Ptosis in Neurologic Disease

  • Ann P. MurchisonEmail author
  • Jurij R. Bilyk
  • Peter J. Savino


“Ptosis,” derived from the Greek word “fall,” is the abnormal lowering or prolapse of a structure; blepharoptosis refers to a lowering of the upper eyelid [1]. The normal position of the upper eyelid is dependent on the gender and ethnicity of each individual [2, 3]. The true frequency of ptosis and its particular subtypes is not known. A recent review of 484 cases of ptosis repair, excluding pseudoptosis, cited myogenic as the most common subgroup (42%), followed closely by aponeurotic (35.3%), and then “mixed” (15.9%). Neurogenic etiologies made up a minority of cases (6.8%) [4].


Obstructive Sleep Apnea Cluster Headache Oculomotor Nerve Horner Syndrome Chronic Progressive External Ophthalmoplegia 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. 1.
    The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language. 4th ed. Boston: Houghton Mifflin; 2000.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Murchison AP, Sires BA, Jian-Amadi A. Margin reflex distance in different ethnic groups. Arch Facial Plast Surg. 2009;11(5):303–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Price KM, Gupta PK, Woodward JA, et al. Eyebrow and eyelid dimensions: an anthropometric analysis of African Americans and Caucasians. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2009;124(2):615–23.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Baggio E, Ruban JM, Boizard Y. Etiologic causes of ptosis about a serie of 484 cases. To a new classification? J Fr Ophthalmol. 2002;25(10):1015–20.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Nerad J. Evaluation and treatment of the patient with ptosis. In: Krachner JH, editor. Oculoplastic surgery the requisites in ophthalmology. St. Louis: Mosby; 2001.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Putman JR, Nunery WR, Tanenbaum M, McCord Jr CD. Blepharoptosis. In: McCord Jr CD, Tanebaum M, Nunery WR, editors. Oculoplastic surgery. New York: Raven Press; 1995.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Lam BL, Thompson HS, Corbett JJ. The prevalence of simple anisocoria. Am J Ophthalmol. 1987;104(1):69–73.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Moeller JJ, Maxner CE. The dilated pupil: an update. Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep. 2007;7(5):417–22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Bartley GB. The epidemiologic characteristics and clinical course of ophthalmopathy associated with autoimmune thyroid disease in Olmsted County, Minnesota. Trans Am Ophthalmol Soc. 1994;92:477–588.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Bartley GB. The differential diagnosis and classification of eyelid retraction. Ophthalmology. 1996;103(1):168–76.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Chang EL, Rubin PA. Upper and lower eyelid retraction. Int Ophthalmol Clin. 2002;42(2):45–59.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Bartley GB, Fatourechi V, Kadrmas EF, et al. Chronology of Graves’ ophthalmopathy in an incidence cohort. Am J Ophthalmol. 1996;121(4):426–34.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Rubin PA, Rumelt S. Functional indications for enophthalmos repair. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg. 1999;15(4):284–92.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Cline RA, Rootman J. Enophthalmos: a clinical review. Ophthalmology. 1984;91(3):229–37.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Mattacks CA, Pond CM. The effects of dietary restriction and exercise on the volume of adipocytes in two intra-orbital depots in the guinea-pig. Br J Nutr. 1985;53(2):207–13.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Athanasiov PA, Prabhakaran VC, Selva D. Non-traumatic enophthalmos: a review. Acta Ophthalmol. 2008;86(4):356–64.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Shields CL, Stopyra GA, Marr BP, et al. Enophthalmos as initial manifestation of occult, mammogram-negative carcinoma of the breast. Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging. 2004;35(1):56–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Goldberg RA, Rootman J. Clinical characteristics of metastatic orbital tumors. Ophthalmology. 1990;97(5):620–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Soparkar CN, Patrinely JR, Cuaycong MJ, et al. The silent sinus syndrome. A cause of spontaneous enophthalmos. Ophthalmology. 1994;101(4):772–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Ficker LA, Collin JR, Lee JP. Management of ipsilateral ptosis with hypotropia. Br J Ophthalmol. 1986;70(10):732–6.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Hallett M, Evinger C, Jankovic J, Stacy M. Update on blepharospasm: report from the BEBRF international workshop. Neurology. 2008;71(16):1275–82.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Frueh BR, Musch DC. Treatment of facial spasm with botulinum toxin. An interim report. Ophthalmology. 1986;93(7):917–23.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Etgen T, Muhlau M, Gaser C, Sander D. Bilateral grey-matter increase in the putamen in primary blepharospasm. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2006;77(9):1017–20.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Obermann M, Yaldizli O, De Greiff A, et al. Morphometric changes of sensorimotor structures in focal dystonia. Mov Disord. 2007;22(8):1117–23.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Colosimo C, Pantano P, Calistri V, et al. Diffusion tensor imaging in primary cervical dystonia. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2005;76(11):1591–3.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Kerrison JB, Lancaster JL, Zamarripa FE, et al. Positron emission tomography scanning in essential blepharospasm. Am J Ophthalmol. 2003;136(5):846–52.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Suzuki Y, Mizoguchi S, Kiyosawa M, et al. Glucose hypermetabolism in the thalamus of patients with essential blepharospasm. J Neurol. 2007;254(7):890–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Nakashima K, Kusumi M, Inoue Y, Takahashi K. Prevalence of focal dystonias in the western area of Tottori Prefecture in Japan. Mov Disord. 1995;10(4):440–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Nutt JG, Muenter MD, Aronson A, et al. Epidemiology of focal and generalized dystonia in Rochester, Minnesota. Mov Disord. 1988;3(3):188–94.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Epidemiological Study of Dystonia in Europe (ESDE) Collaborative Group. A prevalence study of primary dystonia in eight European countries. J Neurol. 2000;247(10):787–92.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Epidemiologic Study of Dystonia in Europe (ESDE) Collaborative Group. Sex-related influences on the frequency and age of onset of primary dystonia. Neurology. 1999;53(8):1871–3.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Defazio G, Berardelli A, Abbruzzese G, et al. Possible risk factors for primary adult onset dystonia: a case-control investigation by the Italian movement disorders study group. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1998;64(1):25–32.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Hallett M, Daroff RB. Blepharospasm: report of a workshop. Neurology. 1996;46(5):1213–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Defazio G, Martino D, Aniello MS, et al. A family study on primary blepharospasm. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2006;77(2):252–4.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Seiff SR, Zwick OM. Botulinum toxin management of upper facial rhytidosis and blepharospasm. Otolaryngol Clin North Am. 2005;38(5):887–902.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Defazio G, Berardelli A, Abbruzzese G, et al. Risk factors for spread of primary adult onset blepharospasm: a multicentre investigation of the Italian movement disorders study group. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1999;67(5):613–9.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Kanazawa M, Shimohata T, Sato M, et al. Botulinum toxin A injections improve apraxia of eyelid opening without overt blepharospasm associated with neurodegenerative diseases. Mov Disord. 2007;22(4):597–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Lamberti P, De Mari M, Zenzola A, et al. Frequency of apraxia of eyelid opening in the general population and in patients with extrapyramidal disorders. Neurol Sci. 2002;23(Suppl 2):S81–2.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Krack P, Marion MH. “Apraxia of lid opening”, a focal eyelid dystonia: clinical study of 32 patients. Mov Disord. 1994;9(6):610–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Boghen D. Apraxia of lid opening: a review. Neurology. 1997;48(6):1491–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Defazio G, Livrea P, Lamberti P, et al. Isolated so-called apraxia of eyelid opening: report of 10 cases and a review of the literature. Eur Neurol. 1998;39(4):204–10.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Cherian V, Foroozan R. Benign unilateral apraxia of eyelid opening. Ophthalmology. 2010;117(6):1265–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Jordan DR, Anderson RL, Digre KB. Apraxia of lid opening in blepharospasm. Ophthalmic Surg. 1990;21(5):331–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Kerty E, Eidal K. Apraxia of eyelid opening: clinical features and therapy. Eur J Ophthalmol. 2006;16(2):204–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Holds JB, Anderson RL, Jordan DR, Patrinely JR. Bilateral hemifacial spasm. J Clin Neuroophthalmol. 1990;10(2):153–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Auger RG, Whisnant JP. Hemifacial spasm in Rochester and Olmsted County, Minnesota, 1960 to 1984. Arch Neurol. 1990;47(11):1233–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Bernardi B, Zimmerman RA, Savino PJ, Adler C. Magnetic resonance tomographic angiography in the investigation of hemifacial spasm. Neuroradiology. 1993;35(8):606–11.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Hosoya T, Watanabe N, Yamaguchi K, et al. Three-dimensional-MRI of neurovascular compression in patients with hemifacial spasm. Neuroradiology. 1995;37(5):350–2.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Nielsen VK, Jannetta PJ. Pathophysiology of hemifacial spasm: III. Effects of facial nerve decompression. Neurology. 1984;34(7):891–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Nielsen VK. Pathophysiology of hemifacial spasm: II. Lateral spread of the supraorbital nerve reflex. Neurology. 1984;34(4):427–31.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Nielsen VK. Pathophysiology of hemifacial spasm: I. Ephaptic transmission and ectopic excitation. Neurology. 1984;34(4):418–26.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Matsuura N, Kondo A. Trigeminal neuralgia and hemifacial spasm as false localizing signs in patients with a contralateral mass of the posterior cranial fossa. Report of three cases. J Neurosurg. 1996;84(6):1067–71.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Nagata S, Matsushima T, Fujii K, et al. Hemifacial spasm due to tumor, aneurysm, or arteriovenous malformation. Surg Neurol. 1992;38(3):204–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Wang A, Jankovic J. Hemifacial spasm: clinical findings and treatment. Muscle Nerve. 1998;21(12):1740–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Koutsis G, Kokotis P, Sarrigiannis P, et al. Spastic paretic hemifacial contracture in multiple sclerosis: a neglected clinical and EMG entity. Mult Scler. 2008;14(7):927–32.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Krauss JK, Wakhloo AK, Scheremet R, Seeger W. Facial myokymia and spastic paretic facial contracture as the result of anaplastic pontocerebellar glioma. Neurosurgery. 1993;32(6):1031–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Savino PJ, Maus M. Botulinum toxin therapy. Neurol Clin. 1991;9(1):205–24.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Simpson DM, Blitzer A, Brashear A, et al. Assessment: botulinum neurotoxin for the treatment of movement disorders (an evidence-based review): report of the therapeutics and technology assessment subcommittee of the American academy of neurology. Neurology. 2008;70(19):1699–706.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Blackburn MK, Lamb RD, Digre KB, et al. FL-41 tint improves blink frequency, light sensitivity, and functional limitations in patients with benign essential blepharospasm. Ophthalmology. 2009;116(5):997–1001.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Chapman KL, Bartley GB, Waller RR, Hodge DO. Follow-up of patients with essential blepharospasm who underwent eyelid protractor myectomy at the Mayo Clinic from 1980 through 1995. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg. 1999;15(2):106–10.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Grivet D, Robert PY, Thuret G, et al. Assessment of blepharospasm surgery using an improved disability scale: study of 138 patients. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg. 2005;21(3):230–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Nicoletti AG, Pereira IC, Matayoshi S. Browlifting as an alternative procedure for apraxia of eyelid opening. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg. 2009;25(1):46–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Fante RG, Frueh BR. Differential section of the seventh nerve as a tertiary procedure for the treatment of benign essential blepharospasm. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg. 2001;17(4):276–80.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Barker 2nd FG, Jannetta PJ, Bissonette DJ, et al. Microvascular decompression for hemifacial spasm. J Neurosurg. 1995;82(2):201–10.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Artz GJ, Hux FJ, Larouere MJ, et al. Endoscopic vascular decompression. Otol Neurotol. 2008;29(7):995–1000.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Pfaffenbach DD, Cross HE, Kearns TP. Congenital anomalies in Duane’s retraction syndrome. Arch Ophthalmol. 1972;88(6):635–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    DeRespinis PA, Caputo AR, Wagner RS, Guo S. Duane’s retraction syndrome. Surv Ophthalmol. 1993;38(3):257–88.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Raab EL. Clinical features of Duane’s syndrome. J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus. 1986;23(2):64–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Huber A. Electrophysiology of the retraction syndromes. Br J Ophthalmol. 1974;58(3):293–300.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Alexandrakis G, Saunders RA. Duane retraction syndrome. Ophthalmol Clin North Am. 2001;14(3):407–17.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Fowler AM, Dutton JJ. Floppy eyelid syndrome as a subset of lax eyelid conditions: relationships and clinical relevance (an ASOPRS thesis). Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg. 2010;26(3):195–204.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Taban M, Perry JD. Plasma leptin levels in patients with floppy eyelid syndrome. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg. 2006;22(5):375–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Schlotzer-Schrehardt U, Stojkovic M, Hofmann-Rummelt C, et al. The pathogenesis of floppy eyelid syndrome: involvement of matrix metalloproteinases in elastic fiber degradation. Ophthalmology. 2005;112(4):694–704.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Goldberg R, Seiff S, McFarland J, et al. Floppy eyelid syndrome and blepharochalasis. Am J Ophthalmol. 1986;102(3):376–81.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    McNab AA. Floppy eyelid syndrome and obstructive sleep apnea. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg. 1997;13(2):98–114.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Langford JD, Linberg JV. A new physical finding in floppy eyelid syndrome. Ophthalmology. 1998;105(1):165–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Culbertson WW, Tseng SC. Corneal disorders in floppy eyelid syndrome. Cornea. 1994;13(1):33–42.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Dutton JJ. Surgical management of floppy eyelid syndrome. Am J Ophthalmol. 1985;99(5):557–60.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Katusic SK, Beard CM, Wiederholt WC, et al. Incidence, clinical features, and prognosis in Bell’s palsy, Rochester, Minnesota, 1968–1982. Ann Neurol. 1986;20(5):622–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Kimura J, Rodnitzky RL, Okawara SH. Electrophysiologic analysis of aberrant regeneration after facial nerve paralysis. Neurology. 1975;25(10):989–93.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Celik M, Forta H, Vural C. The development of synkinesis after facial nerve paralysis. Eur Neurol. 2000;43(3):147–51.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Yamamoto E, Nishimura H, Hirono Y. Occurrence of sequelae in Bell’s palsy. Acta Otolaryngol Suppl. 1988;446:93–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Moran CJ, Neely JG. Patterns of facial nerve synkinesis. Laryngoscope. 1996;106(12 Pt 1):1491–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Rijntjes M, Tegenthoff M, Liepert J, et al. Cortical reorganization in patients with facial palsy. Ann Neurol. 1997;41(5):621–30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Valls-Sole J, Montero J. Movement disorders in patients with peripheral facial palsy. Mov Disord. 2003;18(12):1424–35.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Keegan DJ, Geerling G, Lee JP, et al. Botulinum toxin treatment for hyperlacrimation secondary to aberrant regenerated seventh nerve palsy or salivary gland transplantation. Br J Ophthalmol. 2002;86(1):43–6.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Lee V, Currie Z, Collin JR. Ophthalmic management of facial nerve palsy. Eye (Lond). 2004;18(12):1225–34.Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    VanSwearingen JM, Brach JS. Changes in facial movement and synkinesis with facial neuromuscular reeducation. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2003;111(7):2370–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Cronin GW, Steenerson RL. The effectiveness of neuromuscular facial retraining combined with electromyography in facial paralysis rehabilitation. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2003;128(4):534–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Demer JL, Clark RA, Engle EC. Magnetic resonance imaging evidence for widespread orbital dysinnervation in congenital fibrosis of extraocular muscles due to mutations in KIF21A. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2005;46(2):530–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Engle EC, Goumnerov BC, McKeown CA, et al. Oculomotor nerve and muscle abnormalities in congenital fibrosis of the extraocular muscles. Ann Neurol. 1997;41(3):314–25.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Engle EC. The genetic basis of complex strabismus. Pediatr Res. 2006;59(3):343–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Egan RA, Kerrison JB. Survey of genetic neuro-ophthalmic disorders. Ophthalmol Clin North Am. 2003;16(4):595–605, vii.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Engle EC, Kunkel LM, Specht LA, Beggs AH. Mapping a gene for congenital fibrosis of the extraocular muscles to the centromeric region of chromosome 12. Nat Genet. 1994;7(1):69–73.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Wang SM, Zwaan J, Mullaney PB, et al. Congenital fibrosis of the extraocular muscles type 2, an inherited exotropic strabismus fixus, maps to distal 11q13. Am J Hum Genet. 1998;63(2):517–25.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Engle EC, Marondel I, Houtman WA, et al. Congenital fibrosis of the extraocular muscles (autosomal dominant congenital external ophthalmoplegia): genetic homogeneity, linkage refinement, and physical mapping on chromosome 12. Am J Hum Genet. 1995;57(5):1086–94.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Aubourg P, Krahn M, Bernard R, et al. Assignment of a new congenital fibrosis of extraocular muscles type 3 (CFEOM3) locus, FEOM4, based on a balanced translocation t(2;13) (q37.3;q12.11) and identification of candidate genes. J Med Genet. 2005;42(3):253–9.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Doherty EJ, Macy ME, Wang SM, et al. CFEOM3: a new extraocular congenital fibrosis syndrome that maps to 16q24.2-q24.3. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1999;40(8):1687–94.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Heidary G, Engle EC, Hunter DG. Congenital fibrosis of the extraocular muscles. Semin Ophthalmol. 2008;23(1):3–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Harley RD, Rodrigues MM, Crawford JS. Congenital fibrosis of the extraocular muscles. J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus. 1978;15(6):346–58.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    MOxley 3rd RT. Proximal myotonic myopathy: mini-review of a recently delineated clinical disorder. Neuromuscul Disord. 1996;6(2):87–93.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Day JW, Ricker K, Jacobsen JF, et al. Myotonic dystrophy type 2: molecular, diagnostic and clinical spectrum. Neurology. 2003;60(4):657–64.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Ranum LP, Day JW. Myotonic dystrophy: RNA pathogenesis comes into focus. Am J Hum Genet. 2004;74(5):793–804.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Mathieu J, Allard P, Potvin L, et al. A 10-year study of mortality in a cohort of patients with myotonic dystrophy. Neurology. 1999;52(8):1658–62.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Brais B, Xie YG, Sanson M, et al. The oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy locus maps to the region of the cardiac alpha and beta myosin heavy chain genes on chromosome 14q11.2-q13. Hum Mol Genet. 1995;4(3):429–34.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Blumen SC, Nisipeanu P, Sadeh M, et al. Epidemiology and inheritance of oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy in Israel. Neuromuscul Disord. 1997;7(Suppl 1):S38–40.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Brunet G, Tome FM, Eymard B, et al. Genealogical study of oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy in France. Neuromuscul Disord. 1997;7(Suppl 1):S34–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Grewal RP, Karkera JD, Grewal RK, Detera-Wadleigh SD. Mutation analysis of oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy in Hispanic American families. Arch Neurol. 1999;56(11):1378–81.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Becher MW, Morrison L, Davis LE, et al. Oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy in Hispanic New Mexicans. JAMA. 2001;286(19):2437–40.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Bouchard JP, Brais B, Brunet D, et al. Recent studies on oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy in Quebec. Neuromuscul Disord. 1997;7(Suppl 1):S22–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Victor M, Hayes R, Adams RD. Oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy. A familial disease of late life characterized by dysphagia and progressive ptosis of the eyelids. N Engl J Med. 1962;267:1267–72.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Murphy SF, Drachman DB. The oculopharyngeal syndrome. JAMA. 1968;203(12):1003–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Hill ME, Creed GA, McMullan TF, et al. Oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy: phenotypic and genotypic studies in a UK population. Brain. 2001;124(Pt 3):522–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Brais B, Bouchard JP, Xie YG, et al. Short GCG expansions in the PABP2 gene cause oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy. Nat Genet. 1998;18(2):164–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Blumen SC, Brais B, Korczyn AD, et al. Homozygotes for oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy have a severe form of the disease. Ann Neurol. 1999;46(1):115–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Ruegg S, Lehky Hagen M, Hohl U, et al. Oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy – an under-diagnosed disorder? Swiss Med Wkly. 2005;135(39–40):574–86.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Rodrigue D, Molgat YM. Surgical correction of blepharoptosis in oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy. Neuromuscul Disord. 1997;7(Suppl 1):S82–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Codere F. Oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy. Can J Ophthalmol. 1993;28(1):1–2.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Caron MJ, Girard F, Girard DC, et al. Cisatracurium pharmacodynamics in patients with oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy. Anesth Analg. 2005;100(2):393–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Edmond JC. Mitochondrial disorders. Int Ophthalmol Clin. 2009;49(3):27–33.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Greaves LC, Yu-Wai-Man P, Blakely EL, et al. Mitochondrial DNA defects and selective extraocular muscle involvement in CPEO. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2010;51(7):3340–6.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Finsterer J. Mitochondrial disorder mimicking ocular myasthenia. Acta Neurol Belg. 2010;110(1):110–2.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Lelli Jr GJ, Musch DC, Frueh BR, Nelson CC. Outcomes in silicone rod frontalis suspension surgery for high-risk noncongenital blepharoptosis. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg. 2009;25(5):361–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Almousa R, Charlton A, Rajesh ST, et al. Optimizing muscle biopsy for the diagnosis of mitochondrial myopathy. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg. 2009;25(5):366–70.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Lopez-Gallardo E, Lopez-Perez MJ, Montoya J, Ruiz-Pesini E. CPEO and KSS differ in the percentage and location of the mtDNA deletion. Mitochondrion. 2009;9(5):314–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Yesil M, Bayata S, Postaci N, Arikan E. Progression of conduction system disease in a paced patient with Kearns-Sayre syndrome. Clin Cardiol. 2009;32(6):E65–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Gronlund MA, Honarvar AK, Andersson S, et al. Ophthalmological findings in children and young adults with genetically verified mitochondrial disease. Br J Ophthalmol. 2010;94(1):121–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Snyder LA, Rismondo V, Miller NR. The Fisher variant of Guillain–Barre syndrome (Fisher syndrome). J Neuroophthalmol. 2009;29(4):312–24.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Hughes RA, Cornblath DR. Guillain–Barre syndrome. Lancet. 2005;366(9497):1653–66.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Hughes RA, Swan AV, van Doorn PA. Corticosteroids for Guillain–Barre syndrome. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2010;2:CD001446.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    van der Meche FG, van Doorn PA. Guillain-Barre syndrome and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy: immune mechanisms and update on current therapies. Ann Neurol. 1995;37(Suppl 1):S14–31.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Yang YR, Liu SL, Qin ZY, et al. Comparative proteomics analysis of cerebrospinal fluid of patients with Guillain-Barre syndrome. Cell Mol Neurobiol. 2008;28(5):737–44.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Raphael JC, Chevret S, Hughes RA, Annane D. Plasma exchange for Guillain-Barre syndrome. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2002;2:CD001798.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Hughes RA, Raphael JC, Swan AV, van Doorn PA. Intravenous immunoglobulin for Guillain-Barre syndrome. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2006(1):CD002063.Google Scholar
  135. 135.
    Tan H. Bilateral oculomotor palsy secondary to pseudotumor cerebri. Pediatr Neurol. 2010;42(2):141–2.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Bahmani Kashkouli M, Khalatbari MR, Yahyavi ST, et al. Pituitary apoplexy presenting as acute painful isolated unilateral third cranial nerve palsy. Arch Iran Med. 2008;11(4):466–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Beckmann YY, Deniz B, Gelal F, Secil Y. Third cranial nerve palsy as the presenting neuro-ophthalmic feature of nasopharyngeal carcinoma. J Neuroophthalmol. 2010;30(1):102–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Beleza P, Machado A, Soares-Fernandes J, et al. Isolated oculomotor nerve paresis as the presenting sign of multiple sclerosis. Arq Neuropsiquiatr. 2008;66(2A):254–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Brazis PW. Isolated palsies of cranial nerves III, IV, and VI. Semin Neurol. 2009;29(1):14–28.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Akagi T, Miyamoto K, Kashii S, Yoshimura N. Cause and prognosis of neurologically isolated third, fourth, or sixth cranial nerve dysfunction in cases of oculomotor palsy. Jpn J Ophthalmol. 2008;52(1):32–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Cullom ME, Savino PJ, Sergott RC, Bosley TM. Relative pupillary sparing third nerve palsies. To arteriogram or not? J Neuroophthalmol. 1995;15(3):136–40. discussion 40–1.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Trobe JD. The evaluation of horner syndrome. J Neuroophthalmol. 2010;30(1):1–2.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Jacobson DM. Pupil involvement in patients with diabetes-associated oculomotor nerve palsy. Arch Ophthalmol. 1998;116(6):723–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Jacobson DM, Trobe JD. The emerging role of magnetic resonance angiography in the management of patients with third cranial nerve palsy. Am J Ophthalmol. 1999;128(1):94–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Trobe JD. Searching for brain aneurysm in third cranial nerve palsy. J Neuroophthalmol. 2009;29(3):171–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Wilker SC, Rucker JC, Newman NJ, et al. Pain in ischaemic ocular motor cranial nerve palsies. Br J Ophthalmol. 2009;93(12): 1657–9.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Cogan DG, Lincoff HA. Unilateral headache and oculomotor paralysis not caused by aneurysm. AMA Arch Ophthalmol. 1957;57(2):181–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    Landau K. Discovering a dys-covering lid. Surv Ophthalmol. 1997;42(1):87–91.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Carrasco JR, Savino PJ, Bilyk JR. Primary aberrant oculomotor nerve regeneration from a posterior communicating artery aneurysm. Arch Ophthalmol. 2002;120(5):663–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Varma R, Miller NR. Primary oculomotor nerve synkinesis caused by an extracavernous intradural aneurysm. Am J Ophthalmol. 1994;118(1):83–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Bartleson JD, Trautmann JC, Sundt Jr TM. Minimal oculomotor nerve paresis secondary to unruptured intracranial aneurysm. Arch Neurol. 1986;43(10):1015–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Payne JW, Adamkiewicz Jr J. Unilateral internal ophthalmoplegia with intracranial aneurysm. Am J Ophthalmol. 1969;68(2):349–52.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Chaudhary N, Davagnanam I, Ansari SA, et al. Imaging of intracranial aneurysms causing isolated third cranial nerve palsy. J Neuroophthalmol. 2009;29(3):238–44.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    Lee AG, Johnson MC, Policeni BA, Smoker WR. Imaging for neuro-ophthalmic and orbital disease – a review. Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2009;37(1):30–53.Google Scholar
  155. 155.
    Lee AG, Hayman LA, Brazis PW. The evaluation of isolated third nerve palsy revisited: an update on the evolving role of magnetic resonance, computed tomography, and catheter angiography. Surv Ophthalmol. 2002;47(2):137–57.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    van Rooij WJ, Sprengers ME, de Gast AN, et al. 3D rotational angiography: the new gold standard in the detection of additional intracranial aneurysms. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2008;29(5): 976–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    Mathew MR, Teasdale E, McFadzean RM. Multidetector computed tomographic angiography in isolated third nerve palsy. Ophthalmology. 2008;115(8):1411–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    White PM, Wardlaw JM, Lindsay KW, et al. The non-invasive detection of intracranial aneurysms: are neuroradiologists any better than other observers? Eur Radiol. 2003;13(2):389–96.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. 159.
    Loevner LA, Sonners AI, Schulman BJ, et al. Reinterpretation of cross-sectional images in patients with head and neck cancer in the setting of a multidisciplinary cancer center. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2002;23(10):1622–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. 160.
    Beard C. Ptosis. 3rd ed. St. Louis: Mosby; 1981. ix, 276 p.Google Scholar
  161. 161.
    Duke-Elder S. System of ophthalmology. vol V. London: Kimpton; 1963.Google Scholar
  162. 162.
    Pratt SG, Beyer CK, Johnson CC. The Marcus Gunn phenomenon. A review of 71 cases. Ophthalmology. 1963;91(1):27–30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. 163.
    Demirci H, Frueh BR, Nelson CC. Marcus Gunn jaw-winking synkinesis: clinical features and management. Ophthalmology. 2010;117(7):1447–52.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. 164.
    Bowyer JD, Sullivan TJ. Management of Marcus Gunn jaw winking synkinesis. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg. 2004;20(2):92–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. 165.
    Dillman DB, Anderson RL. Levator myectomy in synkinetic ptosis. Arch Ophthalmol. 1984;102(3):422–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. 166.
    Spillane J, Beeson DJ, Kullmann DM. Myasthenia and related disorders of the neuromuscular junction. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2010;81(8):850–7.Google Scholar
  167. 167.
    Elrod RD, Weinberg DA. Ocular myasthenia gravis. Ophthalmol Clin North Am. 2004;17(3):275–309; v.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. 168.
    Seybold ME. Myasthenia gravis. A clinical and basic science review. JAMA. 1983;250(18):2516–21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. 169.
    Vincent A, Clover L, Buckley C, et al. Evidence of underdiagnosis of myasthenia gravis in older people. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2003;74(8):1105–8.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  170. 170.
    Sommer N, Sigg B, Melms A, et al. Ocular myasthenia gravis: response to long-term immunosuppressive treatment. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1997;62(2):156–62.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  171. 171.
    Monsul NT, Patwa HS, Knorr AM, et al. The effect of prednisone on the progression from ocular to generalized myasthenia gravis. J Neurol Sci. 2004;217(2):131–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  172. 172.
    Kupersmith MJ, Latkany R, Homel P. Development of generalized disease at 2 years in patients with ocular myasthenia gravis. Arch Neurol. 2003;60(2):243–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  173. 173.
    Grob D, Brunner N, Namba T, Pagala M. Lifetime course of myasthenia gravis. Muscle Nerve. 2008;37(2):141–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. 174.
    Bever Jr CT, Aquino AV, Penn AS, et al. Prognosis of ocular myasthenia. Ann Neurol. 1983;14(5):516–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  175. 175.
    Gorelick PB, Rosenberg M, Pagano RJ. Enhanced ptosis in myasthenia gravis. Arch Neurol. 1981;38(8):531.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  176. 176.
    Gay AJ, Salmon ML, Windsor CE. Hering’s law, the levators, and their relationship in disease states. Arch Ophthalmol. 1967;77(2):157–60.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  177. 177.
    Cogan DG. Myasthenia gravis: a review of the disease and a description of lid twitch as a characteristic sign. Arch Ophthalmol. 1965;74:217–21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  178. 178.
    Kubis KC, Danesh-Meyer HV, Savino PJ, Sergott RC. The ice test versus the rest test in myasthenia gravis. Ophthalmology. 2000;107(11):1995–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  179. 179.
    Sethi KD, Rivner MH, Swift TR. Ice pack test for myasthenia gravis. Neurology. 1987;37(8):1383–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  180. 180.
    Golnik KC, Pena R, Lee AG, Eggenberger ER. An ice test for the diagnosis of myasthenia gravis. Ophthalmology. 1999;106(7):1282–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  181. 181.
    Chatzistefanou KI, Kouris T, Iliakis E, et al. The ice pack test in the differential diagnosis of myasthenic diplopia. Ophthalmology. 2009;116(11):2236–43.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  182. 182.
    Seybold ME. The office Tensilon test for ocular myasthenia gravis. Arch Neurol. 1986;43(8):842–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  183. 183.
    Barton JJ, Fouladvand M. Ocular aspects of myasthenia gravis. Semin Neurol. 2000;20(1):7–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  184. 184.
    Vincent A, Newsom-Davis J. Acetylcholine receptor antibody as a diagnostic test for myasthenia gravis: results in 153 validated cases and 2967 diagnostic assays. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1985;48(12):1246–52.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  185. 185.
    Vrolix K, Fraussen J, Molenaar PC, et al. The auto-antigen repertoire in myasthenia gravis. Autoimmunity. 2010;43:380–400.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  186. 186.
    Drachman DB. Myasthenia gravis. N Engl J Med. 1994;330(25):1797–810.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  187. 187.
    Benatar M, Kaminski H. Medical and surgical treatment for ocular myasthenia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2006(2):CD005081.Google Scholar
  188. 188.
    Seybold ME, Drachman DB. Gradually increasing doses of prednisone in myasthenia gravis. Reducing the hazards of treatment. N Engl J Med. 1974;290(2):81–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  189. 189.
    Wong VA, Beckingsale PS, Oley CA, Sullivan TJ. Management of myogenic ptosis. Ophthalmology. 2002;109(5):1023–31.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  190. 190.
    Demartelaere SL, Blaydon SM, Shore JW. Tarsal switch levator resection for the treatment of blepharoptosis in patients with poor eye protective mechanisms. Ophthalmology. 2006;113(12):2357–63.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  191. 191.
    Walton KA, Buono LM. Horner syndrome. Curr Opin Ophthalmol. 2003;14(6):357–63.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  192. 192.
    Mughal M, Longmuir R. Current pharmacologic testing for Horner syndrome. Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep. 2009;9(5):384–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  193. 193.
    Jacobson DM, Berg R, Grinstead GF, Kruse JR. Duration of positive urine for cocaine metabolite after ophthalmic administration: implications for testing patients with suspected Horner syndrome using ophthalmic cocaine. Am J Ophthalmol. 2001;131(6):742–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  194. 194.
    Kawasaki A, Borruat FX. False negative apraclonidine test in two patients with Horner syndrome. Klin Monbl Augenheilkd. 2008;225(5):520–2.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  195. 195.
    Dewan MA, Harrison AR, Lee MS. False-negative apraclonidine testing in acute Horner syndrome. Can J Ophthalmol. 2009;44(1):109–10.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  196. 196.
    Almog Y, Gepstein R, Kesler A. Diagnostic value of imaging in horner syndrome in adults. J Neuroophthalmol. 2010;30(1):7–11.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  197. 197.
    Thakker MM, Huang J, Possin DE, et al. Human orbital sympathetic nerve pathways. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg. 2008;24(5):360–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  198. 198.
    Demetriades AM, Miller NR, Garibaldi DC. Bilateral internal carotid artery dissection presenting as isolated unilateral Horner syndrome. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg. 2009;25(6):485–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  199. 199.
    Kerty E. The ophthalmology of internal carotid artery dissection. Acta Ophthalmol Scand. 1999;77(4):418–21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  200. 200.
    Rigamonti A, Iurlaro S, Reganati P, et al. Cluster headache and internal carotid artery dissection: two cases and review of the literature. Headache. 2008;48(3):467–70.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  201. 201.
    Biousse V, Touboul PJ, D’Anglejan-Chatillon J, et al. Ophthalmologic manifestations of internal carotid artery dissection. Am J Ophthalmol. 1998;126(4):565–77.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  202. 202.
    Reede DL, Garcon E, Smoker WR, Kardon R. Horner’s syndrome: clinical and radiographic evaluation. Neuroimaging Clin N Am. 2008;18(2):369–85, xi.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  203. 203.
    Menon R, Kerry S, Norris JW, Markus HS. Treatment of cervical artery dissection: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2008;79(10):1122–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  204. 204.
    Smith SJ, Diehl N, Leavitt JA, Mohney BG. Incidence of pediatric Horner syndrome and the risk of neuroblastoma: a population-based study. Arch Ophthalmol. 2010;128(3):324–9.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  205. 205.
    Jeffery AR, Ellis FJ, Repka MX, Buncic JR. Pediatric Horner syndrome. J AAPOS. 1998;2(3):159–67.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  206. 206.
    Mahoney NR, Liu GT, Menacker SJ, et al. Pediatric horner syndrome: etiologies and roles of imaging and urine studies to detect neuroblastoma and other responsible mass lesions. Am J Ophthalmol. 2006;142(4):651–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  207. 207.
    Pirouzian A, Holz HA, Ip KC, Sudesh R. Acquired infantile Horner syndrome and spontaneous internal carotid artery dissection: a case report and review of literature. J AAPOS. 2010;14(2):172–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  208. 208.
    Sobel J. Botulism. Clin Infect Dis. 2005;41(8):1167–73.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  209. 209.
    Caya JG. Clostridium botulinum and the ophthalmologist: a review of botulism, including biological warfare ramifications of botulinum toxin. Surv Ophthalmol. 2001;46(1):25–34.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  210. 210.
    Capobianco DJ, Dodick DW. Diagnosis and treatment of cluster headache. Semin Neurol. 2006;26(2):242–59.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  211. 211.
    Silberstein SD, Lipton RB, Dodick D, Wolff HG (eds). Wolff’s headache and other head pain. 8th ed. Oxford/New York: Oxford University Press, 2008; xx, 844 pGoogle Scholar
  212. 212.
    DaSilva AF, Goadsby PJ, Borsook D. Cluster headache: a review of neuroimaging findings. Curr Pain Headache Rep. 2007;11(2):131–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  213. 213.
    Pinessi L, Rainero I, Rivoiro C, et al. Genetics of cluster headache: an update. J Headache Pain. 2005;6(4):234–6.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  214. 214.
    Schurks M, Diener HC. Cluster headache and lifestyle habits. Curr Pain Headache Rep. 2008;12(2):115–21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  215. 215.
    May A, Leone M, Afra J, et al. EFNS guidelines on the treatment of cluster headache and other trigeminal-autonomic cephalalgias. Eur J Neurol. 2006;13(10):1066–77.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  216. 216.
    Hansen SL, Borelli-Moller L, Strange P, et al. Ophthalmoplegic migraine: diagnostic criteria, incidence of hospitalization and possible etiology. Acta Neurol Scand. 1990;81(1):54–60.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  217. 217.
    Levin M, Ward TN. Ophthalmoplegic migraine. Curr Pain Headache Rep. 2004;8(4):306–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  218. 218.
    Headache Classification Committee of the International Headache Society. Classification and diagnostic criteria for headache disorders, cranial neuralgias and facial pain. Cephalalgia. 1988;8(Suppl 7):1–96.Google Scholar
  219. 219.
    Bek S, Genc G, Demirkaya S, et al. Ophthalmoplegic migraine. Neurologist. 2009;15(3):147–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  220. 220.
    Carlow TJ. Oculomotor ophthalmoplegic migraine: is it really migraine? J Neuroophthalmol. 2002;22(3):215–21.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ann P. Murchison
    • 1
    Email author
  • Jurij R. Bilyk
    • 2
  • Peter J. Savino
    • 3
  1. 1.Oculoplastic & Orbital Surgery Service, Wills Eye InstituteJefferson Medical CollegePhiladelphiaUSA
  2. 2.Oculoplastic and Orbital Surgery Service, Wills Eye InstituteJefferson Medical CollegePhiladelphiaUSA
  3. 3.Department of OphthalmologyUniversity of California, San DiegoLa JollaUSA

Personalised recommendations