574. Lawson, E. A. (1981). Skin conductance responses in Huntington’s chorea progeny. Psychophysiology, 18, 32–35.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  575. Lazarus, R. S. (1966). Psychological stress and the coping process. New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  576. Lazarus, R. S., & Opton, E. M. (1966). The study of psychological stress: A summary of theoretical formulations and empirical findings. In C. D. Spielberger (Ed.), Anxiety and behavior (pp. 225–262). New York: Academic.Google Scholar
  577. Lazzaro, I., Gordon, E., Li, W., Lim, C. L., Plahn, M., Whitmont, S., et al. (1999). Simultaneous EEG and EDA measures in adolescent attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 34, 123–134.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  578. Ledowski, T., Preuss, J., Ford, A., Paech, M. J., McTernan, C., Kapila, R., et al. (2007). New parameters of skin conductance compared with bispectral index® monitoring to assess emergence from total intravenous anaesthesia. British Journal of Anaesthesia, 99, 547–551.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  579. Lenhart, R. E. (1985). Lowered skin conductance in a subsyndromal high-risk depressive sample: Response amplitudes versus tonic levels. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 94, 649–652.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  580. Léonard, T., Pepinà, C., Bond, A., & Treasure, J. (1998). Assessment of test-meal induced autonomic arousal in anorexic, bulimic and control females. European Eating Disorders Review, 6, 188–200.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  581. Leonard, J. P., Podoll, K., Weiler, H.-T., & Lange, H. W. (1984). Habituation der elektrodermalen Orientierungsreaktion in der Diagnostik und Früherkennung der Chorea Huntington. Zeitschrift für Experimentelle und Angewandte Psychologie, 31, 447–463.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  582. Lester, B. K., Burch, N. R., & Dossett, R. C. (1967). Nocturnal EEG-GSR profiles: The influence of presleep states. Psychophysiology, 3, 238–248.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  583. Levander, S. E., Schalling, D. S., Lidberg, L., Bartfai, A., & Lidberg, Y. (1980). Skin conductance recovery time and personality in a group of criminals. Psychophysiology, 17, 105–111.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  584. Levenson, R. W. (1988). Emotion and the autonomic nervous system: A prospectus for research on autonomic specificity. In H. L. Wagner (Ed.), Social psychophysiology and emotion: Theory and clinical applications (pp. 17–42). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  585. Levenson, R. W., Carstensen, L. L., Friesen, W. V., & Ekman, P. (1991). Emotion, physiology, and expression in old age. Physiology and Aging, 6, 28–35.Google Scholar
  586. Levenson, R. W., Ekman, P., & Friesen, W. V. (1990). Voluntary facial action generates emotion specific autonomic nervous system activity. Psychophysiology, 27, 363–384.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  587. Levinson, D. F., & Edelberg, R. (1985). Scoring criteria for response latency and habituation in electrodermal research: A critique. Psychophysiology, 22, 417–426.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  588. Levinson, D. F., Edelberg, R., & Bridger, W. H. (1984). The orienting response in schizophrenia: Proposed resolution of a controversy. Biological Psychiatry, 19, 489–507.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  589. Levis, D. J., & Smith, J. E. (1987). Getting individual differences in autonomic reactivity to work for instead of against you: Determining the dominant “psychological” stress channel on the basis of a “biological” stress test. Psychophysiology, 24, 346–352.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  590. Lim, C. L., Gordon, E., Harris, A., Bahramali, H., Li, W. M., Manor, B., et al. (1999). Electrodermal activity in schizophrenia: A quantitative study using a short interstimulus paradigm. Biological Psychiatry, 45, 127–135.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  591. Lim, C. L., Rennie, C., Barry, J., Bahramali, H., Lazzaro, I., Manor, B., et al. (1997). Decomposing skin conductance into tonic and phasic components. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 25, 97–109.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  592. Linden, D., & Berlit, P. (1995). Sympathetic skin responses (SSRs) in monofocal brain lesions: Topographical aspects of central sympathetic pathways. Acta Neurologica Scandinavica, 91, 372–376.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  593. Lindholm, E., & Cheatham, C. M. (1983). Autonomic activity and workload during learning of a simulated aircraft carrier landing task. Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, 54, 435–439.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  594. Lindsley, D. B. (1951). Emotion. In S. S. Stevens (Ed.), Handbook of experimental psychology (pp. 473–516). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  595. Lindsley, D. B., Schreiner, L. H., Knowles, W. B., & Magoun, H. W. (1950). Behavioral and EEG changes following chronic brainstem lesions in the cat. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 2, 483–498.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  596. Lipp, O. V., Siddle, D. A. T., & Dall, P. J. (1997). The effect of emotional and attentional processes on blink startle modulation and on electrodermal responses. Psychophysiology, 34, 340–347.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  597. Loeb, J., & Mednick, S. A. (1977). A prospective study of predictors of criminality: Electrodermal response patterns. In S. A. Mednick & K. O. Christiansen (Eds.), Biosocial bases of criminal behavior (pp. 245–254). New York: Gardener.Google Scholar
  598. Lorber, M. F. (2004). Psychophysiology of aggression, psychopathy, and conduct problems: A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 130, 531–552.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  599. Lovallo, W. R., & Pishkin, V. (1980). A psychophysiological comparison of Type A and B men exposed to failure and uncontrollable noise. Psychophysiology, 17, 29–36.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  600. Lovibond, P. F., Siddle, D. A. T., & Bond, N. W. (1993). Resistance to extinction of fear-relevant stimuli: Preparedness or selective sensitization? Journal of Experimental Psychology, 122, 449–461.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  601. Lykken, D. T. (1957). A study of anxiety in the sociopathic personality. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 55, 6–10.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  602. Lykken, D. T. (1959b). The GSR in the detection of guilt. The Journal of Applied Psychology, 43, 385–388.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  603. Lykken, D. T. (1968). Neuropsychology and psychophysiology in personality research. In E. F. Borgatta & W. W. Lambert (Eds.), Handbook of personality theory and research: Part 2. Psychophysiological techniques and personality research (pp. 413–509). Chicago: Rand McNally.Google Scholar
  604. Lykken, D. T. (1971). Square-wave analysis of skin impedance. Psychophysiology, 7, 262–275.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  605. Lykken, D. T. (1981). A tremor in the blood: Uses and abuses of the lie detector. New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  606. Lykken, D. T. (1995). The antisocial personalities. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  607. Lykken, D. T., Macindoe, I., & Tellegen, A. (1972). Preception: Autonomic response to shock as a function of predictability in time and locus. Psychophysiology, 9, 318–333.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  608. Lykken, D. T., Miller, R. D., & Strahan, R. F. (1966). GSR and polarization capacity of skin. Psychonomic Science, 4, 355–356.Google Scholar
  609. Lykken, D. T., Rose, R., Luther, B., & Maley, M. (1966). Correcting psychophysiological measures for individual differences in range. Psychological Bulletin, 66, 481–484.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  610. Lykken, D. T., & Tellegen, A. (1974). On the validity of the preception hypothesis. Psychophysiology, 11, 125–132.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  611. Lykken, D. T., & Venables, P. H. (1971). Direct measurement of skin conductance: A proposal for standardization. Psychophysiology, 8, 656–672.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  612. Lynn, R. (1966). Attention, arousal and the orientation reaction. Oxford: Pergamon.Google Scholar
  613. Lyskov, E., Sandström, M., & Mild, K. H. (2001). Neurophysiological study of patients with perceived “electrical hypersensivity”. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 42, 233–241.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  614. Lyvers, M., & Miyata, Y. (1993). Effects of cigarette smoking on electrodermal orienting reflexes to stimulus change and stimulus significance. Psychophysiology, 30, 231–236.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  615. MacIntosh, B. J., McIlroy, W. E., Mraz, R., Staines, R., Black, S. E., & Graham, S. J. (2008). Electrodermal recording and fMRI to inform sensorimotor recovery in stroke patients. Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair, 22, 728–736.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  616. Macleod, A. F., Smith, S. A., Cowell, T., Richardson, P. R., & Sonksen, P. H. (1991). Non-cardiac autonomic test in diabetes: Use of the galvanic skin response. Diabetic Medicine, 8 Symposium, S67-S70.Google Scholar
  617. Magaro, P. A. (1973). Skin conductance basal level and reactivity in schizophrenia as a function of chronicity, premorbid adjustment, diagnosis, and medication. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 81, 270–281.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  618. Magliero, A., Gatchel, R. J., & Lojewski, D. (1981). Skin conductance responses to stimulus “energy” decreases following habituation. Psychophysiology, 18, 549–558.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  619. Maia, T. V., & McClelland, J. L. (2004). A reexamination of the evidence for the somatic marker hypothesis: What participants really know in the Iowa Gambling task. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA, 101, 16075–16080.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  620. Malmo, R. B. (1957). Anxiety and behavioral arousal. Psychological Review, 64, 309–319.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  621. Malmo, R. B. (1959). Activation: A neuropsychological dimension. Psychological Review, 66, 367–386.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  622. Malmo, R. B. (1962). Activation. In A. J. Bachrach (Ed.), Experimental foundations of clinical psychology (pp. 386–422). New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  623. Malmo, R. B., & Smith, A. A. (1951). Responsiveness in chronic schizophrenia. Journal of Personality, 18, 359–375.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  624. Malten, K. E., & Thiele, F. A. J. (1973). Evaluation of skin damage. The British Journal of Dermatology, 89, 565–569.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  625. Maltzman, I. (1977). Orienting in classical conditioning and generalization of the galvanic skin response to words: An overview. Journal of Experimentel Psychology: General, 106, 111–119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  626. Maltzman, I. (1979a). Orienting reflexes and significance: A reply to O’Gorman. Psychophysiology, 16, 274–282.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  627. Maltzman, I. (1979b). Orienting reflexes and classical conditioning in humans. In H. D. Kimmel, E. H. van Olst, & J. F. Orlebeke (Eds.), The orienting reflex in humans (pp. 323–351). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  628. Maltzman, I., & Langdon, B. (1982). Novelty and significance as determiners of the GSR index of the orienting reflex. Physiological Psychology, 10, 229–234.Google Scholar
  629. Maltzman, I., Raskin, D. C., & Wolff, C. (1979). Latent inhibition of the GSR conditioned to words. Physiological Psychology, 7, 193–203.Google Scholar
  630. Mangan, G. L., & O’Gorman, J. G. (1969). Initial amplitude and rate of habituation of orienting reaction in relation to extraversion and neuroticism. Journal of Experimental Research in Personality, 3, 275–282.Google Scholar
  631. Mangina, C. A., & Beuzeron-Mangina, J. H. (1996). Direct electrical stimulation of specific human brain structures and bilateral electrodermal activity. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 22, 1–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  632. Maricq, H. R., & Edelberg, R. (1975). Electrodermal recovery rate in a schizophrenic population. Psychophysiology, 12, 630–633.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  633. Martin, R. B., & Dean, S. J. (1970). Instrumental modification of the GSR. Psychophysiology, 7, 178–185.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  634. Martin, A., & Rief, W. (2009). Wie wirksam ist Biofeedback? Eine therapeutische Methode. Bern: Hans Huber.Google Scholar
  635. Martin, I., & Rust, J. (1976). Habituation and the structure of the electrodermal system. Psychophysiology, 13, 554–562.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  636. Massaro, D. W. (1975). Experimental psychology and information processing. Chicago: Rand McNally.Google Scholar
  637. Mayer, B., Merckelbach, H., de Jong, P. J., & Leeuw, I. (1999). Skin conductance responses of spider phobics to backwardly masked phobic cues. Journal of Psychophysiology, 13, 152–159.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  638. Maze, J. R. (1983). The Meaning of Behaviour. London: Allen & Unwin.Google Scholar
  639. McCubbin, R. J., & Katkin, E. S. (1971). Magnitude of the orienting response as a function of extent and quality of stimulus change. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 88, 182–188.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  640. McDonald, D. G., & Carpenter, F. A. (1975). Habituation of the orienting response in sleep. Psychophysiology, 12, 618–623.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  641. McDonald, D. G., Shallenberger, H. D., Koresko, R. L., & Kinzy, B. G. (1976). Studies of spontaneous electrodermal responses in sleep. Psychophysiology, 13, 128–134.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  642. McDougall, A. J., & McLeod, J. G. (2003). Autonomic nervous system function in multiple sclerosis. Journal of the Neurological Sciences, 215, 79–85.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  643. McFarland, R. A. (1981). Physiological psychology: The biology of human behavior. Palo Alto: Mayfield.Google Scholar
  644. McGrath, J. E. (1982). Methodological problems in research on stress. In H. W. Krohne & L. Laux (Eds.), Achievement, stress, and anxiety (pp. 19–48). Washington: Hemisphere.Google Scholar
  645. McGuinness, D. (1973). Cardiovascular responses during habituation and mental activity in anxious men and women. Biological Psychology, 1, 115–124.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  646. McGuinness, D., & Pribram, K. (1980). The neuropsychology of attention: Emotional and motivational controls. In M. C. Wittrock (Ed.), The brain and psychology (pp. 95–139). New York: Academic.Google Scholar
  647. McKeever, W. F., & Gill, K. M. (1972). Interhemispheric transfer time for visual stimulus information varies as a function of the retinal locus of stimulation. Psychonomic Science, 26, 308–310.Google Scholar
  648. Mednick, S. A. (1967). The children of schizophrenics: Serious difficulties in current research methodologies which suggest the use of the “high-risk group” method. In J. Romano (Ed.), Origins of schizophrenia (pp. 179–200). Amsterdam: Excerpta Medica.Google Scholar
  649. Mednick, S. A. (1970). Breakdown in individuals at high risk for schizophrenia: Possible predispositional perinatal factors. Mental Hygiene, 54, 50–63.Google Scholar
  650. Mednick, S. A. (1974). Electrodermal recovery and psychopathology. In S. A. Mednick, F. Schulsinger, J. Higgins, & B. Bell (Eds.), Genetics, environment and psychopathology (pp. 135–146). Amsterdam: Elsevier.Google Scholar
  651. Mednick, S. A. (1978). Berkson’s fallacy and high-risk research. In L. C. Wynne, R. L. Cromwell, & S. Matthysse (Eds.), The nature of schizophrenia: New approaches to research and treatment (pp. 442–452). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  652. Mednick, S. A., & McNeil, T. F. (1968). Current methodology in research on the etiology of schizophrenia: Serious difficulties which suggest the use of the high-risk-group method. Psychological Bulletin, 70, 681–693.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  653. Mednick, S. A., & Schulsinger, F. (1968). Some premorbid characteristics related to breakdown in children with schizophrenic mothers. In S. Kety & D. Rosenthal (Eds.), The transmission of schizophrenia (pp. 267–291). Oxford: Pergamon.Google Scholar
  654. Mednick, S. A., & Schulsinger, F. (1973). A learning theory of schizophrenia: Thirteen years later. In M. Hammer, K. Salzinger, & S. Sutton (Eds.), Psychopathology (pp. 343–360). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  655. Mednick, S. A., & Schulsinger, F. (1974). Studies of children at high risk for schizophrenia. In S. A. Mednick, F. Schulsinger, J. Higgins, & B. Bell (Eds.), Genetics, environment, and psychopathology (pp. 109–116). Amsterdam: Elsevier.Google Scholar
  656. Mednick, S. A., Schulsinger, F., Teasdale, T. W., Schulsinger, H., Venables, P. H., & Rock, D. R. (1978). Schizophrenia in high-risk children: Sex differences in predisposing factors. In G. Serban (Ed.), Cognitive defects in the developement of mental illness (pp. 169–197). New York: Brunner/Mazel.Google Scholar
  657. Melis, C., & van Boxtel, A. (2001). Differences in autonomic physiological responses between good and poor inductive reasoners. Biological Psychology, 58, 121–146.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  658. Meyers, M., & Smith, B. D. (1986). Hemispheric asymmetry and emotion: Effects of nonverbal affective stimuli. Biological Psychology, 22, 11–22.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  659. Meyers, M. B., & Smith, B. D. (1987). Cerebral processing of nonverbal affective stimuli: Differential effects of cognitive and affective sets on hemispheric asymmetry. Biological Psychology, 24, 67–84.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  660. Michaels, R. M. (1960). Tension responses of drivers generated on urban streets. Highway Research Board Bulletin, 271, 29–43.Google Scholar
  661. Michaels, R. M. (1962). Effect of expressway design on driver tension responses. Highway Research Board Bulletin, 330, 16–26.Google Scholar
  662. Miezejeski, C. M. (1978). Relationships between behavioral arousal and some components of autonomic arousal. Psychophysiology, 15, 417–421.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  663. Miller, N. E. (1969). Learning of visceral and glandular responses. Science, 163, 434–445.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  664. Miller, N. E. (1972). Learning of glandular and visceral responses: Postscript. In D. Singh & C. T. Morgan (Eds.), Current status of physiological psychology: Readings (pp. 228–250). Monterey: Brooks/Cole.Google Scholar
  665. Miller, R. M., & Coger, R. W. (1979). Skin conductance conditioning with dyshidrotic eczema patients. The British Journal of Dermatology, 101, 435–440.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  666. Miller, S., & Konorski, J. (1928). Sur une farme particulière des reflexes conditionels. Comptes Rendues Sociétée Biologique Paris, 99, 1155–1177.Google Scholar
  667. Miossec, Y., Catteau, M. C., Freixa i Baqué, E., & Roy, J.-C. (1985). Methodological problems in bilateral electrodermal research. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 2 , 247–256. Google Scholar
  668. Moan, E. R. (1979). GSR biofeedback assisted relaxation training and psychosomatic hives. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 10, 157–158.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  669. Mobascher, A., Brinkmeyer, J., Warbrick, T., Musso, F., Wittsack, H. J., Stoermer, R., et al. (2009). Fluctuations in electrodermal activity reveal variations in single trial brain responses to painful laser stimuli – A fMRI/EEG study. NeuroImage, 44, 1081–1092.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  670. Monat, A., Averill, J. R., & Lazarus, R. S. (1972). Anticipatory stress and coping reactions under various conditions of uncertainty. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 24, 237–253.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  671. Montagu, J. D. (1963). Habituation of the psycho-galvanic reflex during serial tests. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 7, 199–214.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  672. Morris, P. H., & Gale, A. (1993). Effects of situational demands on the direction of electrodermal activation during smoking. Addictive Behaviors, 18, 35–40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  673. Morrow, L., Vrtunski, P. B., Kim, Y., & Boller, F. (1981). Arousal responses to emotional stimuli and laterality of lesion. Neuropsychologia, 19, 65–71.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  674. Mowrer, O. H. (1960). Learning theory and behavior. New York: Wiley.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  675. Mundy-Castle, A. C., & McKiever, B. L. (1953). The psychophysiological significance of the galvanic skin response. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 46, 15–24.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  676. Munro, L. L., Dawson, M. E., Schell, A. M., & Sakai, L. M. (1987). Electrodermal lability and rapid vigilance decrement in a degraded stimulus continuous performance task. Journal of Psychophysiology, 1, 249–257.Google Scholar
  677. Muthny, F. A. (1984). Elektrodermale Aktivität und palmare Schwitzaktivität als Biosignale der Haut in der psychophysiologischen Grundlagenforschung. Freiburg: Dreisam.Google Scholar
  678. Myrtek, M. (1984). Constitutional psychophysiology. Research in review. Orlando: Academic.Google Scholar
  679. Myslobodsky, M. S., & Rattok, J. (1975). Asymmetry of electrodermal activity in man. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society, 6, 501–502.Google Scholar
  680. Myslobodsky, M. S., & Rattok, J. (1977). Bilateral electrodermal activity in waking man. Acta Psychologica, 41, 273–282.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  681. Nagai, Y., Critchley, H. D., Featherstone, E., Trimble, M. R., & Dolan, R. J. (2004). Activity in ventromedial prefrontal cortex covaries with sympathetic skin conductance level: A physiological account of a “default mode” of brain function. NeuroImage, 22, 243–251.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  682. National Research Council (2003). The polygraph and lie detection. Committee to Review the Scientific Evidence on the Polygraph. Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.Google Scholar
  683. Naveteur, J., & Freixa i Baqué, E. (1987). Individual differences in electrodermal activity as a function of subjects’ anxiety. Personality and Individual Differences, 8, 615–626.Google Scholar
  684. Naveteur, J., Buisine, S., & Gruzelier, J. H. (2005). The influence of anxiety on electrodermal responses to distractors. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 56, 261–269.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  685. Naveteur, J., & Sequeira-Martinho, H. (1990). Reliability of bilateral differences in electrodermal activity. Biological Psychology, 31, 47–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  686. Neary, R. S., & Zuckerman, M. (1976). Sensation seeking, trait and state anxiety, and the electrodermal orienting response. Psychophysiology, 13, 205–211.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  687. Nebylitsyn, V. D. (1972). Fundamental properties of the human nervous system. New York: Plenum.Google Scholar
  688. Nebylitsyn, V. D. (1973). Current problems in differential psychophysiology. Soviet Psychology, 11, 47–70.Google Scholar
  689. Neisser, U. (1967). Cognitive psychology. New York: Appleton.Google Scholar
  690. Netter, P. (1986). Einflußfaktoren auf die zentral-nervöse Wirkung von Beta- Rezeptorenblockern. In W. Janke & P. Netter (Eds.), Angst und Psychopharmaka (pp. 169–204). Stuttgart: Kohlhammer.Google Scholar
  691. Neumann, E. (1968). Thermal changes in palmar skin resistance patterns. Psychophysiology, 5, 103–111.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  692. Nielsen, T. C., & Petersen, K. E. (1976). Electrodermal correlates of extraversion, trait anxiety and schizophrenism. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 17, 73–80.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  693. Niemelä, P. (1975). Effects of interrupting the process of preparation for film stress. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 16, 294–302.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  694. Niepel, M. (2001). Independent manipulation of stimulus change and unexpectedness dissociates indices of the orienting response. Psychophysiology, 38, 84–91.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  695. Nikula, R. (1991). Psychological correlates of nonspecific skin conductance responses. Psychophysiology, 28, 86–90.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  696. Nomikos, M. S., Opton, E., Averill, J. R., & Lazarus, R. S. (1968). Surprise versus suspense in the production of stress reaction. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 8, 204–208.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  697. Norris, C. J., Larsen, J. T., & Cacioppo, J. T. (2007). Neuroticism is associated with larger and more prolonged electrodermal responses to emotionally evocative pictures. Psychophysiology, 44, 823–826.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  698. Nuechterlein, K. H. (1987). Vulnerability models for schizophrenia: State of the art. In H. Häfner, W. F. Gattaz, & W. Janzarik (Eds.), Search for the causes of schizophrenia (pp. 297–316). Heidelberg: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  699. Nuechterlein, K. H., & Dawson, M. E. (1984). A heuristic vulnerability/stress model of schizophrenic episodes. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 10, 300–312.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  700. Nuechterlein, K. H., Edell, W. S., Norris, M., & Dawson, M. E. (1986). Attentional vulnerability indicators, thought disorders, and negative symptoms in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 12, 408–426.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  701. O’Gorman, J. G. (1974). A comment on Koriat, Averill, and Malmstrom’s “Individual differences in habituation”. Journal of Research in Personality, 8, 198–202.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  702. O’Gorman, J. G. (1977). Individual differences in habituation of human physiological responses: A review of theory, method, and findings in the study of personality correlates in non-clinical populations. Biological Psychology, 5, 257–319.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  703. O’Gorman, J. G. (1978). Method of recording: A neglected factor in the controversy over the bimodality of electrodermal responsiveness in schizophrenic samples. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 4, 150–152.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  704. O’Gorman, J. G. (1979). The orienting reflex: Novelty or significance detector? Psychophysiology, 16, 253–262.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  705. O’Gorman, J. G., & Lloyd, J. E. M. (1988). Electrodermal lability and dichotic listening. Psychophysiology, 25, 538–546.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  706. O’Toole, D., Yuille, J. C., Patrick, C. J., & Iacono, W. G. (1994). Alcohol and the physiological detection of deception: Arousal and memory influences. Psychophysiology, 31, 253–263.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  707. Obrist, P. A. (1963). Skin resistance levels and galvanic skin response: Unilateral differences. Science, 139, 227–228.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  708. Obrist, P. A. (1976). The cardiovascular-behavioral interaction – As it appears today. Psychophysiology, 13, 95–107.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  709. Obrist, P. A., Black, F. W., Brener, J., & DiCara, L. W. (Eds.). (1974). Cardiovascular psychophysiology. Chicago: Aldine.Google Scholar
  710. Offe, H., & Offe, S. (2007). The comparison question test: Does it work and if so how? Law and Human Behavior, 31, 291–303.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  711. Ogawa, T. (1984). Regional differences in sweating activity. In J. R. S. Hales (Ed.), Thermal physiology (pp. 229–234). New York: Raven.Google Scholar
  712. Öhman, A. (1971). Differentiation of conditioned and orienting response components in electrodermal conditioning. Psychophysiology, 8, 7–22.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  713. Öhman, A. (1979). The orienting response, attention, and learning: An information-processing perspective. In H. D. Kimmel, E. H. van Olst, & J. F. Orlebeke (Eds.), The orienting reflex in humans (pp. 443–471). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  714. Öhman, A. (1981). Electrodermal activity and vulnerability to schizophrenia: A review. Biological Psychology, 12, 87–145.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  715. Öhman, A. (1983). The orienting response during Pavlovian conditioning. In D. Siddle (Ed.), Orienting and habituation: Perspectives in human research (pp. 315–369). Chichester: Wiley.Google Scholar
  716. Öhman, A. (1993). Stimulus prepotency and fear learning: Data and theory. In N. Birbaumer & A. Öhman (Eds.), The structur of emotion (pp. 218–239). Seattle: Hogrefe & Huber.Google Scholar
  717. Öhman, A., & Bohlin, G. (1973). The relationship between spontaneous and stimulus-correlated electrodermal responses in simple and discriminative conditioning paradigms. Psychophysiology, 10, 589–600.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  718. Öhman, A., Dimberg, U., & Esteves, F. (1989). Preattentive activation of aversive emotions. In T. Archer & L.-G. Nilsson (Eds.), Aversion, avoidance, and anxiety (pp. 169–193). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  719. Öhman, A., Erikson, A., & Olofsson, C. (1975). One-trial learning and superior resistance to extinction of autonomic responses conditioned to potentially phobic stimuli. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 88, 619–627.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  720. Öhman, A., Eriksson, A., Fredrikson, M., Hugdahl, K., & Olofsson, C. (1974). Habituation of the electrodermal orienting reaction to potentially phobic and supposedly neutral stimuli in normal human subjects. Biological Psychology, 2, 85–93.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  721. Öhman, A., Erixon, G., & Löfberg, G. (1975). Phobias and preparedness: Phobic versus neutral pictures as conditioned stimuli for human autonomic responses. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 84, 41–45.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  722. Öhman, A., & Hultman, C. M. (1998). Electrodermal activity and obstetric complications in schizophrenia. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 107, 228–237.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  723. Öhman, A., & Soares, J. J. (1994). “Unconscious anxiety”: Phobic responses to masked stimuli. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 103, 231–240.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  724. Olbrich, R. (1989). Electrodermal activity and its relevance to vulnerability research in schizophrenics. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 155, 40–45.Google Scholar
  725. Olbrich, R. (1990). The contributions of psychophysiology to vulnerability models. In H. Häfner & W. F. Gattaz (Eds.), Search for the causes of schizophrenia (Vol. 1, pp. 192–204). Berlin: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  726. Olbrich, R., & Mussgay, L. (1987). Spontaneous fluctuations of electrical skin conductance and the actual clinical state in schizophrenics. Psychopathology, 20, 18–22.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  727. Olds, J., & Olds, M. E. (1965). Drives, rewards, and the brain. In T. M. Newcomb (Ed.), New directions in psychology II (pp. 327–410). New York: Holt, Rinehart, & Winston.Google Scholar
  728. Orlebeke, J. F., & van Olst, E. H. (1968). Learning and performance as a function of CS-intensity in a delayed GSR conditioning situation. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 77, 483–487.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  729. Orr, S. P., & Lanzetta, J. T. (1980). Facial expressions of emotion as conditioned stimuli for human autonomic responses. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 38, 278–282.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  730. Orr, S. P., Milad, M. R., Metzger, L. J., Lasko, N. B., Gilbertson, M. W., & Pitman, R. K. (2006). Effects of beta blockade, PTSD diagnosis, and explicit threat on the extinction and retention of an aversively conditioned response. Biological Psychology, 73, 262–271.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  731. Oscar-Berman, M., & Gade, A. (1979). Electrodermal measures of arousal in humans with cortical or subcortical brain damage. In H. D. Kimmel, E. H. van Olst, & J. F. Orlebeke (Eds.), The orienting reflex in humans (pp. 665–676). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  732. Overall, J. E., & Woodward, J. A. (1977). Nonrandom assignment and the analysis of covariance. Psychological Bulletin, 84, 588–594.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  733. Overmier, J. B. (1985). Toward a reanalysis of the causal structure of the learned helplessness syndrome. In F. R. Brush & J. B. Overmier (Eds.), Affect, conditioning, and cognition: Essays on the determinants of behavior (pp. 211–227). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  734. Packer, J. S., & Siddle, D. A. T. (1989). Stimulus miscuing, electrodermal activity, and the allocation of processing resources. Psychophysiology, 26, 192–200.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  735. Page, M., & Robson, A. (2007). Galvanic skin responses from asking stressful questions. The British Journal of Nursing, 16, 622–627.Google Scholar
  736. Panksepp, J. (1982). Toward a general psychobiological theory of emotions. The Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 5, 407–467.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  737. Panksepp, J. (1986). The anatomy of emotions. In R. Plutchik & H. Kellermann (Eds.), Emotion: Theory research and experience (pp. 91–124). New York: Academic.Google Scholar
  738. Papez, J. W. (1937). A proposed mechanism of emotion. Archives of Neurology and Psychiatry, 38, 725–743.Google Scholar
  739. Patterson, T. (1976). Skin conductance recovery and pupillometrics in chronic schizophrenia. Psychophysiology, 13, 189–195.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  740. Patterson, T., & Venables, P. H. (1981). Bilateral skin conductance and the pupillary light-dark reflex: Manipulation by chlorpromazine, haloperidol, scopolamine, and placebo. Psychopharmacology, 73, 63–69.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  741. Pavlov, I. P. (1927). Conditioned reflexes. An investigation of the physiological activity of the cerebral cortex. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  742. Peeke, S. C., & Grings, W. W. (1968). Magnitude of UCR as a function of variability in the CS-UCS relationship. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 77, 64–69.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  743. Pelachaud, C., & Bilvi, M. (2003). Computational model of believable conversational agents. In M.-P. Huget (Ed.), Communications in multiagent systems (pp. 300–317). Berlin: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  744. Pennebaker, J. W., & Chew, C. H. (1985). Behavioral inhibition and electrodermal activity during deception. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 49, 1427–1433.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  745. Peper, M., Karcher, S., Wohlfart, R., Reinshagen, G., & LeDoux, J. E. (2001). Aversive learning in patients with unilateral lesions of the amygdala and hippocampus. Biological Psychology, 58, 1–23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  746. Perry, W., Felger, T., & Braff, D. (1998). The relationship between skin conductance hyporesponsivity and perseverations in schizophrenia patients. Biological Psychiatry, 44, 459–465.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  747. Peters, T. (1974). Mentale Beanspruchung von Büroangestellten im Schreibdienst und bei Vorzimmertätigkeit. Zentralblatt für Arbeitsmedizin und Arbeitsschutz, 24, 197–207.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  748. Petrinovich, L. (1973). A species-meaningful analysis of habituation. In H. V. S. Peeke & M. J. Herz (Eds.), habituation (Behavioral studies, Vol. 1, pp. 141–162). New York: Academic.Google Scholar
  749. Phillips, K. C., Evans, P. D., & Fearn, J. M. (1986). Heart rate and skin conductance correlates of monitoring or distraction as strategies for “coping”. In D. Papakostopoulos, S. Butler, & I. Martin (Eds.), Clinical and experimental neuropsychophysiology (pp. 486–499). Dover: Croom Helm.Google Scholar
  750. Picard, R. W., & Healy, J. (1997). Affective wearables. Personal and Ubiquitous Computing, 1, 231–240.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  751. Pineles, S. L., Orr, M. R., & Orr, S. P. (2009). An alternative scoring method for skin conductance responding in a differential fear conditioning paradigm with a long-duration conditioned stimulus. Psychophysiology, 46, 984–995.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  752. Pinkus, H. (1952). Examination of the epidermis by the strip method: II. Biometric data on regeneration of the human epidermis. Journal of Investigative Dermatology, 19, 431–447.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  753. Pivik, R. T. (1978). Tonic states and phasic events in relation to sleep mentation. In M. A. Arkin, J. S. Antrobus, & S. Ellman (Eds.), The mind in sleep: Physiology and psychophysiology (pp. 245–271). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  754. Pivik, R. T. (2007). Sleep and dreaming. In J. T. Cacioppo, L. G. Tassinary, & G. Berntson (Eds.), Handbook of psychophysiology (pp. 633–662). New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  755. Plouffe, L., & Stelmack, R. M. (1986). Sensation-seeking and the electrodermal orienting response in young and elderly females. Personality and Individual Differences, 7, 119–120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  756. Plutchik, R. (1980). Emotion – A psychoevolutionary synthesis. New York: Harper & Row.Google Scholar
  757. Pollatos, O., Schubö, A., Herbert, B. M., Matthias, E., & Schandry, R. (2008). Deficits in early emotional reactivity in alexithymia. Psychophysiology, 45, 839–846.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  758. Porges, S. W., & Fox, N. A. (1986). Developmental psychophysiology. In M. G. H. Coles, E. Donchin, & S. W. Porges (Eds.), Psychophysiology: Systems, processes, and applications (pp. 611–625). Amsterdam: Elsevier.Google Scholar
  759. Posner, M. I. (1975). Psychobiology of attention. In M. S. Gazzaniga & C. Blakemore (Eds.), Handbook of psychobiology (pp. 441–480). New York: Academic.Google Scholar
  760. Prentky, A., Salzman, L. F., & Klein, R. H. (1981). Habituation and conditioning of skin conductance responses in children at risk. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 7, 281–291.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  761. Preston, B. (1969). Insurance classifications and drivers’ galvanic skin response. Ergonomics, 12, 437–446.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  762. Pribram, K. H. (1980). The biology of emotions and other feelings. In R. Plutchik & H. Kellerman (Eds.), Emotion: Theory, research, and experience (Theories of emotion, Vol. 1, pp. 245–269). New York: Academic.Google Scholar
  763. Pribram, K. H., & McGuinness, D. (1975). Arousal, activation, and effort in the control of attention. Psychological Review, 82, 116–149.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  764. Pribram, K. H., & McGuinness, D. (1976). Arousal, Aktivierung und Anstrengung: Gesonderte neurale Systeme. Zeitschrift für Psychologie, 184, 382–403.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  765. Prior, M. G., Cumming, G., & Hendy, J. (1984). Recognition of abstract and concrete words in a dichotic listening paradigm. Cortex, 20, 149–157.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  766. Prokasy, W. F., & Ebel, H. C. (1967). Three components of the classically conditioned GSR in human subjects. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 73, 247–256.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  767. Prokasy, W. F., & Kumpfer, K. L. (1973). Classical conditioning. In W. F. Prokasy & D. C. Raskin (Eds.), Electrodermal activity in psychological research (pp. 157–202). New York: Academic.Google Scholar
  768. Prokasy, W. F., & Raskin, D. C. (Eds.). (1973). Electrodermal activity in psychological research. New York: Academic.Google Scholar
  769. Rabavilas, A. D. (1987). Electrodermal activity in low and high alexithymia neurotic patients. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 47, 101–104.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  770. Raine, A. (2002). Annotation: The role of prefrontal deficits, low autonomic arousal, and early health factors in the development of antisocial and aggressive behavior in children. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 43, 417–434.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  771. Raine, A., Bihrle, S., Venables, P. H., Mednick, S. A., & Pollock, V. (1999). Skin-conductance orienting deficits and increased alcoholism in schizotypal criminals. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 108, 299–306.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  772. Raine, A., Lencz, T., Bihrle, S., LaCasse, L., & Colletti, P. (2000). Reduced prefrontal gray matter volume and reduced autonomic activity in antisocial personality disorder. Archives of General Psychiatry, 57, 119–127.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  773. Raine, A., Reynolds, G. P., & Sheard, C. (1991). Neuroanatomical correlates of skin conductance orienting in normal humans: A magnetic resonance imaging study. Psychophysiology, 28, 548–558.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  774. Raine, A., & Venables, P. H. (1981). Classical conditioning and socialization – A biosocial interaction. Personality and Individual Differences, 2, 273–283.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  775. Raine, A., & Venables, P. H. (1984). Electrodermal nonresponding, antisocial behavior, and schizoid tendencies in adolescents. Psychophysiology, 21, 424–433.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  776. Raine, A., Venables, P. H., & Williams, M. (1990a). Relationship between central and autonomic measures of arousal at age 15 years and criminality at age 24 years. Archives of General Psychiatry, 47, 1003–1007.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  777. Raine, A., Venables, P. H., & Williams, M. (1990b). Autonomic orienting responses in 15-year-old male subjects and criminal behavior at age 24. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 147, 933–937.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  778. Raine, A., Venables, P. H., & Williams, M. (1995). High autonomic arousal and electrodermal orienting at age 15 years as protective factors against criminal behavior at age 29 years. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 152, 1595–1600.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  779. Rajamanickam, M., & Gnanaguru, K. (1981). Physiological correlates of personality. Psychological Studies, 26, 41–43.Google Scholar
  780. Rakov, G. V., & Fadeev, Y. A. (1986). Assessment of emotional stress during work activity by system analysis of the galvanic skin reflex. Human Physiology, 11, 215–220.Google Scholar
  781. Rappaport, H., & Katkin, E. S. (1972). Relationships among manifest anxiety, response to stress, and the perception of autonomic activity. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 38, 219–224.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  782. Raskin, D. C. (1973). Attention and arousal. In W. F. Prokasy & D. C. Raskin (Eds.), Electrodermal activity in psychological research (pp. 125–155). New York: Academic.Google Scholar
  783. Raskin, M. (1975). Decreased skin conductance response habituation in chronically anxious patients. Biological Psychology, 2, 309–319.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  784. Raskin, D. C. (1979). Orienting and defensive reflexes in the detection of deception. In H. D. Kimmel, E. H. van Olst, & J. F. Orlebeke (Eds.), The orienting reflex in humans (pp. 587–605). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  785. Raskin, D. C., & Honts, C. R. (2002). The Comparison Question Test. In M. Kleiner (Ed.), Handbook of polygraph testing (pp. 1–48). San Diego, CA: Academic.Google Scholar
  786. Raskin, D. C., Kotses, H., & Bever, J. (1969). Autonomic indicators of orienting and defensive reflexes. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 3, 423–433.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  787. Raskin, D. C., & Podlesny, J. A. (1979). Truth and deception: A reply to Lykken. Psychological Bulletin, 86, 54–59.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  788. Reeves, B., Lang, A., Kim, E. Y., & Tatar, D. (1999). The effects of screen size and message content on attention and arousal. Media Psychology, 1, 49–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  789. Rescorla, R. A. (1967). Pavlovian conditioning and its proper control procedures. Psychological Review, 74, 71–80.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  790. Rescorla, R. A. (1969). Pavlovian conditioned inhibition. Psychological Bulletin, 72, 77–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  791. Rescorla, R. A. (1988). Pavlovian conditioning: It’s not what you think it is. American Psychologist, 43, 151–160.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  792. Rice, D. G. (1966). Operant conditioning and associated electromyogram responses. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 71, 908–912.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  793. Richter, P., Wagner, T., Heger, R., & Weise, G. (1998). Psychophysiological analysis of mental load during driving on rural roads – A quasi-experimental field study. Ergonomics, 41, 593–609.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  794. Rickels, K. (1978). Use of antianxiety agents in anxious outpatients. Psychopharmacology, 58, 1–17.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  795. Ridgeway, D., & Hare, R. D. (1981). Sensation seeking and psychophysiological responses to auditory stimulation. Psychophysiology, 18, 613–618.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  796. Riley, L. H., & Richter, C. P. (1975). Uses of the electrical skin resistance method in the study of patients with neck and upper extremity pain. The Johns Hopkins Medical Journal, 137, 69–74.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  797. Rippon, G. (1990). Individual differences in electrodermal and electroencephalographic asymmetries. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 8, 309–320.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  798. Ritchie, B. H. (1953). The circumnavigation of cognition. Psychological Review, 60, 216–221.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  799. Rizzolatti, G., & Buchtel, H. A. (1977). Hemispheric superiority in reaction time to faces: A sex difference. Cortex, 13, 300–305.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  800. Roberts, L. E. (1974). Comparative psychophysiology of the electrodermal and cardiac control systems. In P. A. Obrist, A. H. Black, J. Brener, & L. V. DiCara (Eds.), Cardiovascular psychophysiology (pp. 163–189). Chicago: Aldine.Google Scholar
  801. Roberts, L. E. (1977). The role of exteroceptive feedback in learned electrodermal and cardiac control: Some attractions of and problems with discrimination theory. In J. Beatty & H. Legewie (Eds.), Biofeedback and behavior (pp. 261–280). New York: Plenum.Google Scholar
  802. Roberts, L. E., Lacroix, J. M., & Wright, M. (1974). Comparative studies of operant electrodermal and heart rate conditioning in curarized rats. In P. A. Obrist, A. H. Black, J. Brener, & L. V. DiCara (Eds.), Cardiovascular psychophysiology (pp. 332–352). Chicago: Aldine.Google Scholar
  803. Rodriguez, S., Fernandez, M. C., Cependa-Benito, A., & Vila, J. (2005). Subjective and physiological reactivity to chocolate images in high and low chocolate cravers. Biological Psychology, 70, 9–18.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  804. Roedema, T. M., & Simons, R. F. (1999). Emotion-processing deficit in alexithymia. Psychophysiology, 36, 279–387.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  805. Román, F., García-Sánchez, F. A., Martínez-Selva, J. M., Gómez-Amor, J., & Carrillo, E. E. (1989). Sex differences and bilateral electrodermal activity: A replication. The Pavlovian Journal of Biological Science, 24, 150–155.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  806. Rommelspacher, H. (1981). The beta-carbolines (harmanes): A new class of endogenous compounds: Their relevance for the pathogenesis and treatment of psychiatric and neurological diseases. Pharmacopsychiatry, 14, 117–125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  807. Rosenman, R. H., Friedman, M., Straus, R., Wurm, M., Jenkins, C. D., & Messinger, H. B. (1966). Coronary heart disease in the Western Collaborative Group Study. A follow-up experience of two years. Journal of the American Medical Association, 195, 130–136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  808. Rotenberg, V. S., & Vedenyapin, A. B. (1985). GSR as reflection of decision-making under conditions of delay. The Pavlovian Journal of Biological Science, 20, 11–14.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  809. Roth, W. T., Goodale, J., & Pfefferbaum, A. (1991). Auditory event-related potentials and electrodermal activity in medicated and unmedicated schizophrenics. Biological Psychiatry, 29, 585–599.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  810. Roth, W. T., Wilhelm, F. H., & Trabert, W. (1998). Autonomic instability during relaxation in panic disorder. Psychiatry Research, 80, 155–164.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  811. Routtenberg, A. (1968). The two-arousal hypothesis: Reticular formation and limbic system. Psychological Review, 75, 51–80.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  812. Routtenberg, A. (1971). Stimulus processing and response execution: A neurobehavioral theory. Physiology & Behavior, 6, 589–596.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  813. Roy, J.-C., Boucsein, W., Fowles, D. C., & Gruzelier, J. H. (1993). Progress in Electrodermal Research: From Physiology to Psychology. New York: Plenum.Google Scholar
  814. Roy, J.-C., Sequeira, H., & Delerm, B. (1993). Neural control of electrodermal activity: Spinal and reticular mechanisms. In J.-C. Roy, W. Boucsein, C. D. Fowles, & J. H. Gruzelier (Eds.), Progress in Electrodermal Research (pp. 73–92). New York: Plenum.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  815. Rubens, R., & Lapidus, L. B. (1978). Schizophrenic patterns of arousal and stimulus barrier functioning. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 87, 199–211.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  816. Rushby, J. A., & Barry, R. J. (2007). Event-related potential correlates of phasic and tonic measures of the orienting reflex. Biological Psychology, 75, 248–259.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  817. Rutenfranz, J. (1955). Zur Frage einer Tagesrhythmik des elektrischen Hautwiderstandes beim Menschen. Internationale Zeitschrift für angewandte Physiologie einschließlich Arbeitsphysiologie, 16, 152–172.Google Scholar
  818. Rutenfranz, J. (1958). Der Widerstand der Haut gegenüber schwachen elektrischen Strömen. Der Hautarzt, 9, 289–299.Google Scholar
  819. Rutenfranz, J., & Wenzel, H. G. (1958). Über quantitative Zusammenhänge zwischen Wasserabgabe, Wechselstromwiderstand und Kapazität der Haut bei körperlicher Arbeit und unter verschiedenen Raumtemperaturen. Internationale Zeitschrift für angewandte Physiologie einschließlich Arbeitsphysiologie, 17, 155–176.Google Scholar
  820. Saari, A., Tolonen, U., Pääkkö, E., Suominen, K., Pyhtinen, J., Sotaniemi, K. A., et al. (2008). Sympathetic skin responses in multiple sclerosis. Acta Neurologica Scandinavica, 118, 226–231.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  821. Salter, D. C. (1979). Quantifying skin disease and healing in vivo using electrical impedance measurements. In P. Rolfe (Ed.), Non-invasive physiological measurements (Vol. 1, pp. 21–64). London: Academic.Google Scholar
  822. Salzman, L. F., & Klein, R. H. (1978). Habituation and conditioning of electrodermal responses in high-risk children. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 4, 210–222.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  823. Sartory, G. (1983). The orienting response and psychopathology: Anxiety and phobias. In D. Siddle (Ed.), Orienting and habituation: Perspectives in human research (pp. 449–474). Chichester: Wiley.Google Scholar
  824. Satterfield, J. H., & Dawson, M. E. (1971). Electrodermal correlates of hyperactivity in children. Psychophysiology, 8, 191–197.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  825. Scarpa, A., & Raine, A. (1997). Psychophysiology of anger and violent behavior. The Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 20, 375–394.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  826. Scerbo, M. W., Freeman, F. G., & Mikulka, P. J. (2000). A biocybernetic system for adaptive automation. In R. W. Backs & W. Boucsein (Eds.), Engineering psychophysiology. Issues and applications (pp. 241–253). Mahwah, NY: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  827. Schachter, S., & Singer, J. E. (1962). Cognitive, social and physiological determinants of emotional state. Psychological Review, 69, 379–399.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  828. Schaefer, F., Kuhmann, W., Boucsein, W., & Alexander, J. (1986). Beanspruchung durch Bildschirmtätigkeit bei experimentell variierten Systemresponsezeiten. Zeitschrift für Arbeitswissenschaft, 40(12 NF), 31–38.Google Scholar
  829. Schaefer, F., Schäfer, R., & Boucsein, W. (2000). Auswirkungen von Prozesslaufzeit und Prozessindikatoren beim Multi-Tasking auf Arbeitsstrategie und Beanspruchung des Benutzers. Zeitschrift für Arbeitswissenschaft, 54, 267–275.Google Scholar
  830. Schandry, R. (1978). Habituation psychophysiologischer Größen in Abhängigkeit von der Reizintensität. München: Minerva.Google Scholar
  831. Schell, A. M., Dawson, M. E., & Filion, D. I. (1988). Psychophysiological correlates of electrodermal lability. Psychophysiology, 25, 619–632.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  832. Schell, A. M., Dawson, M. E., Nuechterlein, K. H., Subotnik, K. L., & Ventura, J. (2002). The temporal stability of electrodermal variables over a one-year period in patients with recent-onset schizophrenia and in normal subjects. Psychophysiology, 39, 124–132.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  833. Schell, A. M., Dawson, M. E., Rissling, A., Ventura, J., Subotnik, K. L., Gitlin, M. J., et al. (2005). Electrodermal predictors of functional outcome and negative symptoms in schizophrenia. Psychophysiology, 42, 483–492.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  834. Schiffmann, K., & Furedy, J. J. (1972). Failures of contingency and cognitive factors to affect long-interval differential Pavlovian autonomic conditioning. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 96, 215–218.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  835. Schliack, H., & Schiffter, R. (1979). Neurophysiologie und Pathophysiologie der Schweißsekretion. In E. Schwarz, H. W. Spier, & G. Stüttgen (Eds.), Handbuch der Haut – und Geschlechtskrankheite (1/4A, Vol. Normale und pathologische Physiologie der Haut II, pp. 349–458). Berlin: Springer.Google Scholar
  836. Schmidt, S., Schneider, R., Binder, M., Bürkle, D., & Walach, H. (2001). Investigating methodological issues in EDA-DMILS: Results from a pilot study. The Journal of Parapsychology, 65, 59–82.Google Scholar
  837. Schmidt, S., & Walach, H. (2000). Electrodermal activity (EDA) – State-of-the-art measurement and techniques for parapsychological purposes. The Journal of Parapsychology, 64, 139–164.Google Scholar
  838. Schnur, D. B., Bernstein, A. S., Mukherjee, S., Loh, J., Degreef, G., & Reidel, J. (1989). The autonomic orienting response and CT scan findings in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research, 2, 449–455.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  839. Schulter, G., & Papousek, I. (1992). Bilateral electrodermal activity: Reliability, laterality and individual differences. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 13, 199–213.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  840. Schulter, G., & Papousek, I. (1998). Bilateral electrodermal activity: Relationsships to state and trait characteristics of hemisphere asymmetry. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 31, 1–12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  841. Schuri, U., & von Cramon, D. (1979). Autonomic responses to meaningful and non-meaningful auditory stimuli in coma. Archiv für Psychiatrie und Nervenkrankheiten, 227, 143–149.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  842. Schuri, U., & von Cramon, D. (1980). Autonomic and behavioral responses in coma due to drug overdose. Psychophysiology, 17, 253–258.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  843. Schuri, U., & von Cramon, D. (1981). Electrodermal responses to auditory stimuli with different significance in neurological patients. Psychophysiology, 18, 248–251.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  844. Schuri, U., & von Cramon, D. (1982). Electrodermal response patterns in neurological patients with disturbed vigilance. Behavioural Brain Research, 4, 95–102.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  845. Schwalen, S., Altermann, A., Jörg, J., Berg, K., & Cramer, B. M. (1996). Bilateral suppression of the sympathetic nervous system in hemispheric brain infarction. Journal of Neurology, 243, 157–160.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  846. Schwartz, G. E. (1986). Emotion and psychophysiological organization: A systems approach. In M. G. H. Coles, E. Donchin, & S. W. Porges (Eds.), Psychophysiology: Systems, processes, and applications (pp. 354–377). Amsterdam: Elsevier.Google Scholar
  847. Schwartz, G. E., & Shapiro, D. (1973). Social Psychophysiology. In W. F. Prokasy & D. C. Raskin (Eds.), Electrodermal activity in psychological research (pp. 377–416). New York: Academic.Google Scholar
  848. Segal, E. M., & Lachman, R. (1972). Complex behavior or higher mental process: Is there a paradigm shift? American Psychologist, 27, 45–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  849. Seligman, M. E. P. (1969). Control group and conditioning: A comment on operationism. Psychological Review, 76, 484–491.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  850. Seligman, M. E. P. (1971). Phobias and preparedness. Behavior Therapy, 2, 307–320.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  851. Seligman, L. (1975). Skin potential as an indicator of emotion. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 22, 489–493.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  852. Selye, H. (1976). The stress of life. New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  853. Sequeira, H., Hot, P., Silvert, L., & Delplanque, S. (2009). Electrical autonomic correlates of emotion. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 71, 50–56.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  854. Shahani, B., Halperin, J. J., Boulu, P., & Cohen, J. (1984). Sympathetic skin response – a method of assessing unmyelinated axon dysfunction in peripheral neuropathies. Journal of Neurology, 47, 536–542.Google Scholar
  855. Shapiro, D. (1977). A monologue on biofeedback and psychophysiology. Psychophysiology, 14, 213–227.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  856. Sharpless, D., & Jasper, H. (1956). Habituation of the arousal reaction. Brain, 79, 655–681.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  857. Shneiderman, B. (1992). Response time and display rate. In B. Shneiderman (Ed.), Designing the user interface (pp. 277–301). Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.Google Scholar
  858. Siddle, D. A. T. (1972). Vigilance decrement and speed of habituation of the GSR component of the orienting response. British Journal of Psychology, 63, 191–194.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  859. Siddle, D. A. T. (1977). Electrodermal activity and psychopathy. In S. A. Mednick & K. O. Christiansen (Eds.), Biosocial bases of criminal behavior (pp. 199–211). New York: Gardener.Google Scholar
  860. Siddle, D. (Ed.). (1983). Orienting and habituation: Perspectives in human research. Chichester: Wiley.Google Scholar
  861. Siddle, D. A. T. (1985). Effects of stimulus omission and stimulus change on dishabituation of the skin conductance response. Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 11, 206–216.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  862. Siddle, D. A. T. (1991). Orienting, habituation, and resource allocation: An associative analysis. Psychophysiology, 28, 245–259.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  863. Siddle, D. A. T., & Heron, P. A. (1976). Reliability of electrodermal habituation measures under two conditions of stimulus intensity. Journal of Research in Personality, 10, 195–200.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  864. Siddle, D. A. T., Lipp, O. V., & Dall, P. J. (1996). Effects of intermodality change and number of training trials on electodermal orienting and on the allocation of processing resources. Biological Psychology, 43, 57–67.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  865. Siddle, D. A. T., O’Gorman, J. G., & Wood, L. (1979). Effects of electrodermal lability and stimulus significance on electrodermal response amplitude to stimulus change. Psychophysiology, 16, 520–527.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  866. Siddle, D. A. T., & Packer, J. (1987). Stimulus omission and dishabituation of the electrodermal orienting response: The allocation of processing resources. Psychophysiology, 24, 181–190.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  867. Siddle, D. A. T., & Remington, B. (1987). Latent inhibition and human Pavlovian conditioning: Research and relevance. In G. Davey (Ed.), Conditioning in humans (pp. 115–146). Chichester: Wiley.Google Scholar
  868. Siddle, D. A. T., Remington, B., Kuiack, M., & Haines, E. (1983). Stimulus omission and dishabituation of the skin conductance response. Psychophysiology, 20, 136–145.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  869. Siddle, D., Stephenson, D., & Spinks, J. A. (1983). Elicitation and habituation of the orienting response. In D. Siddle (Ed.), Orienting and habituation: Perspectives in human research (pp. 109–182). Chichester: Wiley.Google Scholar
  870. Siddle, D. A. T., Turpin, G., Spinks, J. A., & Stephenson, D. (1980). Peripheral measures. In H. M. van Praag, M. H. Lader, O. J. Rafaelsen, & E. J. Sachar (Eds.), Handbook of biological psychiatry: Part 2. Brain mechanisms and abnormal behavior – Psychophysiology (pp. 45–78). New York: Dekker.Google Scholar
  871. Silverman, A. J., Cohen, S. I., & Shmavonian, B. M. (1959). Investigation of psychophysiological relationships with skin resistance measures. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 4, 65–87.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  872. Silvert, L., Delplanque, S., Bouwalerh, H., Verpoort, C., & Sequeira, H. (2004). Autonomic responding to aversive words without conscious valence discrimination. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 53, 135–145.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  873. Silvestrini, N., & Gendolla, G. H. E. (2007). Mood effects on autonomic activity in mood regulation. Psychophysiology, 44, 650–659.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  874. Simons, R. F., Detenber, B. H., Roedema, T. M., & Reiss, J. E. (1999). Emotion processing in three systems: The medium and the message. Psychophysiology, 36, 619–627.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  875. Siniatchkin, M., Gerber, W.-D., Kropp, P., Voznesenskaya, T., & Vein, A. M. (2000). Are the periodic changes of neurophysiological parameters during the pain-free interval in migraine related to abnormal orienting activity? Cephalalgia, 20, 20–29.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  876. Smith, B. D., Gatchel, R. J., Korman, M., & Satter, S. (1979). EEG and autonomic responding to verbal, spatial and emotionally arousing tasks: Differences among adults, adolescents and inhalant abusers. Biological Psychology, 9, 189–200.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  877. Smith, B. D., Ketterer, M. W., & Concannon, M. (1981). Bilateral electrodermal activity as a function of hemispheric stimulation, hand preference, sex, and familial handedness. Biological Psychology, 12, 1–11.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  878. Smith, B. D., Kline, R., & Meyers, M. (1990). The differential hemisphere processing of emotion: A comparative analysis in strongly-lateralized sinistrals and dextrals. International Journal of Neuroscience, 50, 59–71.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  879. Smith, B. D., Perlstein, W. M., Davidson, R. A., & Michael, K. (1986). Sensation seeking: Differential effects of relevant, novel stimulation on electrodermal activity. Personality and Individual Differences, 7, 445–452.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  880. Smith, B. D., Wilson, R. J., & Jones, B. E. (1983). Extraversion and multiple levels of caffeine-induced arousal: Effects on overhabituation and dishabituation. Psychophysiology, 20, 29–34.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  881. Sokolov, E. N. (1960). Neuronal models in the orienting reflex. In M. A. Brazier (Ed.), The central nervous system and behavior (pp. 187–275). New York: Macy Foundation.Google Scholar
  882. Sokolov, E. N. (1963a). Higher nervous functions: The orienting reflex. Annual Review of Physiology, 25, 545–580.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  883. Sokolov, E. N. (1963b). Perception and the conditioned reflex. Oxford: Pergamon.Google Scholar
  884. Sokolov, E. N. (1966). Orienting reflex as information regulator. In A. N. Leontiev, A. R. Luria, E. N. Sokolov, & O. S. Vinogradova (Eds.), Psychological research in the USSR (Vol. 1, pp. 334–359). Moscow: Progress.Google Scholar
  885. Sokolov, E. N., & Boucsein, W. (2000). A psychophysiological model of emotion space. Integrative Physiological and Behavioral Science, 35, 81–119.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  886. Solanto, M. V., & Katkin, E. S. (1979). Classical EDR conditioning using a truly random control and subjects differing in electrodermal lability level. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society, 14, 49–52.Google Scholar
  887. Solomon, K., & Hart, R. (1978). Pitfalls and prospects in clinical research on antianxiety drugs: Benzodiazepines and placebo: A research review. The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 39, 823–831.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  888. Sorgatz, H. (1978). Components of skin impedance level. Biological Psychology, 6, 121–125.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  889. Sorgatz, H., & Pufe, P. (1978). Die differentielle Reagibilität der elektrodermalen Aktivität für aversive Reize. Zeitschrift für Experimentelle und Angewandte Psychologie, 3, 465–473.Google Scholar
  890. Sosnowski, T. (1988). Patterns of skin conductance and heart rate changes under anticipatory stress conditions. Journal of Psychophysiology, 2, 231–238.Google Scholar
  891. Sosnowski, T., Nurzynska, M., & Polec, M. (1991). Active-passive coping and skin conductance and heart rate changes. Psychophysiology, 28, 665–672.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  892. Sostek, A. J. (1978). Effects of electrodermal lability and payoff instructions on vigilance performance. Psychophysiology, 15, 561–568.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  893. Spence, K. W., Haggard, D. F., & Ross, L. E. (1958). UCS intensity and the associative (habit) strength of the eyelid CR. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 55, 404–411.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  894. Spielberger, C. D. (1983). Manual for the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologist.Google Scholar
  895. Spinks, J. A. (1977). Information and the orientating response. Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, University of Southampton, SouthamptonGoogle Scholar
  896. Spinks, J. A., Blowers, G. H., & Shek, D. T. L. (1985). The role of the orienting response in the anticipation of information: A skin conductance response study. Psychophysiology, 22, 385–394.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  897. Spinks, J. A., & Siddle, D. (1983). The functional significance of the orienting response. In D. Siddle (Ed.), Orienting and habituation: Perspectives in human research (pp. 237–314). Chichester: Wiley.Google Scholar
  898. Spohn, H. E., & Patterson, T. (1979). Recent studies of psychophysiology in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 5, 581–611.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  899. Spohn, H. E., Thetford, P. E., & Cancro, R. (1971). The effects of phenothiazine medication on skin conductance and heart rate in schizophrenic patients. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 152, 129–139.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  900. Sponheim, S. R., Allen, J. J., & Iacono, W. G. (1995). Selected psychophysiological measures in depression: The significance of electrodermal Activity, electroencephalographic asymmetries, and contingent negative variation to behavioral and neurobiological aspects of depression. In G. A. Miller (Ed.), The behavioral high risk paradigm in psychopathology (pp. 222–249). New York: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  901. Springer, S. P. (1977). Tachistoscopic and dichotic listening investigations of laterality in normal human subjects. In S. Harnad, R. W. Doty, L. Goldstein, J. Jaynes, & G. Krauthamer (Eds.), Lateralization in the nervous system (pp. 325–336). New York: Academic.Google Scholar
  902. Springer, S. P., & Deutsch, G. (1981). Left brain, right brain. San Francisco: Freeman.Google Scholar
  903. Springer, J., Müller, T., Langner, T., Luczak, H., & Beitz, W. (1990). Stress and strain caused by CAD-work – Results of a laboratory study. In L. Berlinguet & D. Berthelette (Eds.), Work with Display Units 1989 (pp. 231–238). Amsterdam: Elsevier.Google Scholar
  904. Squires, R. F., & Braestrup, C. (1977). Benzodiazepine receptors in rat brain. Nature, 266, 732–734.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  905. Steinberg, E. P., & Schwartz, G. E. (1976). Biofeedback and electrodermal self-regulation in psychopathy. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 85, 408–415.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  906. Stellar, J. R., & Stellar, E. (1985). The neurobiology of motivation and reward. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  907. Steller, M. (1987). Psychophysiologische Aussagebeurteilung. Wissenschaftliche Grundlagen und Anwendungsmöglichkeiten der “Lügendetektion.”. Göttingen: Hogrefe.Google Scholar
  908. Stelmack, R. M. (1981). The psychophysiology of extraversion and neuroticism. In H. J. Eysenck (Ed.), A model for personality (pp. 38–64). New York: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  909. Stelmack, R. M., Plouffe, L., & Falkenberg, W. (1983). Extraversion, sensation seeking and electrodermal response: Probing a paradox. Personality and Individual Differences, 4, 607–614.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  910. Stelmack, R. M., Plouffe, L. M., & Winogron, H. W. (1983). Recognition memory and the orienting response: An analysis of the encoding of pictures and words. Biological Psychology, 16, 49–63.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  911. Stemmler, G. (1984). Psychophysiologische Emotionsmuster. Frankfurt: Peter Lang.Google Scholar
  912. Stemmler, G. (1989). The autonomic differentiation of emotions revisited: Convergent and discriminant validation. Psychophysiology, 26, 617–631.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  913. Stemmler, G. (2002). Methodological considerations in the psychophysiological study of emotion. In R. J. Davidson, H. H. Goldsmith, & K. R. Scherer (Eds.), Handbook of affective science (pp. 225–255). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  914. Stephenson, D., & Siddle, D. A. T. (1976). Effects of “below-zero” habituation on the electrodermal orienting response to a test stimulus. Psychophysiology, 13, 10–15.PubMed