Posttraumatic Enophthalmos and Three-Dimensional Imaging

  • Michael K. YoonEmail author
  • Robert C. Kersten


Enophthalmos following trauma occurs secondary to an increase in orbital volume although traumatic atrophy of soft tissue may play a role [1]. Whether presenting in the acute or chronic phase, such cases can be challenging to evaluate and manage. Patients will report abnormalities in blink, ocular discomfort, visible deformity, or diplopia. Globe projection asymmetry of 2 mm or greater is typically cosmetically noticeable [2, 3]. In this chapter, we review the relevant anatomy of the orbit, the pathophysiology of enophthalmos, mechanisms of injury, evaluation, and management. Other masqueraders of traumatic enophthalmos will be discussed. The use of modern three-dimensional imaging techniques and its role in reconstruction will also be examined.


Extraocular Muscle Wall Fracture Orbital Floor Orbital Wall Orbital Fracture 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of OphthalmologyUniversity of California – San Francisco Medical CenterSan FranciscoUSA

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