Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy for Conjunctival and Eyelid Tumors

  • Aaron Savar
  • Bita EsmaeliEmail author


Sentinel lymph node biopsy for tumors of the conjunctiva and eyelid is feasible and relatively safe and can identify microscopic regional lymph node disease before metastatic disease becomes clinically apparent. Clinical bullets (sentinel lymph node biopsy, eyelid carcinomas, eyelid melanomas, conjunctival melanoma, microscopic metastasis in lymph nodes)


Sentinel Lymph Node Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy Merkel Cell Carcinoma Regional Lymph Node Metastasis Positive Sentinel Lymph Node 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. 1.
    Morton DL, Wen DR, Wong JH, et al. Technical details of intraoperative lymphatic mapping for early stage melanoma. Arch Surg. 1992;127(4):392–29.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Krag DN, Weaver DL, Alex JC, Fairbank JT. Surgical resection and radiolocalization of the sentinel lymph node in breast cancer using a gamma probe. Surg Oncol. 1993;2(6):335–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Balch CM, Morton DL, Gershenwald JE, et al. Sentinel node biopsy and standard of care for melanoma. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2009;60(5):872–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Thomas JM. Prognostic false-positivity of the sentinel node in melanoma. Nat Clin Pract Oncol. 2008;5(1):18–23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Morton DL, Thompson JF, Cochran AJ, et al. Sentinel-node biopsy or nodal observation in melanoma. N Engl J Med. 2006;355(13):1307–17.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Wilson MW, Fleming JC, Fleming RM, Haik BG. Sentinel node biopsy for orbital and ocular adnexal tumors. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg. 2001;17(5):338–44.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Esmaeli B, Eicher S, Popp J, et al. Sentinel lymph node biopsy for conjunctival melanoma. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg. 2001;17(6):436–42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Esmaeli B. Sentinel lymph node mapping for patients with cutaneous and conjunctival malignant melanoma. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg. 2000;16(3):170–2.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Esmaeli B. Sentinel node biopsy as a tool for accurate staging of eyelid and conjunctival malignancies. Curr Opin Ophthalmol. 2002;13(5):317–23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Esmaeli B. Advances in the management of malignant eyelid tumors: the role of sentinel node biopsy. Int Ophthalmol Clin. 2002;42(2):151–62.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Ho VH, Ross MI, Prieto VG, et al. Sentinel lymph node biopsy for sebaceous cell carcinoma and melanoma of the ocular adnexa. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2007;133(8):820–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Savar A, Ross MI, Prieto VG, et al. Sentinel lymph node biopsy for ocular adnexal melanoma: experience in 30 patients. Ophthalmology. 2009;116(11):2217–23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Esmaeli B, Naderi A, Hidaji L, et al. Merkel cell carcinoma of the eyelid with a positive sentinel node. Arch Ophthalmol. 2002;120(5):646–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Savar A, Oellers P, Myers J, Prieto VG, Torres-Cabala C, Frank SJ, Ivan D, Esmaeli B. Positive sentinel node in sebaceous carcinoma of the eyelid. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg. 2011;27(1):e4–6.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Amato M, Esmaeli B, Ahmadi MA, et al. Feasibility of preoperative lymphoscintigraphy for identification of sentinel lymph nodes in patients with conjunctival and periocular skin malignancies. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg. 2003;19:102–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Nijhawan N, Ross MI, Diba R, Ahmadi MA, Esmaeli B. Experience with sentinel lymph node biopsy for eyelid and conjunctival malignancies at a cancer center. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg. 2004;20(4):291–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Agnese DM, Maupin R, Tillman B, Pozderac RD, Magro C, Walker MJ. Head and neck melanoma in the sentinel lymph node era. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2007;133(11):1121–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Gomez-Rivera F, Santillan A, McMurphey AB, Paraskevopoulos G, Roberts DB, Prieto VG, et al. Sentinel node biopsy in patients with cutaneous melanoma of the head and neck: recurrence and survival study. Head Neck. 2008;30(10):1284–94.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Esmaeli B, Wang X, Youssef A, Gershenwald JE. Patterns of regional and distant metastasis in patients with conjunctival melanoma: experience at a cancer center over four decades. Ophthalmology. 2001;108(11):2101–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Esmaeli B, Reifler D, Prieto VG, et al. Conjunctival melanoma with a positive sentinel lymph node. Arch Ophthalmol. 2003;121(12):1779–83.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Prieto VG, Clark SH. Processing of sentinel lymph nodes for detection of metastatic melanoma. Ann Diagn Pathol. 2002;6(4):257–64.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Henk JM, Whitelocke RA, Warrington AP, et al. Radiation dose to the lens and cataract formation. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 1993;25:815–20.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Law M, Chow LW, Kwong A, Lam CK. Sentinel lymph node technique for breast cancer: radiation safety issues. Semin Oncol. 2004;31(3):298–303.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Tuomaala S, Kivelä T. Metastatic pattern and survival in disseminated conjunctival melanoma: implications for sentinel lymph node biopsy. Ophthalmology. 2004;111(4):816–21.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Savar A, Esmaeli B, Ho H, Liu S, Prieto VG. Conjunctival melanoma: local-regional control rates, and impact of high-risk histopathologic features. J Cutan Pathol. 2011;38:18–24.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Mehrany K, Otley CC, Weenig RH, et al. A meta-analysis of the prognostic significance of sentinel lymph node status in Merkel cell carcinoma. Dermatol Surg. 2002;28(2):113–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Ruan JH, Reeves M. A Merkel cell carcinoma treatment algorithm. Arch Surg. 2009;144(6):582–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Vera DR, Wallace AM, Hoh CK, Mattrey RF. A synthetic macromolecule for sentinel node detection: (99 m)Tc-DTPA-mannosyl-dextran. J Nucl Med. 2001;42(6):951–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Wallace AM, Hoh CK, Ellner SJ, et al. Lymphoseek: a molecular imaging agent for melanoma sentinel lymph node mapping. Ann Surg Oncol. 2007;14(2):913–21.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Wallace AM, Hoh CK, Darrah DD, et al. Sentinel lymph node mapping of breast cancer via intradermal administration of Lymphoseek. Nucl Med Biol. 2007;34(7):849–53.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Section of Ophthalmology, Department of Head and Neck SurgeryThe University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer CenterHoustonUSA

Personalised recommendations