Le Fort Fractures

  • Gina M. RogersEmail author
  • Richard C. Allen


In 1901, René Le Fort published his experimental findings of facial fracture patterns. His studies involved subjecting cadaver skulls to various forces of impact and analyzing the fractures that resulted. He described that fractures tended to occur in characteristic locations, which he noted corresponded to relatively weak areas of the facial skeleton [1]. With these findings, he introduced the term “pillars of resistance,” which represent the strongest areas of the facial skeleton, and the fracture patterns he found occurred between these pillars. His report outlined three patterns of fractures with each bearing his name followed by a number, I, II, or III, depending on their location.


Zygomatic Arch Facial Fracture Orbital Floor Facial Skeleton Pterygoid Plate 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. 1.
    Le Fort R. Ètude expérimentale sur les fractures de la mâchoire supériure. Rev chir paris 1901;23:208, 227, 360, 379, 479–507. Reprint translated by Tessier P. Plast Reconstr Surg 1972;50:600–7.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Sicher H, Tandler J. Anatomie fur Zahnarazte. Vienna: Springer; 1928.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Donat TL, Endress C, Mathog RH. Facial fracture classification according to skeletal support mechanisms. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 1998;124:1306–14.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Rudderman RH, Mullen RL. Biomechanics of the facial skeleton. Clin Plast Surg. 1999;19(1):105–13.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    American College of Surgeons. Advanced trauma life support.
  6. 6.
    Derdyn C, Persing JA, Broaddus W, et al. Craniofacial trauma: an assessment of risk related to the timing of surgery. Plast Reconstr Surg. 1992;50:1264–8.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Smoot EC, Jernigan JR, Kinsley E, et al. A survey of operative airway management practices for midface fractures. J Craniofac Surg. 1997;8(3):157–242.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Bahr W, Stoll P. Nasal intubation in the presence of frontobasal fractures: a retrospective study. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 1992;50:445–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Rhee KJ, Muntz CB, Donald PJ, et al. Does nasotracheal intubation increase complications in patients with skull base fractures? Ann Emerg Med. 1993;22:1145–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Yerit KC, Enislidis G, Schooper C, et al. Fixation of mandibular fractures with biodegradable plates and screws. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2002;94(3):294–300.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Bell RB, Kindsfater CS. The use of biodegradable plates and screws to stabilize facial fractures. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2006;64(1):31–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Evans GR, Clark N, Manson PN, Leipziger LS. Role of mini- and microplate fixation in fractures of the midface and mandible. Ann Plast Surg. 1995;34(5):453–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Haug RH, Adama JM, Jordan RB. Comparison of the morbidity associated with maxillary fractures treated by maxillomandibular and rigid internal fixation. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 1995;80:629–37.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Arbeitsgemeinschaft für osteosynthesefragen/Association for the Study of Internal Fixation. Aug 2010.
  15. 15.
    Shaw RC, Parsons RW. Exposure through a coronal incision for initial treatment of facial fractures. Plast Reconstr Surg. 1975;56(3):254–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Frodel JL, Marentette LJ. The coronal approach anatomic and technical considerations and morbidity. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 1993;119:201–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Markowitz BL, Manson PN. Panfacial fractures: organization of treatment. Clin Plast Surg. 1989;16(1):105–14.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Marciani RD. Management of middle third facial fractures. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 1993;51(5):535–42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Gruss JS, Bubak PJ, Egbert MA. Craniofacial fractures: an algorithm to optimize results. Clin Plast Surg. 1992;19(1):195–206.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Haug RH, Foss J. Maxillofacial injuries in the pediatric patient. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2000;90:126–34.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Frodel JL, Rudderman R. Facial soft tissue resuspension following upper facial skeletal reconstruction. J Craniomaxillofac Trauma. 1996;2:24–30.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Ophthalmology & Visual SciencesUniversity of Iowa Hospitals & ClinicsIowa CityUSA

Personalised recommendations