Acquired Ptosis: Classification and Evaluation

  • John D. SiddensEmail author
  • Sonya D. Mitchell
  • Geoffrey J. Gladstone


Blepharoptosis is a unilateral or bilateral droop of the upper eyelid with the patient’s head in the fully upright position and eyes in primary gaze. Patients often seek medical attention because of visual obstruction or cosmetic deformity caused by ptotic lids. Ptosis is often recognized by friends or family, but some cases may be seen only by a physician. Ptosis may be an isolated condition, or it may occur from a number of different causes.


Levator Muscle Eyelid Margin Chronic Progressive External Ophthalmoplegia Tarsal Plate Ophthalmoplegic Migraine 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • John D. Siddens
    • 1
    Email author
  • Sonya D. Mitchell
    • 2
  • Geoffrey J. Gladstone
    • 3
    • 4
    • 5
  1. 1.UMG Plastic SurgeryGreenville Hospital SystemGreenvilleUSA
  2. 2.Bassin Center for Facial Plastic SurgeryMelbourneUSA
  3. 3.Oakland University William Beaumont School of MedicineRoyal OakUSA
  4. 4.Department of Ophthalmology, Kresge Eye InstituteWayne State University School of MedicineDetroitUSA
  5. 5.Consultants in Ophthalmic & Facial Plastic Surgery, P.CSouthfieldUSA

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