Congenital Ptosis

  • Michael A. CallahanEmail author


The pathologic basis of congenital ptosis is a deficiency of striated muscle fibers [1, 24], with the degree of the deficiency proportional to the severity of the ptosis. This decrease in size and number of fibers causes an inability of the muscle to contract sufficiently to elevate the eyelid to its normal level in primary gaze and also to relax inadequately, resulting in eyelid lag on downgaze. In a classic study Berke and Wadsworth [1] found Müller’s superior tarsal muscle to be histologically normal in all congenital ptosis specimens in contrast to the levator muscle.


Eyelid Margin Frontal Muscle Bilateral Ptosis Orbital Septum Levator Function 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.UABCallahan Eye Foundation HospitalBirminghamUSA

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