Mechanisms of Hyperglycemic Damage in Diabetes

  • Ferdinando Giacco
  • Michael Brownlee


All forms of diabetes are characterized by hyperglycemia, a relative or absolute lack of insulin action, and the development of diabetes-specific pathology in the retina, renal glomerulus, and peripheral nerve. Diabetes is also associated with accelerated atherosclerotic disease, which affects arteries that supply the heart, brain, and lower extremities. As a consequence of its disease-specific pathology, in the developed world diabetes mellitus is now the leading cause of new blindness in working-age people and the leading cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD). More than 60% of diabetic patients are affected by neuropathy, which includes distal symmetrical polyneuropathy (DSPN), mononeuropathies, and a variety of autonomic neuropathies that cause erectile dysfunction, urinary incontinence, gastroparesis, and nocturnal diarrhea. Diabetic accelerated lower extremity arterial disease in conjunction with neuropathy accounts for more than 50% of all nontraumatic amputations in the USA [1].


Urinary Incontinence Erectile Dysfunction Autonomic Neuropathy Microvascular Complication Target Organ Damage 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Diabetes Research CenterAlbert Einstein College of MedicineBronxUSA
  2. 2.Departments of Medicine and PathologyDiabetes Research Center, Albert Einstein College of MedicineBronxUSA

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