Essential Blepharospasm and Hemifacial Spasm

  • Ilya LeyngoldEmail author
  • Zachary Berbos
  • Dan Georgescu
  • Richard Lee Anderson


Benign essential blepharospasm (henceforth “blepharospasm”) and hemifacial spasm are conditions which are linked in the final manifestation of facial spasm and are similar in regard to basic approaches to treatment. These diseases are both movement disorders but have completely different pathophysiology. For this reason, the chapter is divided into separate sections, the first on blepharospasm and the second on hemifacial spasm.


Facial Nerve Botulinum Toxin Botulinum Toxin Injection Hemifacial Spasm Orbicularis Muscle 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ilya Leyngold
    • 1
    Email author
  • Zachary Berbos
    • 1
  • Dan Georgescu
    • 2
  • Richard Lee Anderson
    • 1
  1. 1.Center for Facial AppearancesSalt Lake CityUSA
  2. 2.Wilmer Eye InstituteBaltimoreUSA

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