Ontogeny of Anatomical Mechanical Advantage of the Biceps Brachii Muscle in Macaques

  • Connie D. Fellmann
Part of the Developments in Primatology: Progress and Prospects book series (DIPR)


Compared to adults, young primates experience a unique set of social and ecological pressures. Specifi cally, young primates tend to be slower, weaker, and less agile than adults due to smaller muscle mass and lack of complete integration between their central nervous and motor systems (Bradley and Bekoff 1989 ; Thelen 1989 ; Stehouwer 1992 ; Assaiante and Amblard 1993 ; Carrier 1996 ). These limitations can increase juvenile risk, defi ned as the ecological risk of death in individuals between weaning and sexual maturity (Janson and van Schaik 1993 ). Such risk can occur from predators which target younger weaker animals and adult conspecifi cs that displace juveniles from or more quickly secure prime feeding locals.


Japanese Macaque Joint Moment Mechanical Advantage Biceps Brachii Muscle Positive Allometry 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



I am grateful to Dr. Donald Dunbar and Ms. Terry Kensler of the Caribbean Primate Research Center for access to the Cayo Santiago skeletal collection and Dr. Yuzuru Hamada of the Kyoto University Primate Research Center for access to its collections. I am thankful to two anonymous reviewers who provided thoughtful and constructive comments greatly improving this manuscript. Dr. Susan C. Antón provided invaluable support, advice, and feedback throughout every stage of this project for which I am eternally grateful. Dr. Jesse W. Young provided statistical advice and feedback. I would also like to thank Dr. Qian Wang for the invitation to present this work at the 2009 AAPA meetings and contribute to this manuscript. Funding for this project was provided by NYU’s Center for the Study of Human Origins, NSF # 0333415 (NYCEP IGERT), the Caribbean Primate Research Center, University of Puerto Rico, and the National Institutes of Health Grant P40 RR003640 to the Caribbean Primate Research Center.


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Anatomy and NeurobiologyNortheastern Ohio Universities Colleges of Medicine and Pharmacy (NEOUCOM)RootstownUSA

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