The Evolution of Mammalian Adipose Tissue

  • Caroline M. PondEmail author


Gene products and metabolic pathways comprising and controlling adipose tissues are traced from their invertebrate origins through lower vertebrates to mammals and birds. Many functions of the mammalian liver and pancreas take place in adipose-like tissues in lower animals. Mammalian white adipose tissue is split into numerous depots, many with site-specific properties adapted to paracrine interactions, insulation, or structural roles. Paracrine provision of lipids to the immune system with fatty acid sorting optimizes cellular nutrition even during fasting or on deficient or imbalanced diets, averts competition with other tissues and utilizes scarce resources efficiently. Non-shivering thermogenesis occurs in avian muscles and in mammalian brown adipose tissue, recently as well as metabolic regulation and lipid storage shown to be developmentally related to muscle, not white adipose tissue. The biochemical mechanisms of thermogenesis evolved separately in birds and mammals utilizing several gene families, including uncoupling proteins, present in lower vertebrates. Mammalian thermogenic tissue lost contractile functions and expanded its lipid storage capacity, probably to improve function at hibernation temperatures, thus generating confusing resemblances to white adipose tissue. As well as storage and endocrine functions, adipose tissues’ capacities for paracrine interactions, fatty acid sorting and thermogenesis are important in the evolution of mammalian heterothermy, lactation and predominance as herbivores able to thrive on indigestible, poor quality, nutritionally imbalanced diets. Some mammals tolerate high levels of obesity without metabolic impairment, but humans and other apes are not so adapted.


Comparative Lower vertebrates Mammals Birds Paracrine interactions Immune system Fatty acids Hibernation Diet-induced thermogenesis Herbivory Lactation 


  1. Adamo SA, Bartlett A, Le J et al (2010) Illness-induced anorexia may reduce trade-offs between digestion and immune function. Anim Behav 79:3–10Google Scholar
  2. Al-Anzi B, Sapin V, Waters C et al (2009) Obesity-blocking neurons in Drosophila. Neuron 63:329–341PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Albu JB, Kenya S, He Q et al (2007) Independent associations of insulin resistance with high whole-body intermuscular and low leg subcutaneous adipose tissue distribution in obese HIV-infected women. Am J Clin Nutr 86:100–106PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Alexander RM (2004) Bipedal animals, and their differences from humans. J Anat 204:321–330PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Alexander RM, Maloiy GMO, Ker RF et al (1982) The role of tendon elasticity in the locomotion of the camel (Camelus dromedarius). J Zool 198:293–313Google Scholar
  6. Andrews MT (2007) Advances in molecular biology of hibernation in mammals. Bioessays 29:431–440PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Ardawi MSM, Newsholme EA (1985) Metabolism in lymphocytes and its importance in the immune response. Essays Biochem 21:1–43PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Ardilouze JL, Karpe F, Currie JM et al (2004) Subcutaneous adipose tissue blood flow varies between superior and inferior levels of the anterior abdominal wall. Int J Obes 28:228–233Google Scholar
  9. Arrese EL, Soulages JL (2010) Insect fat body: energy, metabolism, and regulation. Annu Rev Entomol 55:207–225PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Ashman RB, Papadimitriou JM (1975) Development of lymphoid tissue in a marsupial, Setonix brachyurus (quokka). Acta Anat 91:594–611PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Au-Yong ITH, Thorn N, Ganatra R et al (2009) Brown adipose tissue and seasonal variation in humans. Diabetes 58:2583–2587PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Barker DJP (2002) Fetal programming of coronary heart disease. Trends Endocrinol Metab 13:364–368PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Battley PF, Piersma T, Dietz MW et al (2000) Empirical evidence for differential organ reductions during trans-oceanic bird flight. Proc Roy Soc Lond Ser B Biol Sci 267:191–195Google Scholar
  14. Bellisari A (2008) Evolutionary origins of obesity. Obes Rev 9:165–180PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Billon N, Iannarelli P, Monteiro MC et al (2007) The generation of adipocytes by the neural crest. Development 134:2283–2292PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Birmingham CL, Hodgson DM, Fung J et al (2003) Reduced febrile response to bacterial infection in anorexia nervosa patients. Int J Eat Disord 34:269–272PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Blüher M (2008) Fat tissue and long life. Obes Facts 1:176–182PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Book DT, Smith TL, McNamar JP et al (2003) Chronic sinonasal disease in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Am J Rhinol 17:87–90PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Boutilier RG (2001) Mechanisms of cell survival in hypoxia and hypothermia. J Exp Biol 204:3171–3181PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Boutilier RG, St Pierre J (2002) Adaptive plasticity of skeletal muscle energetics in hibernating frogs: mitochondrial proton leak during metabolic depression. J Exp Biol 205:2287–2296PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Brasaemle DL, Rubin B, Harten IA et al (2000) Perilipin A increases triacylglycerol storage by decreasing the rate of triacylglycerol hydrolysis. J Biol Chem 275:38486–38493PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Brichard SM, Delporte ML, Lambert M (2003) Adipocytokines in anorexia nervosa: a review focusing on leptin and adiponectin. Horm Metab Res 35:337–342PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Brorson H, Ohlin K, Olsson G et al (2008) Controlled compression and liposuction treatment for lower extremity lymphedema. Lymphology 41:52–63PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Caesar R, Manieri M, Kelder T et al (2010) A combined transcriptomics and lipidomics analysis of subcutaneous, epididymal and mesenteric adipose tissue reveals marked functional differences. PLoS One 5:e11525PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Caillaud D, Levrero F, Gatti S et al (2008) Influence of male morphology on male mating status and behavior during interunit encounters in western lowland gorillas. Am J Phys Anthropol 135:379–388PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Calder PC (2007) Immunomodulation by omega-3 fatty acids. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 77:327–335PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Calder PC, Krauss-Etschmann S, de Jong EC et al (2006) Early nutrition and immunity – progress and perspectives. Br J Nutr 96:774–790PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Cannon B, Nedergaard J (2004) Brown adipose tissue: function and physiological significance. Physiol Rev 84:277–359PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Cannon B, Nedergaard J (2008) Developmental biology – neither fat nor flesh. Nature 454:947–948PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Carey HV, Andrews MT, Martin SL (2003) Mammalian hibernation: cellular and molecular responses to depressed metabolism and low temperature. Physiol Rev 83:1153–1181PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Caro JF, Scutia MK, Kalaczynski JW et al (1996) Leptin, the tale of an obesity gene. Diabetes 45:1455–1462PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Caron-Debarle M, Lagathu C, Boccara F et al (2010) HIV-associated lipodystrophy: from fat injury to premature aging. Trends Mol Med 16:218–229PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Caspar-Bauguil S, Cousin B, Bour S et al (2009) Adipose tissue lymphocytes: types and roles. J Physiol Biochem 65:423–436PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Chaowalit N, Lopez-Jimenez F (2008) Epicardial adipose tissue: friendly companion or hazardous neighbour for adjacent coronary arteries? Eur Heart J 29:695–697PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Cinti S (2007) The adipose organ. In: Fantuzzi G, Mazzone T (eds) Adipose tissue and adipokines in health and disease. Humana Press, TotowaGoogle Scholar
  36. Clauser L, Polito J, Mandrioli S et al (2008) Structural fat grafting in complex reconstructive surgery. J Craniofac Surg 19:187–191PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Cochet N, Georges B, Meister R et al (1999) White adipose tissue fatty acids of alpine marmots during their yearly cycle. Lipids 34:275–281PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Crisan M, Casteilla L, Lehr L et al (2008) A reservoir of brown adipocyte progenitors in human skeletal muscle. Stem Cells 26:2425–2433PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Crivellato E, Ribatti D (2010) The mast cell: an evolutionary perspective. Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 85:347–360PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Curthoys NP, Watford M (1995) Regulation of glutaminase activity and glutamine metabolism. Annu Rev Nutr 15:133–159PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Cypess AM, Lehman S, Williams G et al (2009) Identification and importance of brown adipose tissue in adult humans. New Engl J Med 360:1509–1517PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Dall SRX, Boyd IL (2004) Evolution of mammals: lactation helps mothers to cope with unreliable food supplies. Proc Roy Soc Lond Ser B Biol Sci 271:2049–2057Google Scholar
  43. Dark J (2005) Annual lipid cycles in hibernators: integration of physiology and behavior. Annu Rev Nutr 25:469–497PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Davenport J, Fraher J, Fitzgerald E et al (2009) Fat head: an analysis of head and neck insulation in the leatherback turtle (Dermochelys coriacea). J Exp Biol 212:2753–2759PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Davis E, Olson C (2009) Obesity in pregnancy. Prim Care 36:341–356PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. de Jong-Brink M, ter Maat A, Tensen CP (2001) NPY in invertebrates: molecular answers to altered functions during evolution. Peptides 22:309–315PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. DiAngelo JR, Birnbaum MJ (2009) Regulation of fat cell mass by insulin in Drosophila melanogaster. Mol Cell Biol 29:6341–6352PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Diener E, Ealey EHM (1965) Immune system in a monotreme: studies on the Australian echidna (Tachyglossus aculeatus). Nature 208:950–953PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Digby JE (1998) The role of different adipose depots in glutamine metabolism following feeding, fasting and exercise in the guinea-pig. PhD thesis, The Open University, Milton KeynesGoogle Scholar
  50. Dixon JB (2010) Lymphatic lipid transport: sewer or subway. Trends Endocrinol Metab 21:480–487PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Doyon C, Drouin G, Trudeau VL et al (2001) Molecular evolution of leptin. Gen Comp Endocrinol 124:188–198PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Dridi S, Onagbesan O, Swennen Q et al (2004) Gene expression, tissue distribution and potential physiological role of uncoupling protein in avian species. Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol 139:273–283PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Dufour DL, Sauther ML (2002) Comparative and evolutionary dimensions of the energetics of human pregnancy and lactation. Am J Hum Biol 14:584–602PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Dulloo AG, Gubler M, Montani JP et al (2004) Substrate cycling between de novo lipogenesis and lipid oxidation: a thermogenic mechanism against skeletal muscle lipotoxicity and glucolipotoxicity. Int J Obes 28:S29–S37Google Scholar
  55. Emre Y, Hurtaud C, Ricquier D et al (2007) Avian UCP: the killjoy in the evolution of the mitochondrial uncoupling proteins. J Mol Evol 65:392–402PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Enard D, Depaulis F, Crollius HR (2010) Human and non-human primate genomes share hotspots of positive selection. PLoS Genet 6:e1000840PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Enke U, Seyfarth L, Schleussner E et al (2008) Impact of PUFA on early immune and fetal development. Br J Nutr 100:1158–1168PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Estaquier J, Hurtrel B (2008) Mesenteric lymph nodes, a sanctuary for the persistence of HIV. Med Sci (Paris) 24:1055–1060Google Scholar
  59. Ezure T, Amano S (2010) Increased subcutaneous adipose tissue impairs dermal function in diet-induced obese mice. Exp Dermatol 19:878–882PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Fain JN, Sacks HS, Buehrer B et al (2008) Identification of omentin mRNA in human epicardial adipose tissue: comparison to omentin in subcutaneous, internal mammary artery periadventitial and visceral abdominal depots. Int J Obes 32:810–815Google Scholar
  61. Fain JN, Sacks HS, Bahouth SW et al (2010) Human epicardial adipokine messenger RNAs: comparisons of their expression in substernal, subcutaneous, and omental fat. Metabolism 59:1379–1386PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Falkenstein F, Kortner G, Watson K et al (2001) Dietary fats and body lipid composition in relation to hibernation in free-ranging echidnas. J Comp Physiol B Biochem Syst Environ Physiol 171:189–194Google Scholar
  63. Fantuzzi G, Mazzone T (eds) (2007) Adipose tissue and adipokines in health and disease. Humana Press, TotowaGoogle Scholar
  64. Farmer CG (2000) Parental care: the key to understanding endothermy and other convergent features in birds and mammals. Am Nat 155:326–334PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Farmer CG (2003) Reproduction: the adaptive significance of endothermy. Am Nat 162:826–840PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Fogt F, Zimmerman RL, Daly T et al (2004) Observation of lymphatic vessels in orbital fat of patients with inflammatory conditions: a form fruste of lymphangiogenesis? Int J Mol Med 13:681–683PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Fontana L, Partridge L, Longo VD (2010) Extending healthy life span – from yeast to humans. Science 328:321–326PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Fox CS, Gona P, Hoffmann U et al (2009) Pericardial fat, intrathoracic fat, and measures of left ventricular structure and function. The Framingham Heart Study. Circulation 119:1586–1591PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Frank CL, Karpovich S, Barnes BM (2008) Dietary fatty acid composition and the hibernation patterns in free-ranging arctic ground squirrels. Physiol Biochem Zool 81:486–495PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Frayn KN (2010) Fat as a fuel: emerging understanding of the adipose tissue-skeletal muscle axis. Acta Physiol Scand Suppl 199:509–518Google Scholar
  71. Frye FL (1981) Biomedical and surgical aspects of captive reptile husbandry. Veterinary Medicine Publishing Company, Edwardsville, KansasGoogle Scholar
  72. Galic S, Oakhill JS, Steinberg GR (2010) Adipose tissue as an endocrine organ. Mol Cell Endocrinol 316:129–139PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Gardan D, Gondret F, Louveau I (2006) Lipid metabolism and secretory function of porcine intramuscular adipocytes compared with subcutaneous and perirenal adipocytes. Am J Physiol 291:E372–E380Google Scholar
  74. Garg A (2000) Lipodystrophies. Am J Med 108:143–152PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Gassull MA, Fernández-Bañares F, Cabré E et al (2002) Fat composition may be a clue to explain the primary therapeutic effect of enteral nutrition in Crohn’s disease: results of a double blind randomised multicentre European trial. Gut 51:164–168PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Gazi E, Gardner P, Lockyer NP et al (2007) Direct evidence of lipid translocation between adipocytes and prostate cancer cells with imaging FTIR microspectroscopy. J Lipid Res 48:1846–1856PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Gehring S, Gregory SH, Wintermeyer P et al (2008) Generation and characterization of an immunogenic dendritic cell population. J Immunol Methods 332:18–30PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Geiser F (2008) Ontogeny and phylogeny of endothermy and torpor in mammals and birds. Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol 150:176–180PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Gesta S, Tseng YH, Kahn CR (2007) Developmental origin of fat: tracking obesity to its source. Cell 131:242–256PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Goldman AS (2002) Evolution of the mammary gland defense system and the ontogeny of the immune system. J Mammary Gland Biol Neoplasia 7:277–289PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Gorissen M, Bernier NJ, Nabuurs SB et al (2009) Two divergent leptin paralogues in zebrafish (Danio rerio) that originate early in teleostean evolution. J Endocrinol 201:329–339PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Grigg GC, Beard LA, Augee ML (2004) The evolution of endothermy and its diversity in mammals and birds. Physiol Biochem Zool 77:982–997PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Groscolas R, Frechard F, Decrock F et al (2003) Metabolic fate of yolk fatty acids in the developing king penguin embryo. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 285:R850–R861PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Grossman MI (1979) Chemical messengers: a view from the gut. Fed Proc 38:2341–2343PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Guschina IA, Harwood JL (2006) Mechanisms of temperature adaptation in poikilotherms. FEBS Lett 580:5477–5483PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Gustafson B (2010) Adipose tissue, inflammation and atherosclerosis. J Atheroscler Thromb 17:332–341PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Gyllensten L (1950) The postnatal histogenesis of the lymphatic system of guinea-pigs. Acta Anat 10:130–160PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Harvey NL (2008) The link between lymphatic function and adipose biology. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1131:82–88PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Harvey NL, Srinivasan RS, Dillard ME et al (2005) Lymphatic vascular defects promoted by Prox1 haploinsufficiency cause adult-onset obesity. Nat Genet 37:1072–1081PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Hausman DB, Lu J, Ryan DH et al (2004) Compensatory growth of adipose tissue after partial lipectomy: involvement of serum factors. Exp Biol Med 229:512–520Google Scholar
  91. Hausman GJ, Barb CR, Dean G (2007) Patterns of gene expression in pig adipose tissue: transforming growth factors, interferons, interleukins, and apolipoproteins. J Anim Sci 85:2445–2456PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Hayward SAL, Murray PA, Gracey AY et al (2007) Beyond the lipid hypothesis: mechanisms underlying phenotypic plasticity in inducible cold tolerance. In: Csermely P, Vigh L (eds) Molecular aspects of the stress response: chaperones, membranes and networks. Springer, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  93. Heaton JM (1972) The distribution of brown adipose tissue in the human. J Anat 112:35–39PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Heller AR, Theilen HJ, Koch T (2003) Fish or chips? News Physiol Sci 18:50–54PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Henrichot E, Juge-Aubry CE, Pernin AS et al (2005) Production of chemokines by perivascular adipose tissue – a role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis? Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 25:2594–2599PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Heufelder AE (2001) Interactions of fibroblasts, adipocytes and immunocompetent cells in the pathogenesis of Graves’ ophthalmopathy. Acta Med Austriaca 28:89–92PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Hocquette JF, Gondret F, Baeza E et al (2010) Intramuscular fat content in meat-producing animals: development, genetic and nutritional control, and identification of putative markers. Animal 4:303–319Google Scholar
  98. Hodson L, Fielding BA (2010) Trafficking and partitioning of fatty acids: the transition from fasted to fed state. J Clin Lipidol 5:131–144Google Scholar
  99. Hodson L, McQuaid SE, Karpe F et al (2009) Differences in partitioning of meal fatty acids into blood lipid fractions: a comparison of linoleate, oleate, and palmitate. Am J Physiol 296:E64–E71Google Scholar
  100. Hofbauer KG, Huppertz C (2002) Pharmacotherapy and evolution. Trends Ecol Evol 17:328–334Google Scholar
  101. Hoggan G, Hoggan FE (1879) On the development and retrogression of the fat cell. J R Microsc Soc 2:353–380Google Scholar
  102. Holtta-Vuori M, Salo VTV, Nyberg L et al (2010) Zebrafish: gaining popularity in lipid research. Biochem J 429:235–242PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Horrobin DF (2001) Phospholipid metabolism and depression: the possible roles of phospholipase A(2) and coenzyme A-independent transacylase. Hum Psychopharmacol Clin Exp 16:45–52Google Scholar
  104. Hughes J, Criscuolo F (2008) Evolutionary history of the UCP gene family: gene duplication and selection. BMC Evol Biol 8:306PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Huising MO, Geven EJW, Kruiswijk CP et al (2006) Increased leptin expression in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) after food intake but not after fasting or feeding to satiation. Endocrinology 147:5786–5797PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Hulbert AJ (2008) Explaining longevity of different animals: is membrane fatty acid composition the missing link? Age 30:89–97PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Hulbert AJ, Else PL (2000) Mechanisms underlying the cost of living in animals. Annu Rev Physiol 62:207–235PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Iacobellis G, Barbaro G (2008) The double role of epicardial adipose tissue as pro- and anti-inflammatory organ. Horm Metab Res 40:442–445PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Iacobellis G, Sharma AM (2007) Epicardial adipose tissue as new cardio-metabolic risk marker and potential therapeutic target in the metabolic syndrome. Curr Pharm Des 13:2180–2184PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Iacobellis G, Pond CM, Sharma AM (2006) Different “weight” of cardiac and general adiposity in predicting left ventricle morphology. Obesity 14:1679–1684PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Iacobellis G, Pellicelli AM, Sharma AM et al (2007) Relation of subepicardial adipose tissue to carotid intima-media thickness in patients with human immunodeficiency virus. Am J Cardiol 99:1470–1472PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Iacobellis G, Barbaro G, Gerstein HC (2008a) Relationship of epicardial fat thickness and fasting glucose. Int J Cardiol 128:424–426PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Iacobellis G, Willens HJ, Barbaro G et al (2008b) Threshold values of high-risk echocardiographic epicardial fat thickness. Obesity 16:887–892PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Ito M, Nagasawa M, Hara T et al (2010) Differential roles of CIDEA and CIDEC in insulin-induced anti-apoptosis and lipid droplet formation in human adipocytes. J Lipid Res 51:1676–1684PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Ivanova PT, Milne SB, Forrester JS et al (2004) Lipid arrays: new tools in the understanding of membrane dynamics and lipid signaling. Mol Interv 4:86–96PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. James TN, Sherf L, Schlaut RC et al (1982) Anatomy of the heart. In: Hurst JW (ed) The heart. McGraw-Hill, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  117. Janvier P (2009) The earliest vertebrates and the first steps of the evolution of the skull. Comptes Rendus Palevol 8:209–219Google Scholar
  118. Jastroch M, Wuertz S, Kloas W et al (2005) Uncoupling protein 1 in fish uncovers an ancient evolutionary history of mammalian nonshivering thermogenesis. Physiol Genomics 22:150–156PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. Johnson RW (2002) The concept of sickness behavior: a brief chronological account of four key discoveries. Vet Immunol Immunopathol 87:443–450PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. Kahn JL, Wolfram-Gabel R, Bourjat P (2000) Anatomy and imaging of the deep fat of the face. Clin Anat 13:373–382PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. Kawada T, Sekiguchi T, Sakai T et al (2010) Neuropeptides, hormone peptides, and their receptors in Ciona intestinalis: an update. Zoolog Sci 27:134–153PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Kemp TS (2006) The origin of mammalian endothermy: a paradigm for the evolution of complex biological structure. Zool J Linn Soc 147:473–488Google Scholar
  123. Kim CS, Lee SC, Kim YM et al (2008) Visceral fat accumulation induced by a high-fat diet causes the atrophy of mesenteric lymph nodes in obese mice. Obesity 16:1261–1269PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. Kim SC, Han DJ, Lee JY (2010) Adipose tissue derived stem cells for regeneration and differentiation into insulin-producing cells. Curr Stem Cell Res Ther 5:190–194PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. Kitsantas P, Pawloski LR (2010) Maternal obesity, health status during pregnancy, and breast-feeding initiation and duration. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 23:135–141PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. Klein J, Permana PA, Owecki M et al (2007) What are subcutaneous adipocytes really good for…? Exp Dermatol 16:43–70Google Scholar
  127. Knight SC (2008) Specialized perinodal fat fuels and fashions immunity. Immunity 28:135–138PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. Kolokotrones T, Savage V, Deeds EJ et al (2010) Curvature in metabolic scaling. Nature 464:753–756PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. Kowalski TJ, Wu GY, Watford M (1997) Rat adipose tissue amino acid metabolism in vivo as assessed by microdialysis and arteriovenous techniques. Am J Physiol 273:E613–E622PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. Kozak LP (2010) Brown fat and the myth of diet-induced thermogenesis. Cell Metab 11:263–267PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. Król E, Murphy M, Speakman JR (2007) Limits to sustained energy intake. X. Effects of fur removal on reproductive performance in laboratory mice. J Exp Biol 210:4233–4243PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. Kuzawa CW (1998) Adipose tissue in human infancy and childhood: an evolutionary perspective. Yrbk Phys Anthropol 41:177–209Google Scholar
  133. Langer P (2002) The digestive tract and life history of small mammals. Mammal Rev 32:107–131Google Scholar
  134. Langer P (2003) Lactation, weaning period, food quality, and digestive tract differentiations in eutheria. Evolution 57:1196–1215PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. Langer P (2008) The phases of maternal investment in eutherian mammals. Zoology 111:148–162PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. Langer P (2009) Differences in the composition of colostrum and milk in eutherians reflected differences in immunoglobulins transfer. J Mammal 90:332–339Google Scholar
  137. Larsson TA, Olsson F, Sundstrom G et al (2008) Early vertebrate chromosome duplications and the evolution of the neuropeptide Y receptor gene regions. BMC Evol Biol 8:184PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. Lee RM, Lu C, Su LY et al (2009) Effects of hyperglycemia on the modulation of vascular function by perivascular adipose tissue. J Hypertens 27:118–131PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. Lees J, Nudds R, Stokkan KA et al (2010) Reduced metabolic cost of locomotion in Svalbard rock ptarmigan (Lagopus muta hyperborea) during winter. PLoS One 5:e15490PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. Lefevre CM, Sharp JA, Nicholas KR (2010) Evolution of lactation: ancient origin and extreme adaptations of the lactation system. Annu Rev Genomics Hum Genet 11:219–238PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. Lehmann C, Lafferty M, Garzino-Demo A et al (2010) Plasmacytoid dendritic cells accumulate and secrete interferon alpha in lymph nodes of HIV-1 patients. PLoS One 5:1–12Google Scholar
  142. Lo J, Abbara S, Rocha-Filho JA et al (2010) Increased epicardial adipose tissue volume in HIV-infected men and relationships to body composition and metabolic parameters. AIDS 24:2127–2130PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. Löhn M, Dubrovska G, Lauterbach B et al (2002) Periadventitial fat releases a vascular relaxing factor. FASEB J 16:1057–1063PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. Machann J, Haring H, Schick F et al (2004) Intramyocellular lipids and insulin resistance. Diabetes Obes Metab 6:239–248PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. MacQueen HA, Pond CM (1998) Immunofluorescent localisation of tumour necrosis factor-α receptors on the popliteal lymph node and the surrounding adipose tissue following a simulated immune challenge. J Anat (Lond) 192:223–231Google Scholar
  146. Maillet D, Weber JM (2006) Performance-enhancing role of dietary fatty acids in a long-distance migrant shorebird: the semipalmated sandpiper. J Exp Biol 209:2686–2695PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. Manini TM, Clark BC, Nalls MA et al (2007) Reduced physical activity increases intermuscular adipose tissue in healthy young adults. Am J Clin Nutr 85:377–384PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. Marchington JM, Pond CM (1990) Site-specific properties of pericardial and epicardial adipose tissue: the effects of insulin and high-fat feeding on lipogenesis and the incorporation of fatty acids in vitro. Int J Obes 14:1013–1022PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. Marchington JM, Mattacks CA, Pond CM (1989) Adipose tissue in the mammalian heart and pericardium: structure, foetal development and biochemical properties. Comp Biochem Physiol 94B:225–232Google Scholar
  150. Mattacks CA, Pond CM (1985) The effects of dietary restriction and exercise on the volume of adipocytes in two intra-orbital depots in the guinea-pig. Br J Nutr 53:207–213PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. Mattacks CA, Pond CM (1997) The effects of feeding suet-enriched chow on site-specific differences in the composition of triacylglycerol fatty acids in adipose tissue and its interactions in vitro with lymphoid cells. Br J Nutr 77:621–643PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. Mattacks CA, Pond CM (1999) Interactions of noradrenalin and tumour necrosis factor-α, interleukin-4 and interleukin-6 in the control of lipolysis from adipocytes around lymph nodes. Cytokine 11:334–346PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. Mattacks CA, Sadler D, Pond CM (1987) The effects of exercise on the activities of hexokinase and phosphofructokinase in superficial, intra-abdominal and intermuscular adipose tissue of guinea-pigs. Comp Biochem Physiol 87B:533–542Google Scholar
  154. Mattacks CA, Sadler D, Pond CM (2003) The cellular structure and lipid/protein composition of adipose tissue surrounding chronically stimulated lymph nodes in rats. J Anat (Lond) 202:551–561Google Scholar
  155. Mattacks CA, Sadler D, Pond CM (2004a) The effects of dietary lipids on dendritic cells in perinodal adipose tissue during chronic mild inflammation. Br J Nutr 91:883–891PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. Mattacks CA, Sadler D, Pond CM (2004b) Site-specific differences in the fatty acid compositions of dendritic cells and associated adipose tissue in popliteal depot, mesentery and omentum, and their modulation by chronic inflammation and dietary lipids. Lymphat Res Biol 2:107–129PubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. Mattacks CA, Sadler D, Pond CM (2005) The control of lipolysis in perinodal and other adipocytes by lymph node and adipose tissue-derived dendritic cells in rats. Adipocytes 1:43–56Google Scholar
  158. McClellan HL, Miller SJ, Hartmann PE (2008) Evolution of lactation: nutrition V. Protection with special reference to five mammalian species. Nutr Res Rev 21:97–116PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. McCue MD (2007) Western diamondback rattlesnakes demonstrate physiological and biochemical strategies for tolerating prolonged starvation. Physiol Biochem Zool 80:25–34PubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. McCue MD (2010) Starvation physiology: reviewing the different strategies animals use to survive a common challenge. Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol 156:1–18PubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. McLean DS, Stillman AE (2009) Epicardial adipose tissue as a cardiovascular risk marker. Clin Lipidol 4:55–62Google Scholar
  162. McQuaid SE, Humphreys SM, Hodson L et al (2010) Femoral adipose tissue may accumulate the fat that has been recycled as VLDL and nonesterified fatty acids. Diabetes 59:2465–2473PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. McVeigh P, Kimber MJ, Novozhilova E et al (2005) Neuropeptide signalling systems in flatworms. Parasitology 131:S41–S55PubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. Meyer CW, Willershauser M, Jastroch M et al (2010) Adaptive thermogenesis and thermal conductance in wild-type and UCP1-KO mice. Am J Physiol 299:R1396–R1406Google Scholar
  165. Mezentseva NV, Kumaratilake JS, Newman SA (2008) The brown adipocyte differentiation pathway in birds: an evolutionary road not taken. BMC Biol 6:17PubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. Michaelson D, Korta DZ, Capua Y et al (2010) Insulin signaling promotes germline proliferation in C. elegans. Development 137:671–680PubMedGoogle Scholar
  167. Mostyn A, Symonds ME (2009) Early programming of adipose tissue function: a large-animal perspective. Proc Nutr Soc 68:393–400PubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. Murashita K, Kurokawa T, Nilsen TO et al (2009) Ghrelin, cholecystokinin, and peptide YY in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar): molecular cloning and tissue expression. Gen Comp Endocrinol 160:223–235PubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. Nedergaard J, Connoly E, Cannon B (1986) Brown adipose tissue in the mammalian neonate. In: Trayhurn PN, Nicholls DG (eds) Brown adipose tissue. Edward Arnold, LondonGoogle Scholar
  170. Nedergaard J, Bengtsson T, Cannon B (2007) Unexpected evidence for active brown adipose tissue in adult humans. Am J Physiol 293:E444–E452Google Scholar
  171. Newsholme EA, Leech A (2010) Functional biochemistry in health and disease. Wiley-Blackwell, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  172. Nishio SI, Gibert Y, Bernard L et al (2008) Adiponectin and adiponectin receptor genes are coexpressed during zebrafish embryogenesis and regulated by food deprivation. Dev Dynam 237:1682–1690Google Scholar
  173. Nova E, Samartin S, Gomez S et al (2002) The adaptive response of the immune system to the particular malnutrition of eating disorders. Eur J Clin Nutr 56:S34–S37PubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. Okamoto N, Yamanaka N, Yagi Y et al (2009) A fat body-derived IGF-like peptide regulates post-feeding growth in Drosophila. Dev Cell 17:885–891PubMedGoogle Scholar
  175. Oláh I, Glick B (1983) Avian lymph nodes: light and electron microscope study. Anat Rec 205:287–299PubMedGoogle Scholar
  176. Old JM, Deane EM (2001) Histology and immunohistochemistry of the gut-associated lymphoid tissue of the eastern grey kangaroo, Macropus giganteus. J Anat 199:657–662PubMedGoogle Scholar
  177. Oliphant LW (1983) First observations of brown fat in birds. Condor 85:350–354Google Scholar
  178. Ouwens DM, Sell H, Greulich S et al (2010) The role of epicardial and perivascular adipose tissue in the pathophysiology of cardiovascular disease. J Cell Mol Med 14:2223–2234PubMedGoogle Scholar
  179. Park BH, Lee Y, Walton M et al (2004) Demonstration of reverse fatty acid transport from rat cardiomyocytes. J Lipid Res 45:1992–1999PubMedGoogle Scholar
  180. Pedersen BK (2011) Muscles and their myokines. J Exp Biol 214:337–346PubMedGoogle Scholar
  181. Pereira ME, Pond CM (1995) Organization of white adipose tissue in lemuridae. Am J Primatol 35:1–13Google Scholar
  182. Perwitz N, Wenzel J, Wagner I et al (2010) Cannabinoid type 1 receptor blockade induces transdifferentiation towards a brown fat phenotype in white adipocytes. Diabetes Obes Metab 12:158–166PubMedGoogle Scholar
  183. Piersma T, Gudmundsson GA, Lilliendahl K (1999) Rapid changes in the size of different functional organ and muscle groups during refueling in a long-distance migrating shorebird. Physiol Biochem Zool 72:405–415PubMedGoogle Scholar
  184. Pond CM (1977) The significance of lactation in the evolution of mammals. Evolution 13:177–199Google Scholar
  185. Pond CM (1992) An evolutionary and functional view of mammalian adipose tissue. Proc Nutr Soc 51:367–377PubMedGoogle Scholar
  186. Pond CM (1996) Interactions between adipose tissue and the immune system. Proc Nutr Soc 55:111–126PubMedGoogle Scholar
  187. Pond CM (1998) The fats of life. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  188. Pond CM (2003a) The contribution of wild animal biology to human physiology and medicine. Écoscience 10:1–9Google Scholar
  189. Pond CM (2003b) Paracrine interactions of mammalian adipose tissue. J Exp Zool 295A:99–110Google Scholar
  190. Pond CM (2005) Adipose tissue and the immune system. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 73:17–30PubMedGoogle Scholar
  191. Pond CM (2007) Interactions of adipose and lymphoid tissues. In: Fantuzzi G, Mazzone T (eds) Adipose tissue and adipokines in health and disease. Humana Press, TotowaGoogle Scholar
  192. Pond CM (2009) Paracrine provision of lipids in the immune system. Curr Immunol Rev 5:150–160Google Scholar
  193. Pond CM, Mattacks CA (1984) Anatomical organization of adipose tissue in chelonians. Br J Herpetol 6:402–405Google Scholar
  194. Pond CM, Mattacks CA (1985a) Cellular organization of adipose tissue in birds. J Morphol 185:194–202Google Scholar
  195. Pond CM, Mattacks CA (1985b) Body mass and natural diet as determinants of the number and volume of adipocytes in eutherian mammals. J Morphol 185:183–193Google Scholar
  196. Pond CM, Mattacks CA (1985c) Anatomical organization of mammalian adipose tissue. In: Duncker HR, Fleischer G (eds) Functional morphology in vertebrates. Springer, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  197. Pond CM, Mattacks CA (1986) Allometry of the cellular structure of intra-orbital adipose tissue in eutherian mammals. J Zool (Lond) 209:35–42Google Scholar
  198. Pond CM, Mattacks CA (1987) The anatomy of adipose tissue in captive Macaca monkeys and its implications for human biology. Folia Primatol 48:164–185PubMedGoogle Scholar
  199. Pond CM, Mattacks CA (1989) Biochemical correlates of the structural allometry and site-specific properties of mammalian adipose tissue. Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol 92:455–463Google Scholar
  200. Pond CM, Mattacks CA (1991) The effects of noradrenalin and insulin on lipolysis in adipocytes isolated from nine different adipose depots of guinea-pigs. Int J Obes 15:609–618PubMedGoogle Scholar
  201. Pond CM, Mattacks CA (1995) Interactions between adipose tissue around lymph nodes and lymphoid cells in vitro. J Lipid Res 36:2219–2231PubMedGoogle Scholar
  202. Pond CM, Mattacks CA (1998) In vivo evidence for the involvement of the adipose tissue surrounding lymph nodes in immune responses. Immunol Lett 63:159–167PubMedGoogle Scholar
  203. Pond CM, Mattacks CA (2002) The activation of adipose tissue associated with lymph nodes during the early stages of an immune response. Cytokine 17:131–139PubMedGoogle Scholar
  204. Pond CM, Mattacks CA (2003) The source of fatty acids incorporated into proliferating lymphoid cells in immune-stimulated lymph nodes. Br J Nutr 89:375–382PubMedGoogle Scholar
  205. Pond CM, Ramsay MA (1992) Allometry of the distribution of adipose tissue in Carnivora. Can J Zool 70:342–347Google Scholar
  206. Pond CM, Mattacks CA, Sadler D (1984) The effects of food restriction and exercise on site-specific differences in adipocyte volume and adipose tissue cellularity. 2. Intermuscular sites. Br J Nutr 51:425–433PubMedGoogle Scholar
  207. Pond CM, Mattacks CA, Colby RH et al (1992) The anatomy, chemical composition and metabolism of adipose tissue in wild polar bears (Ursus maritimus). Can J Zool 70:326–341Google Scholar
  208. Pond CM, Mattacks CA, Colby RH et al (1993) The anatomy, chemical composition and maximum glycolytic capacity of adipose tissue in wild Svalbard reindeer (Rangifer tarandus platyrhynchus) in winter. J Zool (Lond) 229:17–40Google Scholar
  209. Pond CM, Mattacks CA, Prestrud P (1995) Variability in the distribution and composition of adipose tissue in arctic foxes (Alopex lagopus) on Svalbard. J Zool (Lond) 236:593–610Google Scholar
  210. Pontzer H, Raichlen DA, Shumaker RW et al (2010) Metabolic adaptation for low energy throughput in orangutans. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 107:14048–14052PubMedGoogle Scholar
  211. Poulos SP, Hausman DB, Hausman GJ (2010) The development and endocrine functions of adipose tissue. Mol Cell Endocrinol 323:20–34PubMedGoogle Scholar
  212. Power ML, Schulkin J (2009) The evolution of obesity. The Johns Hopkins University Press, BaltimoreGoogle Scholar
  213. Prendergast BJ, Freeman DA, Zucker I et al (2002) Periodic arousal from hibernation is necessary for initiation of immune responses in ground squirrels. Am J Physiol 282:R1054–R1062Google Scholar
  214. Prentice AM (2005) Starvation in humans: evolutionary background and contemporary implications. Mech Ageing Dev 126:976–981PubMedGoogle Scholar
  215. Prentice AM, Rayco-Solon P, Moore SE (2005) Insights from the developing world: thrifty genotypes and thrifty phenotypes. Proc Nutr Soc 64:153–161PubMedGoogle Scholar
  216. Price ER, Krokfors A, Guglielmo CG (2008) Selective mobilization of fatty acids from adipose tissue in migratory birds. J Exp Biol 211:29–34PubMedGoogle Scholar
  217. Puri V, Konda S, Ranjit S et al (2007) Fat-specific protein 27, a novel lipid droplet protein that enhances triglyceride storage. J Biol Chem 282:34213–34218PubMedGoogle Scholar
  218. Qatanani M, Szwergold NR, Greaves DR et al (2009) Macrophage-derived human resistin exacerbates adipose tissue inflammation and insulin resistance in mice. J Clin Invest 119:531–539PubMedGoogle Scholar
  219. Quehenberger O, Armando A, Dumlao D et al (2008) Lipidomics analysis of essential fatty acids in macrophages. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 79:123–129PubMedGoogle Scholar
  220. Rabkin SW (2007) Epicardial fat: properties, function and relationship to obesity. Obes Rev 8:253–261PubMedGoogle Scholar
  221. Raclot T (2003) Selective mobilization of fatty acids from adipose tissue triacylglycerols. Prog Lipid Res 42:257–288PubMedGoogle Scholar
  222. Raclot T, Groscolas R (1993) Differential mobilization of white adipose tissue fatty acids according to chain length, unsaturation, and positional isomerism. J Lipid Res 34:1515–1526PubMedGoogle Scholar
  223. Raimbault S, Dridi S, Denjean F et al (2001) An uncoupling protein homologue putatively involved in facultative muscle thermogenesis in birds. Biochem J 353:441–444PubMedGoogle Scholar
  224. Rajsheker S, Manka D, Blomkalns AL et al (2010) Crosstalk between perivascular adipose tissue and blood vessels. Curr Opin Pharmacol 10:191–196PubMedGoogle Scholar
  225. Ramsay MA, Stirling I (1988) Reproductive biology and ecology of female polar bears (Ursus maritimus). J Zool 214:601–634Google Scholar
  226. Rasmussen AT (1922) The glandular status of the brown multilocular adipose tissue. Endocrinology 6:760–770Google Scholar
  227. Rasmussen AT (1923) The so-called hibernating gland. J Morphol 38:147–193Google Scholar
  228. Rey B, Sibille B, Romestaing C et al (2008) Reptilian uncoupling protein: functionality and expression in sub-zero temperatures. J Exp Biol 211:1456–1462PubMedGoogle Scholar
  229. Rodeheffer MS, Birsoy K, Friedman JM (2008) Identification of white adipocyte progenitor cells in vivo. Cell 135:240–249PubMedGoogle Scholar
  230. Ronnestad I, Nilsen TO, Murashita K et al (2010) Leptin and leptin receptor genes in Atlantic salmon: cloning, phylogeny, tissue distribution and expression correlated to long-term feeding status. Gen Comp Endocrinol 168:55–70PubMedGoogle Scholar
  231. Rothwell NJ, Stock MJ (1979) Role for brown adipose tissue in diet-induced thermogenesis. Nature 281:31–35PubMedGoogle Scholar
  232. Rothwell NJ, Stock MJ (1984) Brown adipose tissue. Rec Adv Physiol 10:208–233Google Scholar
  233. Roy SS, Mukherjee M, Bhattacharya S et al (2003) A new cell secreting insulin. Endocrinology 144:1585–1593PubMedGoogle Scholar
  234. Saarela S, Hissa R, Pyornila A et al (1989) Do birds possess brown adipose tissue? Comp Biochem Physiol 92A:219–228Google Scholar
  235. Sacks HS, Fain JN (2007) Human epicardial adipose tissue: a review. Am Heart J 153:907–917PubMedGoogle Scholar
  236. Sacks HS, Fain JN, Holman B et al (2009) Uncoupling protein-1 and related messenger ribonucleic acids in human epicardial and other adipose tissues: epicardial fat functioning as brown fat. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 94:3611–3615PubMedGoogle Scholar
  237. Sadler D, Mattacks CA, Pond CM (2005) Changes in adipocytes and dendritic cells in lymph node-containing adipose depots during and after many weeks of mild inflammation. J Anat 207:761–789Google Scholar
  238. Samson SL, Chan L (2006) Gene therapy for diabetes: reinventing the islet. Trends Endocrinol Metab 17:92–100PubMedGoogle Scholar
  239. Savage DB, Murgatroyd PR, Chatterjee VK et al (2005) Energy expenditure and adaptive responses to an acute hypercaloric fat load in humans with lipodystrophy. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 90:1446–1452PubMedGoogle Scholar
  240. Savage VM, Allen AP, Brown JH et al (2007) Scaling of number, size, and metabolic rate of cells with body size in mammals. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 104:4718–4723PubMedGoogle Scholar
  241. Schäffler A, Büchler C (2007) Concise review: adipose tissue-derived stromal cells – basic and clinical implications for novel cell-based therapies. Stem Cells 25:818–827PubMedGoogle Scholar
  242. Schäffler A, Müller-Ladner U, Schölmerich J et al (2006) Role of adipose tissue as an inflammatory organ in human diseases. Endocr Rev 27:449–467PubMedGoogle Scholar
  243. Schleucher E (2004) Torpor in birds: taxonomy, energetics, and ecology. Physiol Biochem Zool 77:942–949PubMedGoogle Scholar
  244. Schwartz SM, Kemnitz JW, Howard CF Jr (1993) Obesity in free-ranging rhesus macaques. Int J Obes 17:1–9Google Scholar
  245. Secor SM, Diamond J (1997) Determinants of the postfeeding metabolic response of Burmese pythons, Python molurus. Physiol Zool 70:202–212PubMedGoogle Scholar
  246. Secor SM, Diamond J (1999) Maintenance of digestive performance in the turtles Chelydra serpentina, Sternotherus odoratus, and Trachemys scripta. Copeia 1999:75–84Google Scholar
  247. Serhan CN, Yacoubian S, Yang R (2008) Anti-inflammatory and proresolving lipid mediators. Annu Rev Pathol Mech Dis 3:279–312Google Scholar
  248. Shaw HM, Vazquez OT, McGonagle D et al (2008) Development of the human Achilles tendon enthesis organ. J Anat 213:718–724PubMedGoogle Scholar
  249. Shen WJ, Patel S, Miyoshi H et al (2009) Functional interaction of hormone-sensitive lipase and perilipin in lipolysis. J Lipid Res 50:2306–2313PubMedGoogle Scholar
  250. Silva JE (2006) Thermogenic mechanisms and their hormonal regulation. Physiol Rev 86:435–464PubMedGoogle Scholar
  251. Simandle E, Espinoza RE, Nussear KE et al (2001) Lizards, lipids, and dietary links to animal function. Physiol Biochem Zool 74:625–640PubMedGoogle Scholar
  252. Slaidina M, Delanoue R, Gronke S et al (2009) A Drosophila insulin-like peptide promotes growth during non-feeding states. Dev Cell 17:874–884PubMedGoogle Scholar
  253. Solfrizzi V, Frisardi V, Capurso C et al (2010) Dietary fatty acids in dementia and predementia syndromes: epidemiological evidence and possible underlying mechanisms. Ageing Res Rev 9:184–199PubMedGoogle Scholar
  254. Soltis EE, Cassis LA (1991) Influence of perivascular adipose tissue on rat aortic smooth muscle responsiveness. Clin Exp Hypertens A13:277–296Google Scholar
  255. Song Y, Cone RD (2007) Creation of a genetic model of obesity in a teleost. FASEB J 21:2042–2049PubMedGoogle Scholar
  256. Spalding KL, Arner E, Westermark PO et al (2008) Dynamics of fat cell turnover in humans. Nature 453:783–787PubMedGoogle Scholar
  257. Speake BK, Thompson MB (1999) Comparative aspects of yolk lipid utilisation in birds and reptiles. Poultry Avian Biol Rev 10:181–211Google Scholar
  258. Speake BK, Noble RC, Murray AMB (1998) The utilization of yolk lipids by the chick embryo. Worlds Poult Sci J 54:319–334Google Scholar
  259. Speake BK, Thompson MB, McCartney RJ (1999) Lipid composition of eggs of an oviparous lizard (Bassiana duperreyi). Lipids 34:1207–1210PubMedGoogle Scholar
  260. Speake BK, Thompson MB, Thacker FE et al (2003) Distribution of lipids from the yolk to the tissues during development of the water python (Liasis fuscus). J Comp Physiol B Biochem Syst Environ Physiol 173:541–547Google Scholar
  261. Speakman JR (2008) The physiological costs of reproduction in small mammals. Philos Trans Roy Soc B 363:375–398Google Scholar
  262. Stano P, Luisi PL (2010) Achievements and open questions in the self-reproduction of vesicles and synthetic minimal cells. Chem Commun 46:3639–3653Google Scholar
  263. Stillaert FB, Abberton KM, Keramidaris E et al (2010) Intrinsics and dynamics of fat grafts: an in vitro study. Plast Reconstr Surg 126:1155–1162PubMedGoogle Scholar
  264. Stirling JL, Stock MJ (1968) Metabolic origins of thermogenesis induced by diet. Nature 220:801PubMedGoogle Scholar
  265. Straub RH, Cutolo M, Buttgereit F et al (2010) Energy regulation and neuroendocrine-immune control in chronic inflammatory diseases. J Intern Med 267:543–560PubMedGoogle Scholar
  266. Stuebe AM, Rich-Edwards JW (2009) The reset hypothesis: lactation and maternal metabolism. Am J Perinatol 26:81–88PubMedGoogle Scholar
  267. Swifka J, Weiss J, Addicks K et al (2008) Epicardial fat from guinea pig: a model to study the paracrine network of interactions between epicardial fat and myocardium? Cardiovasc Drugs Ther 22:107–114PubMedGoogle Scholar
  268. Symonds ME, Mostyn A, Pearce S et al (2003) Endocrine and nutritional regulation of fetal adipose tissue development. J Endocrinol 179:293–299PubMedGoogle Scholar
  269. Symonds ME, Sebert SP, Hyatt MA et al (2009) Nutritional programming of the metabolic syndrome. Nat Rev Endocrinol 5:604–610PubMedGoogle Scholar
  270. Szczepaniak LS, Victor RG, Orci L et al (2007) Forgotten but not gone the rediscovery of fatty heart, the most common unrecognized disease in America. Circ Res 101:759–767PubMedGoogle Scholar
  271. Szostak JW, Bartel DP, Luisi PL (2001) Synthesizing life. Nature 409:387–390PubMedGoogle Scholar
  272. Takaoka M, Suzuki H, Shioda S et al (2010) Endovascular injury induces rapid phenotypic changes in perivascular adipose tissue. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 30:1576–1582PubMedGoogle Scholar
  273. Taouis M, Dridi S, Cassy S et al (2001) Chicken leptin: properties and actions. Domest Anim Endocrinol 21:319–327PubMedGoogle Scholar
  274. Theobald P, Bydder G, Dent C et al (2006) The functional anatomy of Kager’s fat pad in relation to retrocalcaneal problems and other hindfoot disorders. J Anat 208:91–97PubMedGoogle Scholar
  275. Thorpe SKS, Crompton RH, Alexander RM (2007) Orangutans use compliant branches to lower the energetic cost of locomotion. Biol Lett 3:253–256PubMedGoogle Scholar
  276. Timmons JA, Wennmalm K, Larsson O et al (2007) Myogenic gene expression signature establishes that brown and white adipocytes originate from distinct cell lineages. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 104:4401–4406PubMedGoogle Scholar
  277. Todorcevic M, Skugor S, Krasnov A et al (2010) Gene expression profiles in Atlantic salmon adipose-derived stromo-vascular fraction during differentiation into adipocytes. BMC Genomics 11:39PubMedGoogle Scholar
  278. Trayhurn P, Beattie JH (2001) Physiological role of adipose tissue: white adipose tissue as an endocrine and secretory organ. Proc Nutr Soc 60:329–339PubMedGoogle Scholar
  279. Trebble TM, Arden NK, Wootton SA et al (2004) Peripheral blood mononuclear cell fatty acid composition and inflammatory mediator production in adult Crohn’s disease. Clin Nutr 23:647–655PubMedGoogle Scholar
  280. Unger RH (2002) Lipotoxic diseases. Annu Rev Med 53:319–336PubMedGoogle Scholar
  281. Unger RH (2003) The physiology of cellular liporegulation. Annu Rev Physiol 65:333–347PubMedGoogle Scholar
  282. Unger RH, Scherer PE (2010) Gluttony, sloth and the metabolic syndrome: a roadmap to lipotoxicity. Trends Endocrinol Metab 21:345–352PubMedGoogle Scholar
  283. Vaillancourt E, Weber JM (2007) Lipid mobilization of long-distance migrant birds in vivo: the high lipolytic rate of ruff sandpipers is not stimulated during shivering. J Exp Biol 210:1161–1169PubMedGoogle Scholar
  284. van Harmelen V, Skurk T, Rohrig K et al (2003) Effect of BMI and age on adipose tissue cellularity and differentiation capacity in women. Int J Obes 27:889–895Google Scholar
  285. van Loon LJC, Goodpaster BH (2006) Increased intramuscular lipid storage in the insulin-resistant and endurance-trained state. Pflugers Arch 451:606–616PubMedGoogle Scholar
  286. Verlohren S, Dubrovska G, Tsang SY et al (2004) Visceral periadventitial adipose tissue regulates arterial tone of mesenteric arteries. Hypertension 44:271–276PubMedGoogle Scholar
  287. Vettor R, Milan G, Franzin C et al (2009) The origin of intermuscular adipose tissue and its pathophysiological implications. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 297:E987–E998Google Scholar
  288. Villaret A, Galitzky J, Decaunes P et al (2010) Adipose tissue endothelial cells from obese human subjects: differences among depots in angiogenic, metabolic, and inflammatory gene expression and cellular senescence. Diabetes 59:2755–2763PubMedGoogle Scholar
  289. Walden TB, Timmons JA, Keller P et al (2009) Distinct expression of muscle-specific microRNAs (myomirs) in brown adipocytes. J Cell Physiol 218:444–449PubMedGoogle Scholar
  290. Walter I, Seebacher F (2009) Endothermy in birds: underlying molecular mechanisms. J Exp Biol 212:2328–2336PubMedGoogle Scholar
  291. Warner DA, Bonnet X, Hobson KA et al (2008) Lizards combine stored energy and recently acquired nutrients flexibly to fuel reproduction. J Anim Ecol 77:1242–1249PubMedGoogle Scholar
  292. Weber JM (2009) The physiology of long-distance migration: extending the limits of endurance metabolism. J Exp Biol 212:593–597PubMedGoogle Scholar
  293. Wehner JR, Baldwin WM (2010) Cardiac allograft vasculopathy: do adipocytes bridge alloimmune and metabolic risk factors? Curr Opin Organ Transplant 15:639–644PubMedGoogle Scholar
  294. Weissengruber GE, Egger GF, Hutchinson JR et al (2006) The structure of the cushions in the feet of African elephants (Loxodonta africana). J Anat 209:781–792PubMedGoogle Scholar
  295. Wells JCK (2006) The evolution of human fatness and susceptibility to obesity: an ethological approach. Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 81:183–205PubMedGoogle Scholar
  296. Wells JCK (2009) Thrift: a guide to thrifty genes, thrifty phenotypes and thrifty norms. Int J Obes 33:1331–1338Google Scholar
  297. Wells JCK (2010) The evolutionary biology of human body fatness: thrift and control. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  298. Wells JCK, Stock JT (2007) The biology of the colonizing ape. Yrbk Phys Anthropol 50:191–222Google Scholar
  299. Westcott EDA, Windsor ACJ, Mattacks CA et al (2005) Fatty acid compositions of lipids in mesenteric adipose tissue and lymphoid cells in patients with and without Crohn’s disease and their therapeutic implications. Inflamm Bowel Dis 11:820–827PubMedGoogle Scholar
  300. Wijers SLJ, Saris WHM, Lichtenbelt WDV (2009) Recent advances in adaptive thermogenesis: potential implications for the treatment of obesity. Obes Rev 10:218–226PubMedGoogle Scholar
  301. Wolfram-Gabel R, Kahn JL (2002) Adipose body of the orbit. Clin Anat 15:186–192PubMedGoogle Scholar
  302. Wrangham R (2009) Catching fire. How cooking made us human. Profile Books, EnglandGoogle Scholar
  303. Wu CY, Zhang YX, Sun ZR et al (2008) Molecular evolution of CIDE family proteins: novel domain formation in early vertebrates and the subsequent divergence. BMC Evol Biol 8:159PubMedGoogle Scholar
  304. Wygoda ML (1987) Cutaneous and subcutaneous adipose tissue in anuran amphibians. Copeia 1031–1035Google Scholar
  305. Xue Y, Petrovic N, Cao RH et al (2009) Hypoxia-independent angiogenesis in adipose tissues during cold acclimation. Cell Metab 9:99–109PubMedGoogle Scholar
  306. Yousuf S, Tubbs RS, Wartmann CT et al (2010) A review of the gross anatomy, functions, pathology, and clinical uses of the buccal fat pad. Surg Radiol Anat 32:427–436PubMedGoogle Scholar
  307. Zapata A, Amemiya CT (2000) Phylogeny of lower vertebrates and their immunological structures. Curr Topic Microbiol Immunol 248:67–107Google Scholar
  308. Zhou YR, Song JG (2004) The immune function of adipose tissue. Prog Biochem Biophys 31:679–683Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Life SciencesThe Open UniversityMilton KeynesUK

Personalised recommendations