Hybrid Technology

  • Surinder K. Gupta
  • Aditya Pratap
  • Debjyoti Sen Gupta
  • Neha Rajan
  • Veena D. Ganeshan


Development of commercial hybrids is one of the most preferred goals in any crop improvement programme since it offers an opportunity to harvest significantly better yields from a uniform crop due to the effects of heterosis. Heterosis is the superior performance of the heterozygous hybrid progeny over both the homozygous parents. Male sterility is an effective way of producing hybrid varieties since it avoids the need for labour-intensive hand emasculation and offers absolute male sterility, thereby avoiding the chances of selfing. While cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) is maternally inherited and results in complete male sterility, the seed production plots of genetic male sterile females contain 50% female fertile plants which need to be rouged out before pollination takes place, and are hence an inferior option to CMS. In the major oilseed crops of the world, possibilities of development of hybrid varieties have been explored and extensive efforts have been made on identification of male sterility systems. While rapeseed-mustard is perhaps the most successful with regard to identification and utilization of male sterility systems, other crops such as sunflower, linseed and cottonseed, despite reporting a number of successful male sterility systems, have not been commercially exploited to that extent. In cottonseed, hybrid seed production is still largely dependent on hand emasculation and pollination, while the use of only one CMS source in sunflower has led to considerable reduction in variability, making the crop vulnerable to attacks by insects, pests and diseases. Commercial soybean hybrids have also not been successful, mainly due to the absence of stable male sterility-female fertility systems. This chapter elaborates the significant developments made in male sterility systems and hybrid seed production in major oilseed crops of the world and also discusses problems and prospects in this technology.


Cytoplasmic male sterility Hybrid production Heterosis Rapeseed-mustard Cottonseed Linseed Sunflower 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Surinder K. Gupta
    • 1
  • Aditya Pratap
    • 2
  • Debjyoti Sen Gupta
    • 2
  • Neha Rajan
    • 2
  • Veena D. Ganeshan
    • 3
  1. 1.Division of Plant Breeding and GeneticsSher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Jammu, FOAChathaIndia
  2. 2.Crop Improvement DivisionIndian Institute of Pulses ResearchKanpurIndia
  3. 3.Department of Horticulture and Crop Science, Kottman HallOhio State UniversityColumbusUSA

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