Compressive and Infiltrative Optic Neuropathies



Compressive processes of the optic nerve may occur in the intraorbital region, intracanalicular region, optic chiasm, or optic tracts. Those lesions compressing the orbital optic nerve include optic nerve sheath meningiomas, thyroid-associated orbitopathy, and idiopathic orbital inflammatory pseudotumor. Suprasellar tumors, such as pituitary adenomas and craniopharyngiomas, can affect the optic chiasm. Internal carotid, carotid-ophthalmic, and anterior communicating artery aneurysms can compress the intracranial portion of the optic nerve. Sphenoid sinus mucoceles may expand to displace one or both optic nerves or the optic chiasm. Craniofacial fibrous dysplasia involving the sphenoid bone can also cause a compressive optic neuropathy.

Primary tumors infiltrating the optic nerve include optic gliomas associated with neurofibromatosis type I, malignant anterior visual pathway gliomas, and gangliogliomas. Lymphomas, leukemias, and leptomeningeal metastases are considered secondary tumors infiltrating the optic nerves. Other etiologies of infiltrative optic neuropathies are inflammatory, such as in sarcoidosis, and infectious, such as in tuberculosis, cryptococcosis, and toxoplasmosis.


Optic Nerve Pituitary Adenoma Optic Neuropathy Fibrous Dysplasia Visual Field Defect 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. 1.
    Cushing H, Eisenhardt L. Meningiomas: their classification, rational behavior, life history, and surgical end results. Springfield: Thomas; 1938.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Wilson WB. Meningiomas of the anterior visual system. Surv Ophthalmol. 1981;26(3):109–27.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Dutton JJ. Optic nerve sheath meningiomas. Surv Ophthalmol. 1992;37(3):167–83.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Cunliffe IA, Moffat DA, Hardy DG, Moore AT. Bilateral optic nerve sheath meningiomas in a patient with neurofibromatosis type 2. Br J Ophthalmol. 1992;76(5):310–2.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Sarkies NJ. Optic nerve sheath meningioma: diagnostic features and therapeutic alternatives. Eye. 1987;1(pt 5):597–602.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Wright JE, McNab AA, McDonald WI. Primary optic nerve sheath meningioma. Br J Ophthalmol. 1989;73(12):960–6.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Sibony PA, Krauss HR, Kennerdell JS, Maroon JC, Slamovits TL. Optic nerve sheath meningiomas. Clinical manifestations. Ophthalmology. 1984;91(11):1313–26.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Trobe JD, Glaser JS, Post JD, Page LK. Bilateral optic canal meningiomas: a case report. Neurosurgery. 1978;3(1):68–74.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Alper MG. Management of primary optic nerve meningiomas. Current status: therapy in controversy. J Clin Neuro Ophthalmol. 1981;1(2):101–17.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Hart Jr WM, Burde RM, Klingele TG, Perlmutter JC. Bilateral optic nerve sheath meningio-mas. Arch Ophthalmol. 1980;98(1):149–51.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Liano H, Garcia-Alix C, Lousa M, Marquez M, Nombela L, de Miguel J. Bilateral optic nerve meningioma. Eur Neurol. 1982;21(2):102–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Mark LE, Kennerdell JS, Maroon JC, Rosen-baum AE, Heinz R, Johnson BL. Microsurgical removal of a primary intraorbital meningioma. Am J Ophthalmol. 1978;86(5):704–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Jakobiec FA, Depot MJ, Kennerdell JS, et al. Combined clinical and computed tomographic diagnosis of orbital glioma and meningioma. Ophthalmology. 1984;91(2):137–55.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Tien RD, Chu PK, Hesselink JR, Szumowski J. Intra- and para-orbital lesions: value of fat-suppression MR imaging with paramagnetic contrast enhancement. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 1991;12(2):245–53.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Dutton JJ, Anderson RL. Idiopathic inflammatory perioptic neuritis simulating optic nerve sheath meningioma. Am J Ophthalmol. 1985;100(3):424–30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Ing EB, Garrity JA, Cross SA, Ebersold MJ. Sarcoid masquerading as optic nerve sheath meningioma. Mayo Clin Proc. 1997;72(1):38–43.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Liauw L, Vielvoye GJ, de Keizer RJ, van Duinen SG. Optic nerve glioma mimicking an optic nerve meningioma. Clin Neurol Neurosurg. 1996;98(3):258–61.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Nerad JA, Kersten RC, Anderson RL. Hemangioblastoma of the optic nerve. Report of a case and review of literature. Ophthalmology. 1988;95(3):398–402.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Rubio A, Meyers SP, Powers JM, Nelson CN, de Papp EW. Hemangioblastoma of the optic nerve. Hum Pathol. 1994;25(11):1249–51.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Kleihues P, Burger PC, Scheithauer BW. The new WHO classification of brain tumours. Brain Pathol. 1993;3(3):255–68.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Samples JR, Robertson DM, Taylor JZ, Waller RR. Optic nerve meningioma. Ophthalmology. 1983;90(12):1591–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Wright JE. Primary optic nerve meningiomas: clinical presentation and management. Trans Sect Ophthalmol Am Acad Ophthalmol Otolaryngol. 1977;83(4 pt 1):617–25.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Als E. Intraorbital meningiomas encasing the optic nerve. A report of two cases. Acta Ophthalmol (Copenh). 1969;47(4):900–3.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Spencer WH. Primary neoplasms of the optic nerve and its sheaths: clinical features and current concepts of pathogenetic mechanisms. Trans Am Ophthalmol Soc. 1972;70:490–528.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Kayan A, Earl CJ. Compressive lesions of the optic nerves and chiasm. Pattern of recovery of vision following surgical treatment. Brain. 1975; 98(1):13–28.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Egan RA, Lessell S. A contribution to the natural history of optic nerve sheath meningiomas. Arch Ophthalmol. 2002;120(11):1505–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Saeed P, Rootman J, Nugent RA, White VA, Mackenzie IR, Koornneef L. Optic nerve sheath meningiomas. Ophthalmology. 2003;110(10):2019–30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Andrews DW, Faroozan R, Yang BP, et al. Fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy for the treatment of optic nerve sheath meningiomas: preliminary observations of 33 optic nerves in 30 patients with historical comparison to observation with or without prior surgery. Neurosurgery. 2002;51(4):890–902.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Pitz S, Becker G, Schiefer U, et al. Stereotactic fractionated irradiation of optic nerve sheath meningioma: a new treatment alternative. Br J Ophthalmol. 2002;86(11):1265–8.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Narayan S, Cornblath WT, Sandler HM, Elner V, Hayman JA. Preliminary visual outcomes after three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy for optic nerve sheath meningioma. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2003;56(2):537–43.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Subramanian PS, Bressler NM, Miller NR. Radiation retinopathy after fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy for optic nerve sheath meningioma. Ophthalmology. 2004;111(3):565–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Girkin CA, Comey CH, Lunsford LD, Goodman ML, Kline LB. Radiation optic neuropathy after stereotactic radiosurgery. Ophthalmology. 1997;104(10):1634–43.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Stafford SL, Pollock BE, Leavitt JA, et al. A study on the radiation tolerance of the optic nerves and chiasm after stereotactic radiosurgery. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2003;55(5):1177–81.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Guyer DR, Miller NR, Long DM, Allen GS. Visual function following optic canal decompression via craniotomy. J Neurosurg. 1985;62(5):631–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Schrell UM, Rittig MG, Anders M, et al. Hydroxyurea for treatment of unresectable and recurrent meningiomas. II. Decrease in the size of meningiomas in patients treated with hydroxyurea. J Neurosurg. 1997;86(5):840–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Paus S, Klockgether T, Urbach H, Schlegel U. Meningioma of the optic nerve sheath: treatment with hydroxyurea. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2003;74(9):1348–50.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Grunberg SM, Weiss MH, Spitz IM, Ahmadi J, Sadun A, Russell CA, et al. Treatment of unresectable meningiomas with the antiprogesterone agent mifepristone. J Neurosurg. 1991;74(6):861–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Shields JA. Optic nerve and meningeal tumors. In: Shields JA, editor. Diagnosis and management of orbital tumors. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders; 1989. p. 170–91.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Bartley GB, Fatourechi V, Kadrmas EF, et al. The incidence of Graves’ ophthalmopathy in Olmsted County, Minnesota. Am J Ophthalmol. 1995;120:511–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Friedman JM, Fialkow PJ. The genetics of Graves’ disease. Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1978;7(1):47–65.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Feldon SE, Muramatsu S, Weiner JM. Clinical classification of Graves’ ophthalmopathy. Identification of risk factors for optic neuropathy. Arch Ophthalmol. 1984;102(10):1469–72.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Kennerdell JS, Rosenbaum AE, El-Hoshy MH. Apical optic nerve compression of dysthyroid optic neuropathy on computed tomography. Arch Ophthalmol. 1981;99(5):807–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Barrett L, Glatt HJ, Burde RM, Gado MH. Optic nerve dysfunction in thyroid eye disease: CT. Radiology. 1988;167(2):503–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Trobe JD, Glaser JS, Laflamme P. Dysthyroid optic neuropathy. Clinical profile and rationale for management. Arch Ophthalmol. 1978;96(7):1199–209.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Glaser JS. The orbit and neuro-ophthalmology. Semin Neurol. 1986;6(2):124–34.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Newell FW. Choroidal folds. The seventh Harry Searls Gradle Memorial lecture. Am J Ophthalmol. 1973;75(6):930–42.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Cangemi FE, Trempe CL, Walsh JB. Choroidal folds. Am J Ophthalmol. 1978;86(3):380–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    De La Paz MA, Boniuk M. Fundus manifestations of orbital disease and treatment of orbital disease. Surv Ophthalmol. 1995;40(1):3–21.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    McKenzie JM, McCullagh EP. Observations against a causal relationship between the longacting thyroid stimulator and ophthalmopathy in Graves’ disease. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1968;28(8):1177–82.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Atta HR, McCreath G, McKillop JH, et al. Ophthalmopathy in early thyrotoxicosis: relationship to thyroid receptor antibodies and effects of treatment. Scott Med J. 1990;35(2):41–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Wiersinga WM, Smit T, van der Gaag R, Koornneef L. Temporal relationship between onset of Graves’ ophthalmopathy and onset of thyroidal Graves’ disease. J Endocrinol Invest. 1988;11(8):615–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Sergott RC, Glaser JS. Graves’ ophthalmopathy. A clinical and immunologic review. Surv Ophthalmol. 1981;26(1):1–21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Sridama V, DeGroot LJ. Treatment of Graves’ disease and the course of ophthalmopathy. Am J Med. 1989;87(1):70–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Hallin ES, Feldon SE. Graves' ophthalmopathy: I. Simple CT estimates of extraocular muscle volume. Br J Ophthalmol. 1988;72(9):674–7.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Jacobson DH, Gorman CA. Endocrine ophthalmopathy: current ideas concerning etiology, pathogenesis, and treatment. Endocr Rev. 1984;5(2):200–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Hufnagel TJ, Hickey WF, Cobbs WH, Jakobiec FA, Iwamoto T, Eagle RC. Immunohisto-chemical and ultrastructural studies on the exenterated orbital tissues of a patient with Graves’ disease. Ophthalmology. 1984;91(11):1411–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Jakobiec FA, Font RL. Orbit. In: Spencer WH, editor. Ophthalmic pathology, vol. 3. 3rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders; 1986. p. 462–601.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Han S, Zhang S, Zhang W, et al. CTLA4 polymorphisms and ophthalmopathy in Graves’ disease patients: association study and meta-analysis. Hum Immunol. 2006;67(8):618–26.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Tomer Y. Genetic susceptibility to autoimmune thyroid disease: past, present, and future. Thyroid. 2010;20(7):715–25.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Prabhakar BS, Bahn RS, Smith TJ. Current perspective on the pathogenesis of Graves’ disease and ophthalmopathy. Endocr Rev. 2003;24(6):802–35.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Douglas RS, Afifiyan NF, Hwang CJ, et al. Increased generation of fibrocytes in thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2010;95(1):430–8.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Tsui S, Naik V, Hoa N, et al. Evidence for an association between thyroid-stimulating hormone and insulin-like growth factor 1 receptors: a tale of two antigens implicated in Graves’ disease. J Immunol. 2008;181(6):4397–405.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Pritchard J, Han R, Horst N, Cruikshank WW, Smith TJ. Immunoglobulin activation of T cell chemoattractant expression in fibroblasts from patients with Graves’ disease is mediated through the insulin-like growth factor I receptor pathway. J Immunol. 2003;170(12):6348–54.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Wakelkamp IM, Baldeschi L, Saeed P, Mourits MP, Prummel MF, Wiersinga WM. Surgical or medical decompression as a first-line treatment of optic neuropathy in Graves' ophthalmopathy? A randomized controlled trial. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2005;63(3):323–8.Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Marcocci C, Bartalena L, Tanda ML, et al. Comparison of the effectiveness and tolerability of intravenous or oral glucocorticoids associated with orbital radiotherapy in the management of severe Graves’ ophthalmopathy: results of a prospective, single-blind, randomized study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2001;86(8):3562–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Marcocci C, Bartalena L, Bogazzi F, Bruno-Bossio G, Lepri A, Pinchera A. Orbital radiotherapy combined with high dose systemic glucocorticoids for Graves’ ophthalmopathy is more effective than radiotherapy alone: results of a prospective randomized study. J Endocrinol Invest. 1991;14(10):853–60.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Krassas GE, Gogakos A, Boboridis K. Corticosteroids in the medical treatment of thyroid ophthalmopathy: when and how? Somatostatin analogues: where we stand today. Pediatr Endocrinol Rev. 2010;7 Suppl 2:204–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Carter KD, Frueh BR, Hessburg TP, Musch DC. Long-term efficacy of orbital decompression for compressive optic neuropathy of Graves’ eye disease. Ophthalmology. 1991;98(9):1435–42.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Hallin ES, Feldon SE, Luttrell J. Graves’ ophthalmopathy: III. Effect of transantral orbital decompression on optic neuropathy. Br J Ophthalmol. 1988;72(9):683–7.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Shorr N, Neuhaus RW, Baylis HI. Ocular motility problems after orbital decompression for dysthyroid ophthalmopathy. Ophthalmology. 1982;89(4):323–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Young JD. Ocular complications of transantral decompression for thyrotrophic exophthalmos. Proc R Soc Med. 1971;64(9):929–31.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Stiglmayer N, Mladina R, Tomic M, Tojagic M, Juri J, Bubas N, et al. Endonasal endoscopic orbital decompression in patients with Graves' ophthalmopathy. Croat Med J. 2004;45(3):318–22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Shepard KG, Levin PS, Terris DJ. Balanced orbital decompression for Graves’ ophthal-mopathy. Laryngoscope. 1998;108(11 pt 1):1648–53.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Marcocci C, Kahaly GJ, Krassas GE, et al. Selenium and the course of mild Graves’ orbitopathy. N Engl J Med. 2011;364(20):1920–31.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Durrani OM, Reuser TQ, Murray PI. Infliximab: a novel treatment for sight-threatening thyroid associated ophthalmopathy. Orbit. 2005;24(2):117–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Komorowski J, Jankiewicz-Wika J, Siejka A, et al. Monoclonal anti-TNF-alpha antibody (infliximab) in the treatment of patient with thyroid associated ophthalmopathy. Klin Oczna. 2007;109(10–12):457–60.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Murakami M, Nishimoto N. The value of blocking IL-6 outside of rheumatoid arthritis: current perspective. Curr Opin Rheumatol. 2011;23(3):273–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Goldbach-Mansky R. Blocking interleukin-1 in rheumatic diseases. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2009;1182:111–23.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Herold KC, Hagopian W, Auger JA, et al. Anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody in new-onset type 1 diabetes mellitus. N Engl J Med. 2002;346(22):1692–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Viglietta V, Bourcier K, Buckle GJ, et al. CTLA4 Ig treatment in patients with multiple sclerosis: an open-label, phase 1 clinical trial. Neurology. 2008;71(12):917–24.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Kremer JM, Genant HK, Moreland LW, et al. Results of a two-year follow-up study of patients with rheumatoid arthritis who received a combination of abatacept and methotrexate. Arthritis Rheum. 2008;58(4):953–63.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Naik V, Khadavi N, Naik MN, et al. Biologic therapeutics in thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy: translating disease mechanism into therapy. Thyroid. 2008;18(9):967–71.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Tuscano JM, Harris GS, Tedder TF. B lymphocytes contribute to autoimmune disease pathogenesis: current trends and clinical implications. Autoimmun Rev. 2003;2(2):101–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Vannucchi G, Campi I, Bonomi M, et al. Rituximab treatment in patients with active Graves’ orbitopathy: effects on pro-inflammatory and humoral immune reactions. Clin Exp Immunol. 2010;161(3):436–43.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Khanna D, Chong KK, Afifiyan NF, et al. Rituximab treatment of patients with severe, corticosteroid-resistant thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy. Ophthalmology. 2010;117(1):133e2–139.Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Salvi M, Vannucchi G, Campi I, Beck-Peccoz P. Rituximab in the treatment of thyroid eye disease: science fiction? Orbit. 2009;28(4):251–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Silkiss RZ, Reier A, Coleman M, Lauer SA. Rituximab for thyroid eye disease. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg. 2010;26(5):310–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Jacobiec FA, Jones IS. Orbital inflammations. In: Jones IS, Jakobiec FA, editors. Disease of the orbit. Hagerstown: Harper and Row; 1979. p. 301–410.Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    Curtin HD. Pseudotumor. Radiol Clin N Am. 1987;25(3):583–99.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Atlas SW, Grossman RI, Savino PJ, et al. Surface-coil MR of orbital pseudotumor. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1987;148(4):803–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Richardson GS. Pituitary tumors. In: Samuels MA, Feske SK, editors. Office practice of neurology. Philadelphia, PA: Churchill Livingstone; 2003. p. 1060–7.Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Trobe JD. Chromophobe adenoma presenting with a hemianopic temporal arcuate scotoma. Am J Ophthalmol. 1974;77(3):388–92.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Hoyt WF, Rios-Montenegro EN, Behrens MM, Eckelhoff RJ. Homonymous hemioptic hypoplasia. Fundoscopic features in standard and red-free illumination in three patients with congenital hemiplegia. Br J Ophthalmol. 1972;56(7):537–45.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Gittinger Jr JW. Tumors of the pituitary gland. In: Miller NR, Newman NJ, editors. Walsh and Hoyt’s clinical neuro-ophthalmology. 5th ed. Baltimore, MD: Williams & Wilkins; 1999. p. 21412222.Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    Tokumaru AM, Sakata I, Terada H, Kosuda S, Nawashiro H, Yoshii M. Optic nerve hyperintensity on T2-weighted images among patients with pituitary macroadenoma: correlation with visual impairment. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2006;27(2):250–1.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Peter M, De Tribolet N. Visual outcome after transsphenoidal surgery for pituitary adenomas. Br J Neurosurg. 1995;9(2):151–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Randeva HS, Schoebel J, Byrne J, Esiri M, Adams CB, Wass JA. Classical pituitary apoplexy: clinical features, management and outcome. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 1999;51(2):181–8.Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    McFadzean RM, Doyle D, Rampling R, Teasdale E, Teasdale G. Pituitary apoplexy and its effect on vision. Neurosurgery. 1991;29(5):669–75.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Muller-Jensen A, Ludecke D. Clinical aspects of spontaneous necrosis of pituitary tumors (pituitary apoplexy). J Neurol. 1981;224(4):267–71.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Ahmed M, Rifai A, Al-Jurf M, Akhtar M, Woodhouse N. Classical pituitary apoplexy presentation and a follow-up of 13 patients. Horm Res. 1989;31(3):125–32.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Cardoso ER, Peterson EW. Pituitary apoplexy: a review. Neurosurgery. 1984;14(3):363–73.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Symon L, Rosenstein J. Surgical management of suprasellar meningioma. Part 1: the influence of tumor size, duration of symptoms, and microsurgery on surgical outcome in 101 consecutivecases. J Neurosurg. 1984;61(4):633–41.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Huber A. Eye signs and symptoms in brain tumors. 3rd ed. St. Louis: Mosby; 1976.Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    Rosenberg LF, Miller NR. Visual results after microsurgical removal of meningiomas involving the anterior visual system. Arch Ophthalmol. 1984;102(7):1019–23.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    O’Connell JE, Du Boulay EP. Binasal hemianopia. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1973;36(5):697–709.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Chicani CF, Miller NR. Visual outcome in surgically treated suprasellar meningiomas. J Neuroophthalmol. 2003;23(1):3–10.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Weisberg LA, Numuguchi Y. Neuroimaging in neuroendocrine diseases. Neurol Clin. 1986;4(4):783–800.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Demailly P, Guiot G. [Meningioma of the sellar diaphragm]. Bull Soc Ophtalmol Fr. 1970;70(2):191–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Guiot G, Montrieul B, Goutelle A, Comoy J, Langie S. Retro-chiasmatic suprasellar meningiomas. Neurochirurgie. 1970;16(4):273–85.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Boulos PT, Dumont AS, Mandell JW, Jane Sr JA. Meningiomas of the orbit: contemporary considerations. Neurosurg Focus. 2001;10(5):E5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Gregorius FK, Hepler RS, Stern WE. Loss and recovery of vision with suprasellar meningiomas. J Neurosurg. 1975;42(1):69–75.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Rosenstein J, Symon L. Surgical management of suprasellar meningioma. Part 2: prognosis for visual function following craniotomy. J Neurosurg. 1984;61(4):642–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Jaaskelainen J. Seemingly complete removal of histologically benign intracranial meningioma: late recurrence rate and factors predicting recurrence in 657 patients. A multivariate analysis. Surg Neurol. 1986;26(5):461–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Kajiwara K, Fudaba H, Tsuha M, Ueda H, Mitani T, Nishizaki T, et al. Analysis of recurrences of meningiomas following neurosurgical resection. No Shinkei Geka. 1989;17(12):1125–31.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Marks SM, Whitwell HL, Lye RH. Recurrence of meningiomas after operation. Surg Neurol. 1986;25(5):436–40.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Mirimanoff RO, Dosoretz DE, Linggood RM, Ojemann RG, Martuza RL. Meningioma: analysis of recurrence and progression following neurosurgical Resection. J Neurosurg. 1985;62(1):18–24.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Carella RJ, Ransohoff J, Newall J. Role of radiation therapy in the management of meningioma. Neurosurgery. 1982;10(3):332–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Goldsmith BJ, Wara WM, Wilson CB, Larson DA. Postoperative irradiation for subtotally resected meningiomas. A retrospective analysis of 140 patients treated from 1967 to 1990. J Neurosurg. 1994;80(2):195–201.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Lunsford LD. Contemporary management of meningiomas: radiation therapy as an adjuvant and radiosurgery as an alternative to surgical removal? J Neurosurg. 1994;80(2):187–90.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Miralbell R, Linggood RM, de la Monte S, Convery K, Munzenrider JE, Mirimanoff RO. The role of radiotherapy in the treatment of subtotally resected benign meningiomas. J Neuro-Oncol. 1992;13(2):157–64.Google Scholar
  121. 121.
    Wilson CB. Meningiomas: genetics, malignancy, and the role of radiation in induction and treatment. The Richard C. Schneider Lecture. J Neurosurg. 1994;81(5):666–75.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    De Monte F. Current management of meningiomas. Oncology (Williston Park). 1995;9(1):83–91. 96.Google Scholar
  123. 123.
    De Jesus O, Toledo MM. Surgical management of meningioma en plaque of the sphenoid ridge. Surg Neurol. 2001;55(5):265–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Morita A, Coffey RJ, Foote RL, Schiff D, Gorman D. Risk of injury to cranial nerves after gamma knife radiosurgery for skull base meningiomas: experience in 88 patients. J Neurosurg. 1999;90(1):42–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Schick U, Bleyen J, Bani A, Hassler W. Management of meningiomas en plaque of the sphenoid wing. J Neurosurg. 2006;104(2):208–14.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Bartlett JR. Craniopharyngiomas. An analysis of some aspects of symptomatology, radiology and histology. Brain. 1971;94(4):725–32.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Cabezudo JM, Vaquero J, Areitio E, Martinez R, de Sola RG, Bravo G. Craniopharyngiomas: a critical approach to treatment. J Neurosurg. 1981;55(3):371–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Onodera J, Kanno C, Okuyama S. Childhood exotropia with craniopharyngioma: report of a case analysis of 13 patients with childhood craniopharyngioma. Folia Ophthalmol Jpn. 1993;44:214–8.Google Scholar
  129. 129.
    Baskin DS, Wilson CB. Surgical management of craniopharyngiomas. A review of 74 cases. J Neurosurg. 1986;65(1):22–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Barreca T, Perria C, Franceschini R, et al. Diurnal prolactin changes in human cerebro-spinal fluid. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 1984;20(6):649–55.Google Scholar
  131. 131.
    Cusimano MD, Kovacs K, Bilbao JM, Tucker WS, Singer W. Suprasellar craniopharyngioma associated with hyperprolactinemia, pituitary lactotroph hyperplasia, and microprolactinoma. J Neurosurg. 1988;69(4):620–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Cherninkova S, Tzekov H, Karakostov V. Comparative ophthalmologic studies on children and adults with craniopharyngiomas. Ophthalmologica. 1990;201(4):201–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Matson DD, Crigler Jr JF. Management of craniopharyngioma in childhood. J Neurosurg. 1969;30(4):377–90.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Waga S, Morikawa A, Sakakura M. Craniopharyngioma with midbrain involvement. Arch Neurol. 1979;36(5):319–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Inagaki M, Suzuki T, Nakano N, Sekimoto S, Ishikawa H, Kitano S. Analysis of two types of seesaw nystagmus. Nippon Ganka Gakkai Zasshi. 1983;87(7):498–506.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Osborne AG. Miscellaneous tumors, cysts, and metastases. In: Osborne AG, editor. Diagnostic neuroradiology. St. Louis: Mosby-Year Book; 1994. p. 626–65.Google Scholar
  137. 137.
    Arseni C, Maretsis M. Craniopharyngioma. Neurochirurgia (Stuttg). 1972;15(1):25–32.Google Scholar
  138. 138.
    Adamson TE, Wiestler OD, Kleihues P, Yasargil MG. Correlation of clinical and pathological features in surgically treated craniopharyngiomas. J Neurosurg. 1990;73(1):12–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Kalapurakal JA. Radiation therapy in the management of pediatric craniopharyngiomas: a review. Childs Nerv Syst. 2005;21(8–9):808–16.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Repka MX, Miller NR, Miller M. Visual outcome after surgical removal of craniopharyngiomas. Ophthalmology. 1989;96(2):195–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Jacobson DM. Symptomatic compression of the optic nerve by the carotid artery: clinical profile of 18 patients with 24 affected eyes identified by magnetic resonance imaging. Ophthalmology. 1999;106(10):1994–2004.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Caprioli J, Fagadau W, Lesser R. Acute monocular visual loss secondary to anterior communicating artery aneurysm in a patient with sickle cell disease. Ann Ophthalmol. 1983;15(9):873–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Chan JW, Hoyt WF, Ellis WG, Gress D. Pathogenesis of acute monocular blindness from leaking anterior communicating artery aneurysms: report of six cases. Neurology. 1997;48(3):680–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Date I, Akioka T, Ohmoto T. Penetration of the optic chiasm by a ruptured anterior communicating artery aneurysm. J Neurosurg. 1997;87(2):324–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Durston JH, Parsons-Smith BG. Blindness due to aneurysm of anterior communicating artery. With recovery following carotid ligation. Br J Ophthalmol. 1970;54(3):170–6.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Hook O, Norlen G. Aneurysms of the anterior communicating artery. Acta Neurol Scand. 1964;40:219–40.Google Scholar
  147. 147.
    Peiris JB, Ross Russell RW. Giant aneurysms of the carotid system presenting as visual field defect. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1980;43(12):1053–64.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    Norwood EG, Kline LB, Chandra-Sekar B, Harsh III GR. Aneurysmal compression of the anterior visual pathways. Neurology. 1986;36(8):1035–41.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Cunningham RD, Sewell JJ. Aneurysm of the ophthalmic artery with drusen of the optic nerve head. Am J Ophthalmol. 1971;72(4):743–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Stern WH, Ernest JT. Intracranial ophthalmic artery aneurysm. Am J Ophthalmol. 1975;80(2):203–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Parkinson D, Jain KK, Johnston JB. Saccular aneurysm of the ophthalmic artery: report of an unusual case. Can J Surg. 1961;4:229–32.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Kikuchi K, Kowada M. Case report: saccular aneurysm of the intraorbital ophthalmic artery. Br J Radiol. 1994;67(803):1134–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Rubinstein MK, Wilson G, Levin DC. Intraorbital aneurysms of the ophthalmic artery. Report of a unique case and review of the literature. Arch Ophthalmol. 1968;80(1):42–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    Jea A, Baskaya MK, Morcos JJ. Penetration of the optic nerve by an internal carotid artery-ophthalmic artery aneurysm: case report and literature review. Neurosurgery. 2003;53(4):996–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Beatty RA. Splitting of the optic nerve by a carotid-ophthalmic artery aneurysm. J Neurosurg. 1986;65(4):560–2.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    Yanaka K, Matsumaru Y, Kamezaki T, Nose T. Ruptured aneurysm of the ophthalmic artery trunk demonstrated by three-dimensional rotational angiography: case report. Neurosurgery. 2002;51(4):1066–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    Fujita A, Tamaki N, Yasuo K, Nagashima T, Ehara K. Complete penetration of the optic chiasm by an unruptured aneurysm of the ophthalmic segment: case report. Surg Neurol. 2002;57(2):130–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    Barat JL, Marchal JC, Bracard S, Auque J, Lepoire J. Mucoceles of the sphenoidal sinus. Report of six cases and review of the literature. J Neuroradiol. 1990;17(2):135–51.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. 159.
    Hamard H, Sales MJ, Labetoulle C, Chodkiewicz JP, Roux F. Mucoceles of the sphenoid sinus and their ophthalmological manifestations. J Fr Ophtalmol. 1985;8(10):645–52.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. 160.
    Bregeat P. Ophthalmic manifestations of sphenoidal mucoceles. Ann Ophthalmol. 1977;9(3):259–66.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. 161.
    Kosling S, Hintner M, Brandt S, Schulz T, Bloching M. Mucoceles of the sphenoid sinus. Eur J Radiol. 2004;51(1):1–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. 162.
    Chen HJ, Kao LY, Lui CC. Mucocele of the sphenoid sinus with the apex orbitae syndrome. Surg Neurol. 1986;25(1):101–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. 163.
    Moriyama H, Hesaka H, Tachibana T, Honda Y. Mucoceles of ethmoid and sphenoid sinus with visual disturbance. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 1992;118(2):142–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. 164.
    Pompili A, Mastrostefano R, Caroli F, et al. Mucocele of neurosurgical interest: clinical considerations on five cases. Acta Neurochir (Wien). 1990;102(3–4):114–21.Google Scholar
  165. 165.
    Casteels I, De Loof E, Brock P, et al. Sudden blindness in a child: presenting symptom of a sphenoid sinus mucocele. Br J Ophthalmol. 1992;76(8):502–4.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. 166.
    el-Fiki ME, Abdel-Fattah HM, el-Deeb AK. Sphenoid sinus mucopyocele with marked intracranial extension: a more common phenomenon in the Third World? Surg Neurol. 1993;39(2):115–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  167. 167.
    Yamaguchi K, Ohnuma I, Takahashi S, et al. Magnetic resonance imaging in acute optic neuropathy by sphenoidal mucocele. Int Ophthalmol. 1997;21(1):9–11.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. 168.
    Valvassori GE, Putterman AM. Ophthalmological and radiological findings in sphenoidal mucoceles. Arch Ophthalmol. 1973;90(6):456–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. 169.
    Hejazi N, Witzmann A, Hassler W. Ocular manifestations of sphenoid mucoceles: clinical features and neurosurgical management of three cases and review of the literature. Surg Neurol. 2001;56(5):338–43.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  170. 170.
    Johnson LN, Hepler RS, Yee RD, Batzdorf U. Sphenoid sinus mucocele (anterior clinoid variant) mimicking diabetic ophthalmoplegia and retrobulbar neuritis. Am J Ophthalmol. 1986;102(1):111–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  171. 171.
    Finney HL, Roberts TS. Fibrous dysplasia of the skull with progressive cranial nerve involvement. Surg Neurol. 1976;6(6):341–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  172. 172.
    Jackson IT, Hide TA, Gomuwka PK, Laws Jr ER, Langford K. Treatment of cranio-orbital fibrous dysplasia. J Maxillofac Surg. 1982;10(3):138–41.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  173. 173.
    Liakos GM, Walker CB, Carruth JA. Ocular complications in craniofacial fibrous dysplasia. Br J Ophthalmol. 1979;63(9):611–6.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. 174.
    Mochimatsu Y, Kuwana N, Fujino H. Experience in optic canal decompression in fibrous dysplasia. Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo). 1983;23(3):227–32.Google Scholar
  175. 175.
    Saito K, Suzuki Y, Nehashi K, Sugita K. Unilateral extradural approach for bilateral optic canal release in a patient with fibrous dysplasia. Surg Neurol. 1990;34(2):124–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  176. 176.
    Arroyo JG, Lessell S, Montgomery WW. Steroid-induced visual recovery in fibrous dysplasia. J Clin Neuro Ophthalmol. 1991;11(4):259–61.Google Scholar
  177. 177.
    Bocca G, de Vries J, Cruysberg JR, Boers GH, Monnens LA. Optic neuropathy in McCune-Albright syndrome: an indication for aggressive treatment. Acta Paediatr. 1998;87(5):599–600.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  178. 178.
    Mahapatra AK, Gupta PK, Ravi RR. Craniofacial surgery and optic canal decompression in adult fibrous dysplasia. Neurol India. 2003;51(1):123–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  179. 179.
    Messaoud R, Zaouali S, Ladjimi A, et al. Compressive optic neuropathy caused by fibrous dysplasia. J Fr Ophtalmol. 2003;26(6):631–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  180. 180.
    Chen YR, Wong FH, Hsueh C, Lo LJ. Computed tomography characteristics of non-syndromic craniofacial fibrous dysplasia. Chang Gung Med J. 2002;25(1):1–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  181. 181.
    Shah ZK, Peh WC, Koh WL, Shek TW. Magnetic resonance imaging appearances of fibrous dysplasia. Br J Radiol. 2005;78(936):1104–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  182. 182.
    Chen YR, Breidahl A, Chang CN. Optic nerve decompression in fibrous dysplasia: indications, efficacy, and safety. Plast Reconstr Surg. 1997;99(1):22–30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  183. 183.
    Stumpf DA, Alksne JF, Annegers JF. Neurofibromatosis. Conference statement. National Institutes of Health Consensus Development Conference. Arch Neurol. 1988;45:575–8.Google Scholar
  184. 184.
    Gutmann DH, Collins FS. Recent progress toward understanding the molecular biology of von Recklinghausen neurofibromatosis. Ann Neurol. 1992;31(5):555–61.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  185. 185.
    Dutton JJ. Gliomas of the anterior visual pathway. Surv Ophthalmol. 1994;38(5):427–52.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  186. 186.
    Lubs ML, Bauer MS, Formas ME, Djokic B. Lisch nodules in neurofibromatosis type 1. N Engl J Med. 1991;324(18):1264–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  187. 187.
    Thiagalingam S, Flaherty M, Billson F, North K. Neurofibromatosis type 1 and optic pathway gliomas: follow-up of 54 patients. Ophthalmology. 2004;111(3):568–77.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  188. 188.
    Listernick R, Charrow J, Greenwald M, Mets M. Natural history of optic pathway tumors in children with neurofibromatosis type 1: a longitudinal study. J Pediatr. 1994;125(1):63–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  189. 189.
    Listernick R, Darling C, Greenwald M, Strauss L, Charrow J. Optic pathway tumors in children: the effect of neurofibromatosis type 1 on clinical manifestations and natural history. J Pediatr. 1995;127(5):718–22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  190. 190.
    Deliganis AV, Geyer JR, Berger MS. Prognostic significance of type 1 neurofibromatosis (von Recklinghausen disease) in childhood optic glioma. Neurosurgery. 1996;38(6):1114–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  191. 191.
    Packer RJ, Bilaniuk LT, Cohen BH, et al. Intracranial visual pathway gliomas in children with neurofibromatosis. Neurofibromatosis. 1988;1(4):212–22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  192. 192.
    Stern J, Jakobiec FA, Housepian EM. The architecture of optic nerve gliomas with and without neurofibromatosis. Arch Ophthalmol. 1980;98(3):505–11.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  193. 193.
    Lewis RA, Gerson LP, Axelson KA, Riccardi VM, Whitford RP. von Recklinghausen neurofibromatosis. II. Incidence of optic gliomata. Ophthalmology. 1984;91(8):929–35.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  194. 194.
    Anonymous. National Institutes of Health Consensus Development Conference Statement: neurofibromatosis. Bethesda, MD, USA, July 13–15, 1987. Neurofibromatosis. 1988;1(3):172–178.Google Scholar
  195. 195.
    Garvey M, Packer RJ. An integrated approach to the treatment of chiasmatic-hypothalamic gliomas. J Neuro-Oncol. 1996;28(2–3):167–83.Google Scholar
  196. 196.
    Balcer LJ, Liu GT, Heller G, et al. Visual loss in children with neurofibromatosis type 1 and optic pathway gliomas: relation to tumor location by magnetic resonance imaging. Am J Ophthalmol. 2001;131(4):442–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  197. 197.
    Gayre GS, Scott IU, Feuer W, Saunders TG, Siatkowski RM. Long-term visual outcome in patients with anterior visual pathway gliomas. J Neuroophthalmol. 2001;21(1):1–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  198. 198.
    Brand WN, Hoover SV. Optic glioma in children. Review of 16 cases given megavoltage radiation therapy. Childs Brain. 1979;5(5):459–66.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  199. 199.
    Miller NR, Iliff WJ, Green WR. Evaluation and management of gliomas of the anterior visual pathways. Brain. 1974;97(4):743–54.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  200. 200.
    Wright JE, McNab AA, McDonald WI. Optic nerve glioma and the management of optic nerve tumours in the young. Br J Ophthalmol. 1989;73(12):967–74.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  201. 201.
    Hoyt WF, Fletcher WA, Imes RK. Chiasmal gliomas. Appearance and long-term changes demonstrated by computerized tomography. Prog Exp Tumor Res. 1987;30:113–21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  202. 202.
    Hoyt WF, Baghdassarian SA. Optic glioma of childhood. Natural history and rationale for conservative management. Br J Ophthalmol. 1969;53(12):793–8.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  203. 203.
    Myles ST, Murphy SB. Gliomas of the optic nerve and chiasm. Can J Ophthalmol. 1973;8(4):508–14.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  204. 204.
    Hovland KR, Ellis PP. Hemorrhagic glaucoma with optic nerve glioma. Arch Ophthalmol. 1966;75(6):806–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  205. 205.
    Buchanan TA, Hoyt WF. Optic nerve glioma and neovascular glaucoma: report of a case. Br J Ophthalmol. 1982;66(2):96–8.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  206. 206.
    Donaldson DD. Atlas of external diseases of the eye: anterior chamber, iris, and ciliary body. St. Louis: Mosby; 1973.Google Scholar
  207. 207.
    Rush JA, Younge BR, Campbell RJ, MacCarty CS. Optic glioma. Long-term follow-up of 85 histopathologically verified cases. Ophthalmology. 1982;89(11):1213–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  208. 208.
    Davis PC, Hoffman Jr JC, Weidenheim KM. Large hypothalamic and optic chiasm gliomas in infants: difficulties in distinction. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 1984;5(5):579–85.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  209. 209.
    De Sousa AL, Kalsbeck JE, Mealey Jr J, Ellis FD, Muller J. Optic chiasmatic glioma in children. Am J Ophthalmol. 1979;87(3):376–81.Google Scholar
  210. 210.
    Borit A, Richardson Jr EP. The biological and clinical behaviour of pilocytic astrocytomas of the optic pathways. Brain. 1982;105(pt 1):161–87.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  211. 211.
    Albright AL, Sclabassi RJ, Slamovits TL, Bergman I. Spasmus nutans associated with optic gliomas in infants. J Pediatr. 1984;105(5):778–80.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  212. 212.
    DeSousa AL, Kalsbeck JE, Mealey Jr J, Fitzgerald J. Diencephalic syndrome and its relation to opticochiasmatic glioma: review of twelve cases. Neurosurgery. 1979;4(3):207–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  213. 213.
    Laue L, Comite F, Hench K, Loriaux DL, Cutler Jr GB, Pescovitz OH. Precocious puberty associated with neurofibromatosis and optic gliomas. Treatment with luteinizing hormone releasing hormone analogue. Am J Dis Child. 1985;139(11):1097–100.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  214. 214.
    Kingsley DP, Kendall BE. CT of the adverse effects of therapeutic radiation of the central nervous system. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 1981;2(5):453–60.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  215. 215.
    Imes RK, Hoyt WF. Magnetic resonance imaging signs of optic nerve gliomas in neuro-fibromatosis 1. Am J Ophthalmol. 1991;111(6):729–34.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  216. 216.
    Fletcher WA, Imes RK, Hoyt WF. Chiasmal gliomas: appearance and long-term changes demonstrated by computerized tomography. J Neurosurg. 1986;65(2):154–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  217. 217.
    Haik BG, Saint Louis L, Bierly J, et al. Magnetic resonance imaging in the evaluation of optic nerve gliomas. Ophthalmology. 1987;94(6):709–17.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  218. 218.
    Brodsky MC. The “pseudo-CSF” signal of orbital optic glioma on magnetic resonance imaging: a signature of neurofibromatosis. Surv Ophthalmol. 1993;38(2):213–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  219. 219.
    Seiff SR, Brodsky MC, MacDonald G, Berg BO, Howes Jr EL, Hoyt WF. Orbital optic glioma in neurofibromatosis. Magnetic resonance diagnosis of perineural arachnoidal gliomatosis. Arch Ophthalmol. 1987;105(12):1689–92.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  220. 220.
    Imes RK, Hoyt WF. Childhood chiasmal gliomas: update on the fate of patients in the 1969 San Francisco Study. Br J Ophthalmol. 1986;70(3):179–82.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  221. 221.
    Duffner PK, Cohen ME, Myers MH, Heise HW. Survival of children with brain tumors: SEER Program, 1973–1980. Neurology. 1986;36(5):597–601.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  222. 222.
    Rootman J. Diseases of the orbit: a multidisciplinary approach. London: Lippincott; 1988.Google Scholar
  223. 223.
    Marquardt MD, Zimmerman LE. Histopathology of meningiomas and gliomas of the optic nerve. Hum Pathol. 1982;13(3):226–35.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  224. 224.
    Wilson WB, Finkel RS, McCleary L, Dreisbach JN, Rak K. Large cystic optic glioma. Neurology. 1990;40(12):1898–900.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  225. 225.
    Goodman SJ, Rosenbaum AL, Hasso A, Itabashi H. Large optic nerve glioma with normal vision. Arch Ophthalmol. 1975;93(10):991–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  226. 226.
    North American Study Group for Optic Glioma. Tumor spread in unilateral optic glioma: study report no. 2. Neurofibromatosis. 1989;2:195.Google Scholar
  227. 227.
    Bruggers CS, Friedman HS, Phillips PC, et al. Leptomeningeal dissemination of optic pathway gliomas in three children. Am J Ophthalmol. 1991;111(6):719–23.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  228. 228.
    Poussaint TY, Barnes PD, Nichols K, et al. Diencephalic syndrome: clinical features and imaging findings. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 1997;18(8):1499–505.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  229. 229.
    Liu GT, Lessell S. Spontaneous visual improvement in chiasmal gliomas. Am J Ophthalmol. 1992;114(2):193–201.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  230. 230.
    Parazzini C, Triulzi F, Bianchini E, et al. Spontaneous involution of optic pathway lesions in neurofibromatosis type 1: serial contrast MR evaluation. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 1995;16(8):1711–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  231. 231.
    Listernick R, Louis DN, Packer RJ, Gutmann DH. Optic pathway gliomas in children with neurofibromatosis 1: consensus statement from the NF1 Optic Pathway Glioma Task Force. Ann Neurol. 1997;41(2):143–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  232. 232.
    Listernick R, Charrow J, Greenwald MJ, Esterly NB. Optic gliomas in children with neurofibromatosis type 1. J Pediatr. 1989;114(5):788–92.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  233. 233.
    Listernick R, Ferner RE, Piersall L, Sharif S, Gutmann DH, Charrow J. Late-onset optic pathway tumors in children with neurofibromatosis 1. Neurology. 2004;63(10):1944–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  234. 234.
    Schmandt SM, Packer RJ. Treatment of low-grade pediatric gliomas. Curr Opin Oncol. 2000;12(3):194–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  235. 235.
    Parsa CF, Hoyt CS, Lesser RL, et al. Spontaneous regression of optic gliomas: thirteen cases documented by serial neuroimaging. Arch Ophthalmol. 2001;119(4):516–29.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  236. 236.
    Glaser JS, Hoyt WF, Corbett J. Visual morbidity with chiasmal glioma. Long-term studies of visual fields in untreated and irradiated cases. Arch Ophthalmol. 1971;85(1):3–12.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  237. 237.
    Wisoff JH, Boyett JM, Berger MS, et al. Current neurosurgical management and the impact of the extent of resection in the treatment of malignant gliomas of childhood: a report of the Children’s Cancer Group trial no. CCG-945. J Neurosurg. 1998;89(1):52–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  238. 238.
    Janss AJ, Grundy R, Cnaan A, et al. Optic pathway and hypothalamic/chiasmatic gliomas in children younger than age 5 years with a 6-year follow-up. Cancer. 1995;75(4):1051–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  239. 239.
    Saving KL, Kimler BF, Vats TS. Intraperitoneal bleomycin for ventriculoperitoneal spread of a hypothalamic astrocytoma. Cancer Drug Deliv. 1986;3(3):205–10.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  240. 240.
    Trigg ME, Swanson JD, Letellier MA. Metastasis of an optic glioma through a ventriculoperitoneal shunt. Cancer. 1983;52(4):599–601.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  241. 241.
    West GA, Berger MS, Geyer JR. Childhood optic pathway tumors associated with ascites following ventriculoperitoneal shunt placement. Pediatr Neurosurg. 1994;21(4):254–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  242. 242.
    Constine LS, Woolf PD, Cann D, et al. Hypothalamic-pituitary dysfunction after radiation for brain tumors. N Engl J Med. 1993;328(2):87–94.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  243. 243.
    Cappelli C, Grill J, Raquin M, et al. Long-term follow up of 69 patients treated for optic pathway tumours before the chemotherapy era. Arch Dis Child. 1998;79(4):334–48.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  244. 244.
    Grill J, Couanet D, Cappelli C, et al. Radiation-induced cerebral vasculopathy in children with neurofibromatosis and optic pathway glioma. Ann Neurol. 1999;45(3):393–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  245. 245.
    Tao ML, Barnes PD, Billett AL, et al. Childhood optic chiasm gliomas: radiographic response following radiotherapy and long-term clinical outcome. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 1997;39(3):579–87.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  246. 246.
    Packer RJ. Chemotherapy: low-grade gliomas of the hypothalamus and thalamus. Pediatr Neurosurg. 2000;32(5):259–63.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  247. 247.
    Hoyt WF, Meshel LG, Lessell S, Schatz NJ, Suckling RD. Malignant optic glioma of adulthood. Brain. 1973;96(1):121–32.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  248. 248.
    Harper CG, Stewart-Wynne EG. Malignant optic gliomas in adults. Arch Neurol. 1978;35(11):731–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  249. 249.
    Spoor TC, Kennerdell JS, Martinez AJ, Zorub D. Malignant gliomas of the optic nerve pathways. Am J Ophthalmol. 1980;89(2):284–92.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  250. 250.
    Hamilton AM, Garner A, Tripathi RC, Sanders MD. Malignant optic nerve glioma. Report of a case with electron microscope study. Br J Ophthalmol. 1973;57(4):253–64.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  251. 251.
    Albers GW, Hoyt WF, Forno LS, Shratter LA. Treatment response in malignant optic glioma of adulthood. Neurology. 1988;38(7):1071–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  252. 252.
    Brodovsky S, ten Hove MW, Pinkerton RM, Ludwin SK, Smith RM. An enhancing optic nerve lesion: malignant glioma of adulthood. Can J Ophthalmol. 1997;32(6):409–13.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  253. 253.
    Hufnagel TJ, Kim JH, Lesser R, et al. Malignant glioma of the optic chiasm eight years after radiotherapy for prolactinoma. Arch Ophthalmol. 1988;106(12):1701–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  254. 254.
    Millar WS, Tartaglino LM, Sergott RC, Friedman DP, Flanders AE. MR of malignant optic glioma of adulthood. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 1995;16(8):1673–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  255. 255.
    Dario A, Iadini A, Cerati M, Marra A. Malignant optic glioma of adulthood. Case report and review of the literature. Acta Neurol Scand. 1999;100(5):350–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  256. 256.
    Gritzman MC, Snyckers FD, Proctor NS. Ganglioglioma of the optic nerve. A case report. S Afr Med J. 1983;63(22):863–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  257. 257.
    Lu WY, Goldman M, Young B, Davis DG. Optic nerve ganglioglioma. Case report. J Neurosurg. 1993;78(6):979–82.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  258. 258.
    Wahl RW, Dillard Jr SH. Multiple ganglioneuromas of the central nervous system. Arch Pathol. 1972;94(2):158–64.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  259. 259.
    Terry TL, Dunphy EB. Metastatic carcinoma in both optic nerves simulating retrobulbar neuritis. Arch Ophthalmol. 1993;10:611–4.Google Scholar
  260. 260.
    Katz JL, Valsamis MP, Jampel RS. Ocular signs in diffuse carcinomatous meningitis. Am J Ophthalmol. 1961;52:681–90.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  261. 261.
    Fischer-Williams M, Bosanquet FD, Daniel PM. Carcinomatosis of the meninges; a report of three cases. Brain. 1955;78(1):42–58.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  262. 262.
    Little JR, Dale AJ, Okazaki H. Meningeal carcinomatosis. Clinical manifestations. Arch Neurol. 1974;30(2):138–43.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  263. 263.
    Olson ME, Chernik NL, Posner JB. Leptomeningeal metastasis from systemic cancer: a report of 47 cases. Trans Am Neurol Assoc. 1971;96:291–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  264. 264.
    Susac JO, Smith JL, Powell JO. Carcinomatous optic neuropathy. Am J Ophthalmol. 1973;76(5):672–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  265. 265.
    Appen RE, de Venecia G, Selliken JH, Giles LT. Meningeal carcinomatosis with blindness. Am J Ophthalmol. 1978;86(5):661–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  266. 266.
    Samuels MA, Feske SK. Office practice of neurology. 2nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Churchill Livingstone; 2003.Google Scholar
  267. 267.
    Shields JA, Shields CL. Intraocular tumors: a text and atlas. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders; 1992.Google Scholar
  268. 268.
    Ferry AP, Font RL. Carcinoma metastatic to the eye and orbit. I. A clinicopathologic study of 227 cases. Arch Ophthalmol. 1974;92(4):276–86.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  269. 269.
    Shields JA, Shields CL, Singh AD. Metastatic neoplasms in the optic disc: the 1999 Bjerrum Lecture: part 2. Arch Ophthalmol. 2000;118(2):217–24.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  270. 270.
    Mack HG, Jakobiec FA. Isolated metastases to the retina or optic nerve. Int Ophthalmol Clin. 1997;37(4):251–60.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  271. 271.
    Arnold AC, Hepler RS, Foos RY. Isolated metastasis to the optic nerve. Surv Ophthalmol. 1981;26:75–83.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  272. 272.
    Spalton DJ, Hitchings RA, Hunter PA, editors; Tan JCH, associate editor; Harry J, pathology advisor. Atlas of clinical ophthalmology. Philadelphia; Edinburgh: Elsevier Mosby; 2005.Google Scholar
  273. 273.
    Lester EP, Ultman JE. Lymphoma. In: William WJ, Beutlar E, Erslev AJ, editors. Hematology. New York: McGraw Hill; 1990. p. 53–6.Google Scholar
  274. 274.
    Akpek EK, Ahmed I, Hochberg FH, et al. Intraocular central nervous system lymphoma: clinical features, diagnosis, and outcomes. Ophthalmology. 1999;106(9):1805–10.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  275. 275.
    Peterson K, Gordon KB, Heinemann MH, DeAngelis LM. The clinical spectrum of ocular lymphoma. Cancer. 1993;72(3):843–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  276. 276.
    Davis JL, Miller DM, Ruiz P. Diagnostic testing of vitrectomy specimens. Am J Ophthalmol. 2005;140(5):822–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  277. 277.
    Akpek EK, Foster CS. Primary intraocular lymphoma with a low interleukin 10 to inter-leukin 6 ratio and heterogeneous IgH genearrangement. Arch Ophthalmol. 2000;118(5):731–2.Google Scholar
  278. 278.
    Lanska DJ, Lanska MJ, Tomsak RL. Unilateral optic neuropathy in non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Neurology. 1987;37(9):1563–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  279. 279.
    Miller NR, Iliff WJ. Visual loss as the initial symptom in Hodgkin disease. Arch Ophthalmol. 1975;93(11):1158–61.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  280. 280.
    Zaman AG, Graham EM, Sanders MD. Anterior visual system involvement in non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Br J Ophthalmol. 1993;77(3):184–7.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  281. 281.
    Kline LB, Garcia JH, Harsh III GR. Lymphomatous optic neuropathy. Arch Ophthalmol. 1984;102(11):1655–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  282. 282.
    Allen RA, Straatsma BR. Ocular involvement in leukemia and allied disorders. Arch Ophthalmol. 1961;66:490–508.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  283. 283.
    Rosenthal AR, Egbert PR, Wilbur JR, Probert JC. Leukemic involvement of the optic nerve. Trans Pac Coast Oto Ophthalmol Soc Annu Meet. 1974;55:137–58.Google Scholar
  284. 284.
    Ellis W, Little HL. Leukemic infiltration of the optic nerve head. Am J Ophthalmol. 1973;75(5):867–71.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  285. 285.
    Nikaido H, Mishima H, Ono H, Choshi K, Dohy H. Leukemic involvement of the optic nerve. Am J Ophthalmol. 1988;105(3):294–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  286. 286.
    Rosenthal AR. Ocular manifestations of leukemia. A review. Ophthalmology. 1983;90(8):899–905.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  287. 287.
    Kincaid MC, Green WR. Ocular and orbital involvement in leukemia. Surv Ophthalmol. 1983;27(4):211–32.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  288. 288.
    Brown GC, Shields JA, Augsburger JJ, Serota FT, Koch P. Leukemic optic neuropathy. Int Ophthalmol. 1981;3(2):111–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  289. 289.
    Wiznia RA, Rose A, Levy AL. Occlusive microvascular retinopathy with optic disc and retinal neovascularization in acute lymphocytic leukemia. Retina. 1994;14(3):253–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  290. 290.
    Cramer SC, Glaspy JA, Efird JT, Louis DN. Chronic lymphocytic leukemia and the central nervous system: a clinical and pathological study. Neurology. 1996;46(1):19–25.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  291. 291.
    Clarke E. Cranial and intracranial myelomas. Brain. 1954;77(1):61–81.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  292. 292.
    Bourdette DN, Rosenberg NL. Infiltrative orbitopathy, optic disk edema, and POEMS. Neurology. 1984;34(4):532–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  293. 293.
    Galetta SL, Stadtmauer EA, Hicks DG, Raps EC, Plock G, Oberholtzer JC. Reactive lymphohistiocytosis with recurrence in the optic chiasm. J Clin Neuro Ophthalmol. 1991;11(1):25–30.Google Scholar
  294. 294.
    Anthony JJ. Malignant lymphoma associated with hydantoin drugs. Arch Neurol. 1970;22(5):450–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  295. 295.
    Laties AM, Scheie HG. Sarcoid granuloma of the optic disk: evolution of multiple small tumors. Trans Am Ophthalmol Soc. 1970;68:219–33.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  296. 296.
    Zajicek JP, Scolding NJ, Foster O, et al. Central nervous system sarcoidosis: diagnosis and management. Q J Med. 1999;92(2):103–17.Google Scholar
  297. 297.
    Mayers M. Ocular sarcoidosis. Int Ophthalmol Clin. 1990;30(4):257–63.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  298. 298.
    Beardsley TL, Brown SV, Sydnor CF, Grimson BS, Klintworth GK. Eleven cases of sarcoidosis of the optic nerve. Am J Ophthalmol. 1984;97(1):62–77.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  299. 299.
    Graham EM, Ellis CJ, Sanders MD, McDonald WI. Optic neuropathy in sarcoidosis. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1986;49(7):756–63.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  300. 300.
    Power WJ, Neves RA, Rodriguez A, Pedroza-Seres M, Foster CS. The value of combined serum angiotensin-converting enzyme and gallium scan in diagnosing ocular sarcoidosis. Ophthalmology. 1995;102(12):2007–11.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  301. 301.
    Gass JD, Olson CL. Sarcoidosis with optic nerve and retinal involvement. A clinicopathologic case report. Trans Am Acad Ophthalmol Otolaryngol. 1973;77(6):OP739–50.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  302. 302.
    Johns CJ, Michele TM. The clinical management of sarcoidosis. A 50-year experience at the Johns Hopkins Hospital. Medicine (Baltimore). 1999;78(2):65–111.Google Scholar
  303. 303.
    Kennerdell JS, Dresner SC. The nonspecific orbital inflammatory syndromes. Surv Ophthalmol. 1984;29(2):93–103.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  304. 304.
    Purvin V, Kawasaki A, Jacobson DM. Optic perineuritis: clinical and radiographic features. Arch Ophthalmol. 2001;119(9):1299–306.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  305. 305.
    Fay AM, Kane SA, Kazim M, Millar WS, Odel JG. Magnetic resonance imaging of optic perineuritis. J Neuroophthalmol. 1997;17(4):247–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  306. 306.
    Margo CE, Levy MH, Beck RW. Bilateral idiopathic inflammation of the optic nerve sheaths. Light and electron microscopic findings. Ophthalmology. 1989;96(2):200–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  307. 307.
    Rush JA, Kennerdell JS, Martinez AJ. Primary idiopathic inflammation of the optic nerve. Am J Ophthalmol. 1982;93(3):312–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  308. 308.
    Schlernitzauer DA, Hodges III FJ, Bagan M. Tuberculoma of the left optic nerve and chiasm. Arch Ophthalmol. 1971;85(1):75–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  309. 309.
    Lana-Peixoto MA, Bambirra EA, Pittella JE. Optic nerve tuberculoma. A case report. Arch Neurol. 1980;37(3):186–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  310. 310.
    Iraci G, Giordano R, Gerosa M, Pardatscher K, Tomazzoli L. Tuberculoma of the anterior optic pathways. J Neurosurg. 1980;52(1):129–33.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  311. 311.
    Gupta RK, Gupta S, Singh D, Sharma B, Kohli A, Gujral RB. MR imaging and angiography in tuberculous meningitis. Neuroradiology. 1994;36(2):87–92.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  312. 312.
    Kox LF, Kuijper S, Kolk AH. Early diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis by polymerase chain reaction. Neurology. 1995;45(12):2228–32.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  313. 313.
    Ranglione WC, O'Brien RJ. Tuberculosis. In: Fauci AS, Braunwald E, Isselbacher KJ, et al., editors. Harrison’s principles of internal medicine. 14th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill; 1998. p. 156–67.Google Scholar
  314. 314.
    Subsai K, Kanoksri S, Siwaporn C, Helen L. Neurological complications in AIDS patients: the 1-year retrospective study in Chiang Mai University. Thailand. Eur J Neurol. 2004;11(11):755–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  315. 315.
    Rex JH, Larsen RA, Dismukes WE, Cloud GA, Bennett JE. Catastrophic visual loss due to Cryptococcus neoformans meningitis. Medicine (Baltimore). 1993;72(4):207–24.Google Scholar
  316. 316.
    Kestelyn P, Taelman H, Bogaerts J, et al. Ophthalmic manifestations of infections with Cryptococcus neoformans in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Am J Ophthalmol. 1993;116(6):721–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  317. 317.
    Cohen DB, Glasgow BJ. Bilateral optic nerve cryptococcosis in sudden blindness in patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Ophthalmology. 1993;100(11):1689–94.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  318. 318.
    Kupfer C, McCrane E. A possible cause of decreased vision in cryptococcal meningitis. Invest Ophthalmol. 1974;13(10):801–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  319. 319.
    Maslin J, Morand JJ, Menard G, Camparo P. [Cryptococcosis]. Med Trop (Mars). 2002;62(5):480–3.Google Scholar
  320. 320.
    Ofner S, Baker RS. Visual loss in cryptococcal meningitis. J Clin Neuro Ophthalmol. 1987;7(1):45–8.Google Scholar
  321. 321.
    Tan CT. Intracranial hypertension causing visual failure in cryptococcus meningitis. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1988;51(7):944–6.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  322. 322.
    Mathews VP, Alo PL, Glass JD, Kumar AJ, McArthur JC. AIDS-related CNS cryptococcosis: radiologic-pathologic correlation. Am J Neuroradiol. 1992;13(5):1477–86.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  323. 323.
    Brown RW, Clarke RJ, Gonzales MF. Cytologic detection of Cryptococcus neoformans in cerebrospinal fluid. Rapid screening methods. Acta Cytol. 1985;29(2):151–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  324. 324.
    Sugar AM, Stern JJ, Dupont B. Overview: treatment of cryptococcal meningitis. Rev Infect Dis. 1990;12 suppl 3:S338–48.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  325. 325.
    Banta JT, Davis JL, Lam BL. Presumed toxoplasmosic anterior optic neuropathy. Ocul Immunol Inflamm. 2002;10(3):201–11.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  326. 326.
    Marmor MF, Egbert PR, Egbert BM, Marmor JB. Optic nerve head involvement with cytomegalovirus in an adult with lymphoma. Arch Ophthalmol. 1978;96(7):1252–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Neurology, Neuro-OphthalmologyUniversity of Nevada School of MedicineRenoUSA

Personalised recommendations