Traumatic Cranial Neuropathies

  • Ann P. MurchisonEmail author
  • Jurij R. Bilyk
  • Peter J. Savino


Many patients who sustain head trauma may have associated orbital injuries that necessitate a thorough, systematic ophthalmic evaluation. In patients with recent cranial injury, bedside testing may be difficult and limited. At times, the pupillary examination, forced duction testing, anterior segment examination, and direct ophthalmoscopy are all that are initially feasible. This information, along with imaging studies, guides much of the early treatment of head injury patients. Motor vehicle accidents are the most common cause of head trauma, and cranial nerve injuries occur in approximately 13% of these patients [1]. This chapter will discuss the diagnosis and management of traumatic injury to the optic nerve and the motor nerves of the orbit. Discussion of trigeminal and facial nerve injury is found in other chapters.


Traumatic Brain Injury Optic Nerve Optic Nerve Head Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Optic Canal 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ann P. Murchison
    • 1
    Email author
  • Jurij R. Bilyk
    • 1
  • Peter J. Savino
    • 2
  1. 1.Oculoplastic and Orbital Surgery Service, Wills Eye InstituteJefferson Medical CollegePhiladelphiaUSA
  2. 2.Department of OphthalmologyUniversity of CaliforniaLa JollaUSA

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