Advertisement

Papilledema

Chapter
  • 1.2k Downloads

Abstract

The term idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) has been used interchangeably in the literature with pseudotumor cerebri. Pseudotumor cerebri syndrome (PTCS) is now used to denote idiopathic and secondary etiologies of increased intracranial hypertension. Common symptoms of elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) are headache, transient visual obscurations, and pulsatile tinnitus. Visual acuity may range from normal to no light perception. The visual acuity is not related to the degree of papilledema, except for atrophic papilledema in which the vision would be invariably poor. Concentric enlargement of the blind spot is the most common defect, followed by isopter constriction and loss of the inferior nasal quadrant of the visual field with a nasal step. Color defects usually involve red-green abnormalities. No afferent pupillary defect is detected in most instances of bilateral papilledema. One-third of patients have horizontal diplopia. Papilledema is clinically defined as optic disc swelling resulting only from increased ICP, which is equal to or greater than 250 mmH2O in adults while in a lateral recumbent position. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) can be used as an adjunct to ophthalmoscopy to monitor the severity and evolution of papilledema.

The two major goals of therapy in PTCS, a term that includes idiopathic (IIH) and secondary etiologies of increased intracranial hypertension, are to prevent visual loss and treat and prevent headaches. The mainstay of medical treatment of PTCS is weight loss. The Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension Treatment Trial is currently an ongoing prospective randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial to compare the efficacy of acetazolamide (up to 4 g/day) added to a low-sodium, weight reduction diet versus dieting alone or preventing or restoring visual loss. If headaches develop, then antimigraine medications may be added.

Indications for surgery include the following: (1) progressive visual loss despite maximal medical treatment, (2) severe or sudden visual loss at onset with an afferent pupillary defect or signs of advancing optic nerve dysfunction, and (3) severe papilledema causing macular edema or exudates. Optic nerve sheath decompression (ONSD) has been shown to be safe and effective in treating vision in PTCS. ONSD may not be the treatment of choice for those who have progressive visual loss and intractable headaches, which are better managed by ventriculoperitoneal (VP) or lumboperitoneal (LP) shunting. Because of the high rate of complications and failures following VP or LP shunting, bariatric surgery may be an effective alternative in severely obese patients with PTCS. Because of increasing evidence of nonthrombotic dural venous sinus stenosis, endovascular stenting may be an option for treatment of PTCS.

The management of PTCS in pregnancy is similar to that in nonpregnant adults. In children, the criteria for elevated CSF opening pressure are greater than 280 mmH2O. The management of PTCS otherwise is similar to that in adults.

Keywords

Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Visual Field Defect Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Thickness Venous Sinus Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. 1.
    Friedman DI, Liu GT, Digre KB. Revised diagnostic criteria for the pseudotumor cerebri syndrome in adults and children. Neurology. 2013;81:1159–65.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Giuseffi V, Wall M, Siegel PZ, Rojas PB. Symptoms and disease associations in idiopathic intracranial hypertension (pseudotumor cerebri): a case-control study. Neurology. 1991;41(2 pt 1):239–44.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Hayreh SS. Optic disc edema in raised intracranial pressure. VI. Associated visual disturbances and their pathogenesis. Arch Ophthalmol. 1977;95(9):1566–79.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Cogan DG, Kuwabara T. Papilledema. Exp Eye Res. 1977;25(Suppl):419–33.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Kosmorsky G. Pseudotumor cerebri. Neurosurg Clin N Am. 2001;12(4):775–97.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Spalton DJ, Hitchings RA, Hunter PA, editors. Atlas of clinical ophthalmology. Philadelphia: JB Lippincott; 2005. Tan JCH, associate editor; Harry J, pathology advisor.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Griebel SR, Kosmorsky GS. Choroidal folds associated with increased intracranial pressure. Am J Ophthalmol. 2000;129(4):513–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Talks SJ, Mossa F, Elston JS. The contribution of macular changes to visual loss in benign intracranial hypertension. Eye. 1998;12(pt 5):806–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Keane JR. Papilledema with unusual ocular hemorrhages. Arch Ophthalmol. 1981;99(2):262–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    McCasland BJ, Mendicino ME, Newman NJ. Subretinal haemorrhage in idiopathic intracranial hypertension. Br J Ophthalmol. 1999;83(7):883–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Hedges III TR, Legge RH, Peli E, Yardley CJ. Retinal nerve fiber layer changes and visual field loss in idiopathic intracranial hypertension. Ophthalmology. 1995;102(8):1242–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Orcutt JC, Page NG, Sanders MD. Factors affecting visual loss in benign intracranial hypertension. Ophthalmology. 1984;91(11):1303–12.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Schreiber S, Bischoff P. Beidseitige opticusatrophie bei pseudotumor cerebri. Klin Mbl Augenheilkd. 1983;182:465–7.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Neetens A, Smets RM. Papilledema. Neuro-ophthalmology. 1989;9:81–101.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Carter SR, Seiff SR. Macular changes in pseudotumor cerebri before and after optic nerve sheath fenestration. Ophthalmology. 1995;102(6):937–41.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Eggers HM, Sanders MD. Acquired optociliary shunt vessels in papilloedema. Br J Ophthalmol. 1980;64(4):267–71.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Hedges TR. Papilledema: its recognition and relation to increased intracranial pressure. Surv Ophthalmol. 1975;19(4):201–23.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Henkind P, Benjamin JV. Vascular anomalies and neoplasms of the optic nerve head. Trans Ophthalmol Soc U K. 1976;96(3):418–23.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Anderson RL, Flaharty PM. Treatment of pseudotumor cerebri by primary and secondary optic nerve sheath decompression. Am J Ophthalmol. 1992; 113(5): 599–601.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Levin PS, Newman SA, Quigley HA, Miller NR. A clinicopathologic study of optic neuropathies associated with intracranial mass lesions with quantification of remaining axons. Am J Ophthalmol. 1983;95(3):295–306.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Lepore FE. Unilateral and highly asymmetric papilledema in pseudotumor cerebri. Neurology. 1992; 42(3 pt 1):676–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Moster ML, Slavin M, Wall M. Unilateral disc edema in a young woman. Surv Ophthalmol. 1995;39(5):409–16.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Sher NA, Wirtschafter J, Shapiro SK, See C, Shapiro I. Unilateral papilledema in ‘benign’ intracranial hypertension (pseudotumor cerebri). JAMA. 1983;250(17):2346–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Strominger MB, Weiss GB, Mehler MF. Asymptomatic unilateral papilledema in pseudotumor cerebri. J Clin Neuroophthalmol. 1992;12(4):238–41.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Paul TO, Hoyt WF. Funduscopic appearance of papilledema with optic tract atrophy. Arch Ophthalmol. 1976;94(3):467–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Hayreh SS. Pathogenesis of oedema of the optic disc (papilloedema): a preliminary report. Br J Ophthalmol. 1964;48:522–43.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Krishna R, Kosmorsky GS, Wright KW. Pseudotumor cerebri sine papilledema with unilateral sixth nerve palsy. J Neuroophthalmol. 1998;18(1):53–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Liu GT, Volpe NJ, Schatz NJ, Galetta SL, Farrar JT, Raps EC. Severe sudden visual loss caused by pseudotumor cerebri and lumboperitoneal shunt failure. Am J Ophthalmol. 1996;122(1):129–31.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Repka MX, Miller NR, Savino PJ. Pseudotumor cerebri. Am J Ophthalmol. 1984;98(6):741–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Wall M, Hart Jr WM, Burde RM. Visual field defects in idiopathic intracranial hypertension (pseudotumor cerebri). Am J Ophthalmol. 1983;96(5):654–69.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Kupersmith MJ, Sibony P, Mandel G, Durbin M, Kardon RH. Optical coherence tomography of the swollen optic nerve head: deformation of the peripapillary retinal pigment epithelium layer in papilledema. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2011;52(9):6558–64.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Rebolleda G, Munoz-Negrete FJ. Follow-up of mild papilledema in idiopathic intracranial hypertension with optical coherence tomography. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2009;50:5197–200.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Hayreh SS, Hayreh MS. Optic disc edema in raised intracranial pressure. II. Early detection with fluorescein fundus angiography and stereoscopic color photography. Arch Ophthalmol. 1977;95(7):1245–54.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Sanders MD, Ffytche TJ. Fluorescein angiography in the diagnosis of drusen of the disc. Trans Ophthalmol Soc U K. 1967;87:457–68.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Salgarello T, Tamburrelli C, Falsini B, Giudice-andrea A, Colotto A. Optic nerve diameters and perimetric thresholds in idiopathic intracranial hypertension. Br J Ophthalmol. 1996;80(6):509–14.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Zimmerman LE. Histology and general pathology of the optic nerve. Trans Am Acad Ophthalmol Otolaryngol. 1956;60(1):14–30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Reese AB. Peripapillary detachment of the retina accompanying papilledema. Trans Am Ophthalmol Soc. 1930;28:341–51.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Corbett JJ, Jacobson DM, Mauer RC, Thompson HS. Enlargement of the blind spot caused by papilledema. Am J Ophthalmol. 1988;105(3):261–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Ashton N. The eye in malignant hypertension. Trans Am Acad Ophthalmol Otolaryngol. 1972;76(1):17–40.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Hayreh SS. Pathogenesis of edema of the optic disc. Doc Ophthalmol. 1968;24(2):289–411.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Hayreh SS. Blood supply of the optic nerve head and its role in optic atrophy, glaucoma, and oedema of the optic disc. Br J Ophthalmol. 1969;53(11):721–48.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Tso MO, Hayreh SS. Optic disc edema in raised intracranial pressure. IV. Axoplasmic transport in experimental papilledema. Arch Ophthalmol. 1977;95(8):1458–62.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Orcutt JC, Page NG, Sanders MD. Factors affecting visual loss in benign intracranial hypertension. Ophthalmology. 1984;91(11):1303–12.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Petrohelos MA, Henderson JW. The ocular findings of intracranial tumor. A study of 358 cases. Trans Am Acad Ophthalmol Otolaryngol. 1950;55:89–98.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Bergelsen TI. The premature synostosis of the cranial sutures. Acta Ophthalmol (Copenh). 1958;36 Suppl 51:1–176.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Krayenbul H, Yasargil MG. Das hirnaneurysma. Geigy: Basel; 1958.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Margolis G, Kilham L. Hydrocephalus in hamsters, ferrets, rats, and mice following inoculations with reovirus type I. II. Pathologic studies. Lab Invest. 1969;21(3):189–98.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Hanna LS, Girgis NI, Yassin MMW, et al. Incidence of papilledema and optic atrophy in meningitis. Jpn J Ophthalmol. 1981;25:69–73.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Miller JD, Ross CA. Encephalitis. A four-year survey. Lancet. 1968;1(7552):1121–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Silverstein A. Papilledema with acute viral infections of the brain. Mt Sinai J Med. 1974;41(3):435–43.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Haslbeck KM, Eberhardt KE, Nissen U, et al. Intracranial hypertension as a clinical manifestation of cauda equine paraganglioma. Neurology. 1999;52(6):1297–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Fantin A, Feist RM, Reddy CV. Intracranial hypertension and papilledema in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy. Br J Ophthalmol. 1993;77(3):193.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Ameri A, Bousser MG. Cerebral venous thrombosis. Neurol Clin. 1992;10(1):87–111.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Bousser MG, Barnett HJM. Cerebral venous thrombosis. In: Bousser MG, Barnett HJM, editors. Stroke: pathophysiology, diagnosis, and management. 2nd ed. New York: Churchill-Livingstone; 1992. p. 517–37.Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Bousser MG, Chiras J, Bories J, Castaigne P. Cerebral venous thrombosis: a review of 38 cases. Stroke. 1985;16(2):199–213.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Buonanno FS. Cerebral sinovenous thrombosis. Curr Treat Options Cardiovasc Med. 2001;3(5):417–27.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Provenzale JM, Joseph GJ, Barboriak DP. Dural sinus thrombosis: findings on CT and MR imaging and diagnostic pitfalls. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1998;170(3):777–83.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Biousse V, Tong F, Newman NJ. Cerebral venous thrombosis. Curr Treat Options Neurol. 2003;5(5):409–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Villringer A, Mehraein S, Einhaupl KM. Pathophysiological aspects of cerebral sinus venous thrombosis (SVT). J Neuroradiol. 1994;21(2):72–80.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Bousser MG, Russell RR. Cerebral venous thrombosis. London: Saunders; 1997.Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Allroggen H, Abbott RJ. Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis. Postgrad Med J. 2000;76(891):12–5.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Preter M, Tzourio C, Ameri A, Bousser MG. Long-term prognosis in cerebral venous thrombosis. Follow-up of 77 patients. Stroke. 1996;27(2):243–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Ozsvath RR, Casey SO, Lustrin ES, Alberico RA, Hassankhani A, Patel M. Cerebral venography: comparison of CT and MR projection venography. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1997;169(6):1699–707.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Deschiens MA, Conard J, Horellou MH, et al. Coagulation studies, factor V Leiden, and anti-cardiolipin antibodies in 40 cases of cerebral venous thrombosis. Stroke. 1996;27(10):1724–30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Stam J, De Bruijn SF, De Veber G. Anticoagulation for cerebral sinus thrombosis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2002;4:CD002005.Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    de Bruijn SF, Stam J. Randomized, placebo-controlled trial of anticoagulant treatment with low-molecular-weight heparin for cerebral sinus thrombosis. Stroke. 1999;30(3):484–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Friedman DI, Rausch EA. Headache diagnoses in patients with treated idiopathic intracranial hypertension. Neurology. 2002;58(10):1551–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Evans RW. New daily persistent headache. Curr Pain Headache Rep. 2003;7(4):303–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Green JP, Newman NJ, Stowe ZN, Nemeroff CB. “Normal pressure” pseudotumor cerebri. J Neuroophthalmol. 1996;16(4):241–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Mathew NT, Ravishankar K, Sanin LC. Coexistence of migraine and idiopathic intracranial hypertension without papilledema. Neurology. 1996;46(5):1226–30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Corbett JJ, Savino PJ, Thompson HS, et al. Visual loss in pseudotumor cerebri. Follow-up of 57 patients from five to 41 years and a profile of 14 patients with permanent severe visual loss. Arch Neurol. 1982;39:461–74.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Digre KB, Nakamoto BK, Warner JE, et al. A comparison of idiopathic intracranial hypertension with and without papilledema. Headache. 2009;49:185–93.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Ney JJ, Volpe NJ, Liu GT, Balcer LJ, Moster ML, Galetta SL. Ophthalmology. 2009;116(9):1808–13.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Bono F, Cristiano D, Mastrandrea C, et al. The upper limit of normal CSF opening pressure is related to bilateral transverse sinus stenosis in headache sufferers. Cephalalgia. 2010;30(2):145–51.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Durcan FJ, Corbett JJ, Wall M. The incidence of pseudotumor cerebri. Population studies in Iowa and Louisiana. Arch Neurol. 1988;45(8):875–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Radhakrishnan K, Sridharan R, Ashok PP, Mousa ME. Pseudotumour cerebri: incidence and pattern in North-Eastern Libya. Eur Neurol. 1986;25(2):117–24.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Radhakrishnan K, Thacker AK, Bohlaga NH, Maloo JC, Gerryo SE. Epidemiology of idiopathic intracranial hypertension: a prospective and case-control study. J Neurol Sci. 1993;116(1):18–28.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Bruce BB, Preechawat P, Newman NJ, Lynn MJ, Biousse V. Racial differences in idiopathic intracranial hypertension. Neurology. 2008;70(11):861–7.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Rowe FJ, Sarkies NJ. Assessment of visual function in idiopathic intracranial hypertension: a prospective study. Eye. 1998;12(pt 1):111–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Wall M, White II WN. Asymmetric papilledema in idiopathic intracranial hypertension: prospective interocular comparison of sensory visual function. Invest Ophthalmol Visual Sci. 1998;39(1):134–42.Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Foley J. Benign forms of intracranial hypertension; toxic and otitic hydrocephalus. Brain. 1955;78(1):1–41.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Bandyopadhyay S, Jacobson DM. Clinical features of late-onset pseudotumor cerebri fulfilling the modified dandy criteria. J Neuroophthalmol. 2002;22(1):9–11.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Wall M, George D. Idiopathic intracranial hypertension. A prospective study of 50 patients. Brain. 1991;114(pt 1A):155–80.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Rowe FJ, Sarkies NJ. The relationship between obesity and idiopathic intracranial hypertension. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 1999;23(1):54–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Johnson LN, Krohel GB, Madsen RW, March Jr GA. The role of weight loss and acetazol-amide in the treatment of idiopathic intracranial hypertension (pseudotumor cerebri). Ophthalmology. 1998;105(12):2313–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Kupersmith MJ, Gamell L, Turbin R, Peck V, Spiegel P, Wall M. Effects of weight loss on the course of idiopathic intracranial hypertension in women. Neurology. 1998;50(4):1094–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Donaldson JO. Pathogenesis of pseudotumor cerebri syndromes. Neurology. 1981;31(7):877–80.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Dandy WE. Intracranial pressure without brain tumor: diagnosis and treatment. Ann Surg. 1937;106:492–513.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Raichle ME, Grubb Jr RL, Phelps ME, Gado MH, Caronna JJ. Cerebral hemodynamics and metabolism in pseudotumor cerebri. Ann Neurol. 1978;4(2):104–11.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Gideon P, Sorensen PS, Thomsen C, Stahlberg F, Gjerris F, Henriksen O. Increased brain water self-diffusion in patients with idiopathic intracranial hypertension. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 1995;16(2):381–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Moser FG, Hilal SK, Abrams G, Bello JA, Schipper H, Silver AJ. MR imaging of pseudo-tumor cerebri. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1988;150(4):903–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Sorensen PS, Thomsen C, Gjerris F, Henriksen O. Brain water accumulation in pseudotumour cerebri demonstrated by MR-imaging of brain water self-diffusion. Acta Neurochir Suppl (Wien). 1990;51:363–5.Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    Sorensen PS, Thomsen C, Gjerris F, Schmidt J, Kjaer L, Henriksen O. Increased brain water content in pseudotumour cerebri measured by magnetic resonance imaging of brain water self diffusion. Neurol Res. 1989;11(3):160–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Johnston I, Paterson A. Benign intracranial hypertension. II. CSF pressure and circulation. Brain. 1974;97(2):301–12.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Rottenberg DA, Foley KM, Posner JB. Hypothesis: the pathogenesis of pseudotumor cerebri. Med Hypotheses. 1980;6(9):9138.Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    Janny P, Chazal J, Colnet G, Irthum B, Georget AM. Benign intracranial hypertension and disorders of CSF absorption. Surg Neurol. 1981;15(3):168–74.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Karahalios DG, Rekate HL, Khayata MH, Apostolides PJ. Elevated intracranial venous pressure as a universal mechanism in pseudotumor cerebri of varying etiologies. Neurology. 1996;46(1):198–202.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Farb RI, Vanek I, Scott JN, et al. Idiopathic intracranial hypertension: the prevalence and morphology of sinovenous stenosis. Neurology. 2003;60(9):1418–24.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    King JO, Mitchell PJ, Thomson KR, et al. Manometry combined with cervical puncture in idiopathic intracranial hypertension. Neurology. 2002;58:26–30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Sumbranian RM, Tress BM, King JO, Eizenberg N, Mitchell PJ. Transverse sinus septum: a new aetiology of idiopathic intracranial hypertension? Australas Radiol. 2004;48:114.Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    Nedelmann M, Kaps M, Mueller-Forell W. Venous obstruction and jugular valve insufficiency in idiopathic intracranial hypertension. J Neurol. 2009;256:964–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Arjona A, Delgado F, Fernandez-Romero E. Intracranial hypertension secondary to giant arachnoid granulations. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2003;74:418.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Connor SEJ, Siddiqui MA, Stewart VR, et al. The relationship of transverse sinus stenosis to bony groove dimensions provides an insight into the etiology of idiopathic intracranial hypertension. Neuroradiology. 2008;50:999–1004.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Farb RI, Forghani R, Lee SK, et al. The venous distension sign: a diagnostic sign of intracranial hypotension at MR imaging of the brain. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2007;28:1489–93.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Sugerman HJ, DeMaria EJ, Felton III WL, Nakatsuka M, Sismanis A. Increased intra-abdominal pressure and cardiac filling pressures in obesity-associated pseudotumor cerebri. Neurology. 1997;49(2):507–11.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Sugerman HJ, Felton III WL, Salvant Jr JB, Sismanis A, Kellum JM. Effects of surgically induced weight loss on idiopathic intracranial hypertension in morbid obesity. Neurology. 1995;45(9):1655–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Sugerman HJ, Felton III WL, Sismanis A, Kellum JM, DeMaria EJ, Sugerman EL. Gastric surgery for pseudotumor cerebri associated with severe obesity. Ann Surg. 1999;229(5):634–40. discussion 640–42.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Brockmeier B, Burbach H, Runge M, Altenkirch H. Raised intracranial pressure in chronic respiratory disease. Lancet. 1997;349(9055):883.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Jennum P, Borgesen SE. Intracranial pressure and obstructive sleep apnea. Chest. 1989;95(2):279–83.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    McNamara ME. Idiopathic intracranial hypertension without papilledema: related to sleep apnea? Arch Neurol. 1992;49(1):14.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Lampl Y, Eshel Y, Kessler A, et al. Serum leptin level in women with idiopathic intracranial hypertension. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2002;72(5):642–3.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Ball AK, Sinclair AJ, Curnow SJ, et al. Elevated cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leptin in idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH): evidence for hypothalamic leptin resistance? Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2009;70(6):863–9.Google Scholar
  113. 113.
    Dhungana S, Sharrack B, Woodroofe N. Cytokines and chemokines in idiopathic intracranial hypertension. Headache. 2009;49(2):282–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Subramanian PS, Goldenberg-Cohen N, Shukla S, Cheskin LJ, Miller NR. Plasma ghrelin levels are normal in obese patients with idiopathic intracranial hypertension (pseudotumor cerebri). Am J Ophthalmol. 2004;138(1):109–13.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Kesler A, Kliper E, Shenkerman G, et al. Idiopathic intracranial hypertension is associated with lower body adiposity. Ophthalmology. 2010;117:169–74.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Ko MW, Chang SC, Ridha MA, et al. Weight gain and recurrence in idiopathic intracranial hypertension: a case control study. Neurology. 2011;76:1564–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Kim TW, Choung HK, Khwarg SI, et al. Eur J Neurol. 2008;15(8):876–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Carlow TJ, Glaser JS. Pseudotumor cerebri syndrome in systemic lupus erythematosus. JAMA. 1974;228(2):197–200.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Li EK, Ho PC. Pseudotumor cerebri in systemic lupus erythematosus. J Rheumatol. 1989;16(1):113–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Padeh S, Passwell JH. Systemic lupus erythematosus presenting as idiopathic intracranial hypertension. J Rheumatol. 1996;23(7):1266–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Waxman J, Wasan H. The architecture of cancer. BMJ. 1992;305(6865):1306–7.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Capriles LF. Intracranial hypertension and iron deficiency anemia: report of four cases. Arch Neurol. 1963;9:147–53.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Condulis N, Germain G, Charest N, Levy S, Carpenter TO. Pseudotumor cerebri: a presenting manifestation of Addison’s disease. Clin Pediatr (Phila). 1997;36(12):711–3.Google Scholar
  124. 124.
    Huseman CA, Torkelson RD. Pseudotumor cerebri following treatment of hypothalamic and primary hypothyroidism. Am J Dis Child. 1984;138(10):927–31.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Raghavan S, DiMartino-Nardi J, Saenger P, Linder B. Pseudotumor cerebri in an infant after l-thyroxine therapy for transient neonatal hypothyroidism. J Pediatr. 1997;130(3):478–80.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Chang D, Nagamoto G, Smith WE. Benign intracranial hypertension and chronic renal failure. Cleve Clin J Med. 1992;59(4):419–22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Guy J, Johnston PK, Corbett JJ, Day AL, Glaser JS. Treatment of visual loss in pseudotumor cerebri associated with uremia. Neurology. 1990;40(1):28–32.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Noetzel MJ, Rioux SD. Pseudotumor cerebri associated with obstructive nephropathy. Pediatr Neurol. 1986;2(4):238–40.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Couban S, Maxner CE. Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis presenting as idiopathic intracranial hypertension. Can Med Assoc J. 1991;145(6):657–9.Google Scholar
  130. 130.
    Biousse V, Ameri A, Bousser MG. Isolated intracranial hypertension as the only sign of cerebral venous thrombosis. Neurology. 1999;53(7):1537–42.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Cognard C, Casasco A, Toevi M, Houdart E, Chiras J, Merland JJ. Dural arteriovenous fistulas as a cause of intracranial hypertension due to impairment of cranial venous outflow. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1998;65(3):308–16.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Halbach VV, Higashida RT, Hieshima GB. Interventional neuroradiology. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1989;153(3):467–76.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Vijayan N. Headache following removal of acoustic neuroma. Headache. 1995;35(10):639.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Kiers L, King JO. Increased intracranial pressure following bilateral neck dissection and radiotherapy. Aust N Z J Surg. 1991;61(6):459–61.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Lam BL, Schatz NJ, Glaser JS, Bowen BC. Pseudotumor cerebri from cranial venous obstruction. Ophthalmology. 1992;99(5):706–12.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Sklar FH, Beyer Jr CW, Ramanathan M, Cooper PR, Clark WK. Cerebrospinal fluid dynamics in patients with pseudotumor cerebri. Neurosurgery. 1979;5(2): 208–16.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Birdwell BG, Yeager R, Whitsett TL. Pseudotumor cerebri. A complication of catheter-induced subclavian vein thrombosis. Arch Intern Med. 1994;154(7):808–11.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Marr WG, Chambers JW. Occlusion of the cerebral dural sinuses by tumor simulating pseudotumor cerebri. Am J Ophthalmol. 1966;61(1):45–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Lee AG, Brazis PW. Magnetic resonance venography in idiopathic pseudotumor cerebri. J Neuroophthalmol. 2000;20(1):12–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Wasan H, Mansi JL, Benjamin S, Powles R, Cunningham D. Myeloma and benign intracranial hypertension. BMJ. 1992;304(6828):685.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Pasquale LR, Moster ML, Schmaier A. Dural sinus thrombosis with abnormalities of protein S and fibrinogen. Arch Ophthalmol. 1990;108(5):644.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Sussman J, Leach M, Greaves M, Malia R, Davies-Jones GA. Potentially prothrombotic abnormalities of coagulation in benign intracranial hypertension. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1997;62(3):229–33.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Ludemann P, Nabavi DG, Junker R, et al. Factor V Leiden mutation is a risk factor for cerebral venous thrombosis: a case-control study of 55 patients. Stroke. 1998;29(12):2507–10.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Weih M, Vetter B, Ziemer S, et al. Increased rate of factor V Leiden mutation in patients with cerebral venous thrombosis. J Neurol. 1998;245(3):149–52.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Leker RR, Steiner I. Anticardiolipin antibodies are frequently present in patients with idiopathic intracranial hypertension. Arch Neurol. 1998;55(6):817–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Mokri B, Jack Jr CR, Petty GW. Pseudotumor syndrome associated with cerebral venous sinus occlusion and antiphospholipid antibodies. Stroke. 1993;24(3):469–72.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Walsh FB, Clark DB, Thompson RS, Nicholson DH. Oral contraceptives and neuroophthalmologic interest. Arch Ophthalmol. 1965;74(5):628–40.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    Cantu C, Barinagarrementeria F. Cerebral venous thrombosis associated with pregnancy and puerperium. Review of 67 cases. Stroke. 1993;24(12):1880–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Glueck CJ, Iyengar S, Goldenberg N, Smith LS, Wang P. Idiopathic intracranial hypertension: associations with coagulation disorders and polycystic ovary syndrome. J Lab Clin Med. 2003;142(1):35–45.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Bousser MG. Cerebral venous thrombosis: diagnosis and management. J Neurol. 2000;247(4):252–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Biousse V, Rucker JC, Vignal C, Crassard I, Katz BJ, Newman NJ. Anemia and papilledema. Am J Ophthalmol. 2003;135(4):437–46.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Henry M, Driscoll MC, Miller M, Chang T, Minniti CP. Pseudotumor cerebri in children with sickle cell disease: a case series. Pediatrics. 2004;113(3 pt 1):e265–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Bruce BB, Kedar S, Van Stavern GP, et al. Idiopathic intracranial hypertension in men. Neurology. 2009;72:304–9.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    Fraser JA, Bruce BB, Rucker J, et al. Risk factors for idiopathic intracranial hypertension in men: a case-control study. J Neurol Sci. 2010;290(1–2):86. doi: 10.1016/j.jns.2009.11.001.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Lee AG, Golnik K, Kardon R, Wall M, Eggenberger E, Yedavally S. Sleep apnea and intracranial hypertension in men. Ophthalmology. 2002;109(3):482–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    Weber KT, Singh KD, Hey JC. Idiopathic intracranial hypertension with primary aldosteronism: report of 2 cases. Am J Med Sci. 2002;324(1):45–50.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    Frost N, Lee MS, Sweeney P. Myxedema, papilledema, and elevated CSF protein. Neurology. 2004;63(4):754–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    Villain MA, Pageaux GP, Veyrac M, Arnaud B, Harris A, Greenfield DS. Effect of acetazolamide on ocular hemodynamics in pseudotumor cerebri associated with inflammatory bowel disease. Am J Ophthalmol. 2002;134(5):778–80.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. 159.
    Tillman O, Kaiser HJ, Killer HE. Pseudotumor cerebri in a patient with Goldenhar’s and Duane’s syndromes. Ophthalmologica. 2002;216(4):296–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. 160.
    Mokri B. Intracranial hypertension after treatment of spontaneous cerebrospinal fluid leaks. Mayo Clin Proc. 2002;77(11):1241–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. 161.
    Morrice G. Papilledema and hypervitaminosis A. JAMA. 1970;213(8):1344.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. 162.
    Roytman M, Frumkin A, Bohn TG. Pseudotumor cerebri caused by isotretinoin. Cutis. 1988;42(5):399–400.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. 163.
    Spector RH, Carlisle J. Pseudotumor cerebri caused by a synthetic vitamin A preparation. Neurology. 1984;34(11):1509–11.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. 164.
    Naderi S, Nukala S, Marruenda F, Kudarvalli P, Koduri PR. Pseudotumour cerebri in acute promyelocytic leukemia: improvement despite continued ATRA therapy. Ann Hematol. 1999;78(7):333–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. 165.
    Visani G, Bontempo G, Manfroi S, Pazzaglia A, D’Alessandro R, Tura S. All-trans-retinoic acid and pseudotumor cerebri in a young adult with acute promyelocytic leukemia: a possible disease association. Haematologica. 1996;81(2):152–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. 166.
    Visani G, Manfroi S, Tosi P, Martinelli G. All-trans-retinoic acid and pseudotumor cerebri. Leuk Lymphoma. 1996;23(5–6):437–42.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  167. 167.
    Chiu AM, Chuenkongkaew WL, Cornblath WT, et al. Minocycline treatment and pseudotumor cerebri syndrome. Am J Ophthalmol. 1998;126(1):116–21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. 168.
    Giles CL, Soble AR. Intracranial hypertension and tetracycline therapy. Am J Ophthalmol. 1971;72(5):981–2.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. 169.
    Friedman DI, Gordon LK, Egan RA, et al. Doxycycline and intracranial hypertension. Neurology. 2004;62(12):2297–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  170. 170.
    Cohen DN. Intracranial hypertension and papilledema associated with nalidixic acid therapy. Am J Ophthalmol. 1973;76(5):680–2.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  171. 171.
    Getenet JC, Croisile B, Vighetto A, et al. Idiopathic intracranial hypertension after ofloxacin treatment. Acta Neurol Scand. 1993;87(6):503–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  172. 172.
    Winrow AP, Supramaniam G. Benign intracranial hypertension after ciprofloxacin administration. Arch Dis Child. 1990;65(10):1165–6.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  173. 173.
    Ch'ien LT. Intracranial hypertension and sulfamethoxazole. N Engl J Med. 1976;283:47.Google Scholar
  174. 174.
    Sunku AJ, O’Duffy AE, Swanson JW. Benign intracranial hypertension associated with levonorgestrel implants. Ann Neurol. 1993;34:299.Google Scholar
  175. 175.
    Hamed LM, Glaser JS, Schatz NJ, Perez TH. Pseudotumor cerebri induced by danazol. Am J Ophthalmol. 1989;107(2):105–10.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  176. 176.
    Neville BGR, Wilson J. Benign intracranial hypertension following corticosteroid withdrawal in childhood. Br Med J. 1970;3:554–6.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  177. 177.
    Levine SH, Puchalski C. Pseudotumor cerebri associated with lithium therapy in two patients. J Clin Psychiatry. 1990;51(6):251–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  178. 178.
    Saul RF, Hamburger HA, Selhorst JB. Pseudotumor cerebri secondary to lithium carbonate. JAMA. 1985;253(19):2869–70.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  179. 179.
    Serratrice J, Granel B, Conrath J, et al. Benign intracranial hypertension and thyreostimulin suppression hormonotherapy. Am J Ophthalmol. 2002;134(6):910–1.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  180. 180.
    Rosa N, Giamundo A, Jura A, Iaccarino G, Romano A. Mesalazine-associated benign intracranial hypertension in a patient with ulcerative colitis. Am J Ophthalmol. 2003;136(1):212–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  181. 181.
    Jacobson DM, Berg R, Wall M, Digre KB, Corbett JJ, Ellefson RD. Serum vitamin A concentration is elevated in idiopathic intracranial hypertension. Neurology. 1999;53(5):1114–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  182. 182.
    Crock PA, McKenzie JD, Nicoll AM, et al. Benign intracranial hypertension and recombinant growth hormone therapy in Australia and New Zealand. Acta Paediatr. 1998;87(4):381–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  183. 183.
    Rogers AH, Rogers GL, Bremer DL, McGregor ML. Pseudotumor cerebri in children receiving recombinant human growth hormone. Ophthalmology. 1999;106(6):1186–9. discussion 1189–90.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  184. 184.
    Wessel K, Thron A, Linden D, Petersen D, Dichgans J. Pseudotumor cerebri: clinical and neuroradiological findings. Eur Arch Psychiatry Neurol Sci. 1987;237(1):54–60.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  185. 185.
    Jacobson DM, Karanjia PN, Olson KA, Warner JJ. Computed tomography ventricular size has no predictive value in diagnosing pseudotumor cerebri. Neurology. 1990;40(9):1454–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  186. 186.
    Brodsky MC, Vaphiades M. Magnetic resonance imaging in pseudotumor cerebri. Ophthalmology. 1998;105(9):1686–93.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  187. 187.
    Hannerz J, Greitz D, Ericson K. Is there a relationship between obesity and intracranial hypertension? Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 1995;19(4):240–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  188. 188.
    Czosnyka M, Pickard JD. Monitoring and interpretation of intracranial pressure. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2004;75(6):813–21.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  189. 189.
    Friedman DI, Jacobson DM. Idiopathic intracranial hypertension. J Neuroophthalmol. 2004;24(2):138–45.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  190. 190.
    Wall, M., NORDIC Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension Treatment Trial (IIHTT): NORDIC clinical trials. http://www.nordicclinicaltrials.com/nordic/?wicket:bookmarkablePage=:org.slr.nordic.webapp.cms.DisplayCmsPage&id=8. Accessed 22 Aug 2013.
  191. 191.
    Rubin RC, Henderson ES, Ommaya AK, Walker MD, Rall DP. The production of cerebrospinal fluid in man and its modification by acetazolamide. J Neurosurg. 1966;25(4):430–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  192. 192.
    Physicians’ desk reference. 58th ed. Montvale, NJ: Thomson PDR; 2004. p. 1208–9. Diamox.Google Scholar
  193. 193.
    Schoeman JF. Childhood pseudotumor cerebri: clinical and intracranial pressure response to acetazolamide and furosemide treatment in a case series. J Child Neurol. 1994;9(2):130–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  194. 194.
    Liu GT, Glaser JS, Schatz NJ. High-dose methylprednisolone and acetazolamide for visual loss in pseudotumor cerebri. Am J Ophthalmol. 1994;118(1):88–96.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  195. 195.
    Corbett JJ, Thompson HS. The rational management of idiopathic intracranial hypertension. Arch Neurol. 1989;46(10):1049–51.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  196. 196.
    Banta JT, Farris BK. Pseudotumor cerebri and optic nerve sheath decompression. Ophthalmology. 2000;107(10):1907–12.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  197. 197.
    Kelman SE, Heaps R, Wolf A, Elman MJ. Optic nerve decompression surgery improves visual function in patients with pseudotumor cerebri. Neurosurgery. 1992;30(3):391–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  198. 198.
    Sergott RC. Optic nerve sheath decompression: neuropathologic, clinical, and hemodynamic results and rationale. Trans Am Ophthalmol Soc. 1991;89:675–720.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  199. 199.
    Spoor TC, Ramocki JM, Madion MP, Wilkinson MJ. Treatment of pseudotumor cerebri by primary and secondary optic nerve sheath decompression. Am J Ophthalmol. 1991;112(2):177–85.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  200. 200.
    Keltner JL. Optic nerve sheath decompression. How does it work? Has its time come? Arch Ophthalmol. 1988;106(10):1365–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  201. 201.
    Hamed LM, Tse DT, Glaser JS, Byrne SF, Schatz NJ. Neuroimaging of the optic nerve after fenestration for management of pseudotumor cerebri. Arch Ophthalmol. 1992;110(5):636–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  202. 202.
    Alsuhaibani A, Carter KD, Nerad JA, et al. Effect of optic nerve sheath fenestration on papilledema of the operated and the contralateral nonoperated eyes in idiopathic intracranial hypertension. Ophthalmology. 2011;118:412–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  203. 203.
    Spoor TC, McHenry JG. Long-term effectiveness of optic nerve sheath decompression for pseudotumor cerebri. Arch Ophthalmol. 1993;111(5): 632–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  204. 204.
    Pelton RW, Patel BC. Superomedial lid crease approach to the medial intraconal space: a new technique for access to the optic nerve and central space. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg. 2001;17(4): 241–53.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  205. 205.
    Plotnik JL, Kosmorsky GS. Operative complications of optic nerve sheath decompression. Ophthalmology. 1993;100(5):683–90.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  206. 206.
    Johnston I, Besser M, Morgan MK. Cerebrospinal fluid diversion in the treatment of benign intracranial hypertension. J Neurosurg. 1988;69(2):195–202.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  207. 207.
    Eggenberger ER, Miller NR, Vitale S. Lumboperitoneal shunt for the treatment of pseudotumor cerebri. Neurology. 1996;46(6):1524–30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  208. 208.
    Burgett RA, Purvin VA, Kawasaki A. Lumboperitoneal shunting for pseudotumor cerebri. Neurology. 1997;49(3):734–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  209. 209.
    Hart A, David K, Powell M. The treatment of “acquired tonsillar herniation” in pseudotumour cerebri. Br J Neurosurg. 2000;14(6):563–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  210. 210.
    Tulipan N, Lavin PJ, Copeland M. Stereotactic ventriculoperitoneal shunt for idiopathic intracranial hypertension: technical note. Neurosurgery. 1998; 43(1):175–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  211. 211.
    Binder DK, Horton JC, Lawton MT, McDermott MW. Idiopathic intracranial hypertension. Neurosurgery. 2004;54(3):538–51. discussion 551–2.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  212. 212.
    Tarnaris A, Toma AK, Watkins LD. Is there a difference in outcomes of patients with idiopathic intracranial hypertension with the choice of cerebrospinal fluid diversion site: a single centre experience. Clin Neurol Neurosurg. 2011;113(6):477–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  213. 213.
    Abubaker K, Ali A, Raza K, et al. Idiopathic intracranial hypertension: lumboperitoneal shunts versus ventriculoperitoneal shunts—case series and literature review. Br J Neurosurg. 2011;25(1):94–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  214. 214.
    Fridley J, Foroozan R, Sherman V, et al. Bariatric surgery for the treatment of idiopathic intracranial hypertension. J Neurosurg. 2011;114(1):34–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  215. 215.
    Higgins JN, Pickard JD. Lateral sinus stenoses in idiopathic intracranial hypertension resolving after CSF diversion. Neurology. 2004;62(10):1907–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  216. 216.
    Higgins JN, Cousins C, Owler BK, Sarkies N, Pickard JD. Idiopathic intracranial hypertension: 12 cases treated by venous sinus stenting. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2003;74(12):1662–6.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  217. 217.
    Ogungbo B, Roy D, Gholkar A, Mendelow AD. Endovascular stenting of the transverse sinus in a patient presenting with benign intracranial hypertension. Br J Neurosurg. 2003;17(6):565–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  218. 218.
    Bussiere M, Falero R, Nicolle D, et al. Unilateral transverse sinus stenting of patients with idiopathic intracranial hypertension. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2010;31(4):645–50.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  219. 219.
    Arac A, Lee M, Steinberg GK, et al. Efficacy of endovascular stenting in dural venous sinus stenosis for the treatment of idiopathic intracranial hypertension. Neurosurg Focus. 2009;27(5):E14.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  220. 220.
    De Simone R, Marano E, Fiorillo C, et al. Sudden re-opening of collapsed transverse sinuses and longstanding clinical remission after a single lumbar puncture in a case of idiopathic intracranial hypertension: pathogenetic implications. Neurol Sci. 2005;25:342–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  221. 221.
    Scoffings DJ, Pickard JD, Higgins JNP. Resolution of transverse sinus stenoses immediately after CSF withdrawal in idiopathic intracranial hypertension. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2007;78:911–2.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  222. 222.
    Lee SW, Gates P, Morris P, et al. Idiopathic intracranial hypertension: immediate resolution of venous sinus “obstruction” after reducing cerebrospinal fluid pressure to <10 cm H2O. J Clin Neurosci. 2009;16:1690–2.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  223. 223.
    Rohr A, Dorner L, Stingele R, et al. Reversibility of venous sinus obstruction in idiopathic intracranial hypertension. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2007;28:656.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  224. 224.
    Stienen A, Weinzierl M, Ludolph A, et al. Obstruction of cerebral venous sinus secondary to idiopathic intracranial hypertension. Eur J Neurol. 2008;15:1416–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  225. 225.
    Bono F, Giliberto C, Mastrandrea C, et al. Transverse sinus stenosis persist after normalization of the CSF pressure in IIH. Neurology. 2005;65:1090–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  226. 226.
    Bateman GA. Vascular hydraulics associated with idiopathic and secondary intracranial hypertension. Am J Neuroradiol. 2002;23:1180–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  227. 227.
    Cinciripini GS, Donahue S, Borchert MS. Idiopathic intracranial hypertension in prepubertal pediatric patients: characteristics, treatment, and outcome. Am J Ophthalmol. 1999;127(2):178–82.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  228. 228.
    Huna-Baron R, Kupersmith MJ. Idiopathic intracranial hypertension in pregnancy. J Neurol. 2002; 249(8):1078–81.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  229. 229.
    Shapiro S, Yee R, Brown H. Surgical management of pseudotumor cerebri in pregnancy: case report. Neurosurgery. 1995;37(4):829–31.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  230. 230.
    McDonnell GV, Patterson VH, McKinstry S. Cerebral venous thrombosis occurring during an ectopic pregnancy and complicated by intracranial hypertension. Br J Clin Pract. 1997;51(3):194–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  231. 231.
    Balcer LJ, Liu GT, Forman S, et al. Idiopathic intracranial hypertension: relation of age and obesity in children. Neurology. 1999;52(4):870–2.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  232. 232.
    Rangwala LM, Liu GT. Pediatric idiopathic intracranial hypertension. Surv Ophthalmol. 2007;52(6): 597–617.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  233. 233.
    Gordon K. Pediatric pseudotumor cerebri: descriptive epidemiology. Can J Neurol Sci. 1997;24(3):219–21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  234. 234.
    Scott IU, Siatkowski RM, Eneyni M, Brodsky MC, Lam BL. Idiopathic intracranial hypertension in children and adolescents. Am J Ophthalmol. 1997; 124(2):253–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  235. 235.
    Phillips PH, Repka MX, Lambert SR. Pseudotumor cerebri in children. J AAPOS. 1998;2(1):33–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  236. 236.
    Baker RS, Baumann RJ, Buncic JR. Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (pseudotumor cerebri) in pediatric patients. Pediatr Neurol. 1989;5(1):5–11.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  237. 237.
    Weig SG. Asymptomatic idiopathic intracranial hypertension in young children. J Child Neurol. 2002;17(3):239–41.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  238. 238.
    Avery RA, Shah SS, Licht DJ, et al. Reference range for cerebrospinal fluid opening pressure in children. N Engl J Med. 2010;363(9):891–3.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  239. 239.
    Soiberman U, Stolovitch C, Balcer LJ, Regenbogen M, Constantini S, Kesler A. Idiopathic intracranial hypertension in children: visual outcome and risk of recurrence. Childs Nerv Syst. 2011;27(11):1913–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  240. 240.
    Ayanzen RH, Bird CR, Keller PJ, McCully FJ, Theobald MR, Heiserman JE. Cerebral MR venography: normal anatomy and potential diagnostic pitfalls. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2000;21(1):74–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  241. 241.
    Widjaja E, Griffiths PD. Intracranial MR venography in children: normal anatomy and variations. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2004;25(9):1557–62.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Neurology, Neuro-OphthalmologyUniversity of Nevada School of MedicineRenoUSA

Personalised recommendations