Introducing Diversity and Uncertainty to Create Moving Attack Surfaces for Web Services

  • Yih HuangEmail author
  • Anup K. Ghosh
Part of the Advances in Information Security book series (ADIS, volume 54)


Web servers are primary targets for cyber attack because of the documents they may contain, transactions they support, or the opportunity to cause brand damage or reputational embarrassment to the victim organization. Today most web services are implemented by employing a fixed software stack that includes a web server program, web application programs, an operating system, and a virtualization layer. This software mix as a whole constitutes the attack surface of the web service and a vulnerability in one of the components that make up the web service is a potential threat to the entire service. This chapter presents an approach that employs a rotational scheme for substituting different software stacks for any given request in order to create a dynamic and uncertain attack surface area of the system. In particular, our approach automatically creates a set of diverse virtual servers (VSs), each configured with a unique software mix, producing diversified attack surfaces. Our approach includes a rotational scheme with a set of diversified offline servers rotating in to replace a set of diversified online servers on either a fixed rotation schedule or an event-driven basis. Assuming N different VSs, M < N of them will serve online at a time while off-line VSs are reverted to predefined pristine state. By constantly changing the set of M online VSs and introducing randomness in their selections, attackers will face multiple, constantly changing, and unpredictable attack surfaces.


Virtual Machine Intrusion Detection System Virtualization Technology Virtual Server Mongrel Cluster 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Center for Secure Information SystemsGeorge Mason UniversityFairfaxUSA

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