Locating Neighborhood Parks with a Lexicographic Multiobjective Optimization Method

  • Jorge A. Sefair
  • Adriana Molano
  • Andrés L. MedagliaEmail author
  • Olga L. Sarmiento
Part of the International Series in Operations Research & Management Science book series (ISOR, volume 167)


In rapidly urbanized and dense cities public parks, open green spaces, and recreational infrastructure have been associated with physical and mental health, quality of life (Sarmiento etal., 2010), promotion of healthy life style, and social, economic, and environmental benefits (Li, Wang, Paulussen, & Liu, 2005; Coley, Kuo, & Sullivan, 1997). Urban parks promote healthy lifestyles including physical activity (Gómez etal.2010a, 2010b; Humpel, Owen, & Leslie, 2002; Bedimo-Rung, Mowen, & Cohen, 2005), contributing to the prevention of chronic diseases (Andersen, Schnohr, Schroll, & Hein, 2000; Cohen et al., 2007; Yancey et al., 2007; Floyd, Spengler, Maddock, Gobster, & Suau, 2008). In addition, urban parks also offer communities a space to socialize (Gobster, 1998; Seeland, Dübendorfer, & Hansmann, 2009), experience nature, relax, and even contribute to climate stabilization (Chiesura, 2004; Nilsson etal., 2007 del Saz & García, 2007).


Multiobjective Optimization Facility Location Service Area Negative Externality Connectivity Index 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



The authors would like to thank the contributions of Liliana Ospina (team leader), Janneth Segura, Libia Martínez, Diego Cala, and Diana Restrepo, planners from the Gerencia de Equipamientos Deportivos y Recreativos (Office of Sports and Recreation Facilities of Bogotá) at IDRD. We would also like to thank Olga Silva and Diego Montero from IDRD’s Construction Office; and to Liliana Ricardo and Rafael Sáenz from the Public Space Committee. We are grateful with Jose David Pinzón from Universidad Jorge Tadeo Lozano for his advice on ArcGIS. We thank Fair Isaac Corporation (FICO) for providing us with Xpress-MP licenses under the Academic Partner Program subscribed with Universidad de los Andes. Finally, we thank the Departamento Nacional de Planeación – DNP (the Colombian Planning Department) for their financial support under DNP’s 50th Anniversary Essay Competition. The constructive comments of the book editor, Prof. Michael Johnson, and two anonymous reviewers greatly improved the chapter.


  1. Alves, M.J., & Clímaco, J. (2007). A review of interactive methods for multiobjective integer and mixed-integer programming. European Journal of Operational Research, 180(1), 99–115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Andersen, L.B., Schnohr, P., Schroll, M., & Hein, H.O. (2000). All-cause mortality associated with physical activity during leisure time, work, sports, and cycling to work. Archives of Internal Medicine, 160(11), 1621–1628.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Badri, M.A., Mortagy, A.K., & Alsayed, A. (1998). A multi-objective model for locating fire stations. European Journal of Operational Research, 110(2), 243–260.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bedimo-Rung, A.L., Mowen, A.J., & Cohen, D.A. (2005). The significance of parks to physical activity and public health: A conceptual model. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 28(2S2), 159–168.Google Scholar
  5. Boffey, B., Yates, D., & Galvão, R.D. (2003). An algorithm to locate perinatal facilities in the municipality of Rio de Janeiro. Journal of Operations Research Society, 54(1), 21–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Brans, J.-P., Vincke, P., & Mareschal, B. (1986). How to select and how to rank projects: The PROMETHEE method. European Journal of Operational Research, 24(2), 228–238.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Chankong, V. & Haimes, Y.Y. (1983). Multiobjective decision making: Theory and methodology. New York.Google Scholar
  8. Chiesura, A. (2004). The role of urban parks for the sustainable city. Landscape and Urban Planning, 68(1), 129–138.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Cohen, D.A., McKenzie, T.L., Sehgal, A., Williamson, S., Golinelli, D., & Lurie, N. (2007). Contribution of public parks to physical activity. American Journal of Public Health, 97(3), 509–514.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Coley, R.L., Kuo, F.E., & Sullivan, W.C. (1997). Where does community grow? The social context created by nature in urban public housing. Environment and Behavior, 29(4), 468–494.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Daskin, M.S. (2008). What you should know about location modeling. Naval Research Logistics, 55(4), 283–294.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Dekle, J., Lavieri, M.S., Martin, E., Emir-Farinas, H., & Francis, R.L. (2005). A Florida county locates disaster recovery centers. Interfaces, 35(2), 133–139.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. del Saz, S. & García, L. (2007). Estimating the non-market benefits of an urban park: Does proximity matter? Land Use Policy, 24(1), 296–305.Google Scholar
  14. Departamento Administrativo Nacional de Estadística deColombia (DANE). (2007). Proyecciones nacionales y departamentales de población 2006–2020 (National and regional population trends 2006–2020). Accessed 16 Feb 2009.
  15. Departamento Administrativo Nacional de Estadística deColombia (DANE). (2010). Proyecciones de población de Bogotá 2006–2015 (Bogotá’s population trends 2006–2015). Accessed 22 June 2010.
  16. Environmental Sciences ResearchInstitute (ESRI) (2004). ArcGIS 9: Getting started with ArcGIS. ESRI Press, Redlands, CA.Google Scholar
  17. Erkip, F. (1997). The distribution of urban public services: The case of parks and recreational services in Ankara. Cities, 14(6), 353–361.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Faghri, A., Lang, A., Hamad, K., & Henck, H. (2002). Integrated knowledge-based geographic information system for determining optimal location of park-and-ride facilities. Journal of Urban Planning and Development, 128(1), 18–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Farahani, R.Z., SteadieSeifi, M., & Asgari, N. (2010). Multiple criteria facility location problems: A survey. Applied Mathematical Modelling, 34(7), 1689–1709.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Farhan, B. & Murray, A.T. (2008). Siting park-and-ride facilities using a multi-objective spatial optimization model. Computers and Operations Research, 35(2), 445–456.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Floyd, M.F., Spengler, J.O., Maddock, J.E., Gobster, P.H., & Suau, L.J. (2008). Park-based physical activity in diverse communities of two U.S. cities: An observational study. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 34(4), 299–305.Google Scholar
  22. Galvão, R.D., Acosta-Espejo, L.G., & Boffey, B. (2002). hierarchical model for the location of perinatal facilities in the municipality of Rio de Janeiro. European Journal of Operational Research, 138(3), 495–517.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Gobster, P.H. (1998). Urban parks as green walls or green magnets? Interracial relations in neighborhood boundary parks. Landscape and Urban Planning, 41(1), 43–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Goicoechea, A., Hansen, D.R., & Duckstein, L. (1982). Multiobjective decision analysis with engineering and business applications. Wiley, New York.Google Scholar
  25. Gómez, L.F., Parra, D.C., Buchner, D., Brownson, R., Sarmiento, O.L., Pinzón, J.D., et al., (2010a). Built environment attributes and walking patterns among the elderly population in Bogotá. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 38(6), 592–599.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Gómez, L.F., Sarmiento, O.L., Parra, D.C., Schmid, T., Pratt, M., Jacoby, E., et al. (2010b). Characteristics of the built environment associated with leisure-time physical activity among adults in Bogotá, Colombia: A multilevel study. Journal of Physical Activity and Health, 7(2), S193–S203.Google Scholar
  27. Horner, M.W. & Grubesic, T.H. (2001). A GIS-based planning approach to locating urban rail terminals. Transportation, 28(1), 55–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Humpel, N., Owen, N., & Leslie, E. (2002). Environmental factors associated with adults’ participation in physical activity: A review. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 22(3), 188–199.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Kaczynski, A.T. & Henderson, K.A. (2007). Environmental correlates of physical activity: A review of evidence about parks and recreation. Leisure Sciences, 29(4), 315–354.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Kaczynski, A.T., Potwarka, L.R., & Saelens, B.E. (2008). Association of park size, distance, and features with physical activity in neighborhood parks. American Journal of Public Health, 98(8), 1451–1456.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Keeney, R.L. & Raiffa, H. (1993). Decisions with multiple objectives: Preferences and value tradeoffs. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  32. Kim, D.G. & Kim, Y.D. (2010). A branch and bound algorithm for determining locations of long-term care facilities. European Journal of Operational Research, 206(1), 168–177.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Li, F., Wang, R., Paulussen, J., & Liu, X. (2005). Comprehensive concept planning of urban greening based on ecological principles: A case study in Beijing, China. Landscape and Urban Planning, 72(4), 325–336.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Macintyre, S., Macdonald, L., & Ellaway, A. (2008). Do poorer people have poorer access to local resources and facilities? The distribution of local resources by area deprivation in Glasgow, Scotland. Social Science and Medicine, 67(7), 900–914.Google Scholar
  35. Majid, I., Sinden, J.A., & Randall, A. (1983). Benefit evaluation of increments to existing systems of public facilities (Australia). Land Economics, 59(4), 377–392.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Marsh, M.T. & Schilling, D.A. (1994). Equity measurement in facility location analysis: A review and framework. European Journal of Operational Research, 74(1), 1–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Medaglia, A.L., Hueth, D., Mendieta, J.C., & Sefair, J.A. (2008). Multiobjective model for the selection and timing of public enterprise projects. Socio-Economic Planning Sciences, 42(1), 31–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Medaglia, A.L., Villegas, J.G., & Rodríguez-Coca, D.M. (2009). Hybrid biobjective evolutionary algorithms for the design of a hospital waste management network. Journal of Heuristics, 15(2), 153–176.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Mladenka, K.R. & Hill, K.Q. (1977). The distribution of benefits in an urban environment: Parks and libraries in Houston. Urban Affairs Review, 13(1), 73–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Mowen, A., Orsega-Smith, E., Payne, L., Ainsworth, B., & Godbey, G. (2007). The role of park proximity and social support in shaping park visitation, physical activity, and perceived health among older adults. Journal of Physical Activity and Health, 4(2), 167–179.Google Scholar
  41. Neema, M.N. & Ohgai, A. (2010). Multi-objective location modeling of urban parks and open spaces: continuous optimization. Computers, Environment and Urban Systems, 34(5), 359–376.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Nicholls, S. & Shafer, C.S. (2001). Measuring accessibility and equity in a local park system: The utility of geospatial technologies to park and recreation professionals. Journal of Park and Recreation Administration, 19(4), 102–124.Google Scholar
  43. Nilsson, K., Åkerlund, U., Konijnendijk, C.C., Alekseev, A., Caspersen, O.H., Guldager, S., et al. (2007). Implementing urban greening aid projects - the case of St. Petersburg, Russia. Urban Forest and Urban Greening, 6(2), 93–101.Google Scholar
  44. Oh, K. & Jeong, S. (2007). Assessing the spatial distribution of urban parks using GIS. Landscape and Urban Planning, 82(1–2), 25–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Owen, S.H. & Daskin, M.S. (1998). Strategic facility location: A review. European Journal of Operational Research, 111(3), 423–447.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Parra, D., Gómez, L., Pratt, M., Sarmiento, O.L., Mosquera, J., & Triche, E. (2007). Policy and built environment changes in Bogotá and their importance in health promotion. Indoor and Built Environment, 16(4), 344–348.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. ReVelle, C.S. & Eiselt, H.A. (2005). Location analysis: A synthesis and survey. European Journal of Operational Research, 165(1), 1–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. ReVelle, C.S., Eiselt, H.A., & Daskin, M.S. (2008). A bibliography for some fundamental problem categories in discrete location science. European Journal of Operational Research, 184(3), 817–848.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Roy, B. (1996). Multicriteria methodology for decision aiding. Dordrecht, Netherlands; Boston, Mass.: Kluwer Academic Publishers.Google Scholar
  50. Saaty, T.L. (1980). The analytic hierarchy process. New York; London: McGraw-Hill International Book Co., c1980.Google Scholar
  51. Sarmiento, O.L., Schmid, T., Parra, D.C., del Castillo, A.D., Gómez, L.F., Pratt, M., et al. (2010). Quality of life, physical activity, and built environment characteristics among colombian adults. Journal of Physical Activity and Health, 7(2), 181–195.Google Scholar
  52. Schniederjans, M.J. (1995). Goal programming methodology and applications. Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers, c1995.Google Scholar
  53. Secretaria Distrital de Hacienda de Bogotá – Bogotá’s Secretaryof Finance (2009). Población por UPZ en los niveles 1 a 3 del SISBEN (Distribution of low-income population by UPZ). Accessed 22 June 2010.
  54. Secretaria Distrital de Hacienda de Bogotá – Bogotá’s Secretaryof Finance (2010). Sistema de Información de Estadísticas Comparadas – SIEC (Repository of comparative statistics). Accessed 14 Nov 2010.
  55. Seeland, K., Dübendorfer, S., & Hansmann, R. (2009). Making friends in Zurich’s urban forests and parks: The role of public green space for social inclusion of youths from different cultures. Forest Policy and Economics, 11(1), 10–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Steuer, R. (1989). Multiple criteria optimization: Theory, computation and application. Malabar, Fla.: Krieger, 1989.Google Scholar
  57. Tajibaeva, L., Haight, R.G., & Polasky, S. (2008). A discrete-space urban model with environmental amenities. Resource and Energy Economics, 30(2), 170–196.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Triantaphyllou, E. (2000). Multi-criteria decision making methods: A comparative study, volume44 of Applied Optimization Series. Dordrecht; Boston, Mass.: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2000.Google Scholar
  59. United Nations. (2007). World urbanization prospects: The 2007 revision (urban agglomerations). Accessed 16 Feb 2009.
  60. Villegas, J.G., Palacios, F., & Medaglia, A.L. (2007). Solution methods for the bi-objective (cost-coverage) unconstrained facility location problem with an illustrative example. Annals of Operations Research, 147(1), 109–141.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Yancey, A.K., Fielding, J.E., Flores, G.R., Sallis, J.F., McCarthy, W.J., & Breslow, L. (2007). Creating a robust public health infrastructure for physical activity promotion. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 32(1), 68–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Zucca, A., Sharifi, A.M., & Fabbri, A.G. (2008). Application of spatial multi-criteria analysis to site selection for a local park: A case study in the Bergamo Province, Italy. Journal of Environmental Management, 88(4), 752–769.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jorge A. Sefair
    • 1
  • Adriana Molano
    • 1
  • Andrés L. Medaglia
    • 1
    Email author
  • Olga L. Sarmiento
    • 2
  1. 1.Centro para la Optimización y Probabilidad Aplicada (COPA), Departamento de Ingeniería IndustrialUniversidad de los AndesBogotáColombia
  2. 2.Grupo de Epidemiología de la Universidad de los Andes (EpiAndes), Facultad de MedicinaUniversidad de los AndesBogotáColombia

Personalised recommendations